Open Access Articles- Top Results for Nice
Journal of Glycomics & LipidomicsDoes Salt Obesity Exist?
Epidemiology: Open AccessContributing Factors to Obesity in African American Children within the United States
Journal of Neurological DisordersTranscallosal Septum Pellucidum Interforniceal Approach to Remove Craniopharynginoma in Children
Pediatrics & TherapeuticsPossibilities of Reducing Radiation Dose in Computed Tomography Examinations in Various Age Groups Using an Iterative Model-Based Reconstruction Techn
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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Nice (1981–2010 averages)
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Vegetation and geography
The natural vegetation of Nice is typical for a Mediterranean landscape, with a heavy representation of broadleaf evergreen shrubs. Trees tend to be scattered but form dense forests in some areas. Large native tree species include evergreens such as holm oak, stone pine and arbutus. Many introduced species grow in parks and gardens. Palms, eucalyptus and citrus fruits are among the trees which give Nice a subtropical appearance. But there are also species familiar to temperate areas around the world; examples include horse chestnut, linden and even Norway spruce.
Geographically, Nice consists of two large bays. Villefranche-sur-Mer sits on an enclosed bay, while the main expanse of the city lies between the old port city and the Aeroport de Côte d'Azur, across a gently curving bay. The city rises from the flat beach into gentle rising hills, then is bounded by surrounding mountains that represent the Southern and nearly the Western extent of the Ligurian Alps range.
Economy and tourism
Nice is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie Nice Côte d'Azur. It manages the Nice - Côte d'Azur Airport and the Cannes - Mandelieu Airport, as well as the Port of Nice. Investors from France and abroad can benefit from the assistance of the Côte d'Azur Economic Development Agency Team Côte d'Azur.
Among tourists, Nice is the second most popular French city after Paris, a fact which, combined with the difficulties of land travel at long distance (partly because of the Alps), allows it to have the third busiest airport in France in terms of passenger numbers (close to 10,000,000 passengers in 2005). It is easily accessible, being just 4 hours from Paris by train, and the airport is located just minutes away from the city.
In addition, the city features several shopping centres such as Nicetoile, Nice TNL, Nice Lingostière, Northern Forum, St-Isidore, the Trinity (around the Auchan hypermarket) and Cap3000 in Saint-Laurent-du-Var.
Sophia Antipolis is a technology park northwest of Antibes. Much of the park is within the commune of Valbonne. Established between 1970 and 1984, it primarily houses companies in the fields of computing, electronics, pharmacology and biotechnology. Several institutions of higher learning are also located here, along with the European headquarters of W3C. The park is named after Sophie Glikman-Toumarkine, the wife of French Senator Pierre Laffitte, founder of the park, and incidentally, Sophia, the goddess of wisdom. The second half of the park's name is derived from Antipolis, the ancient Greek name of Antibes.
The port of Nice is also known as Lympia port. This name comes from the Lympia spring which fed a small lake in a marshy zone where work on the port was started in 1745. Today this is the principal harbour installation of Nice – there is also a small port in the Carras district. The port is the first port cement manufacturer in France, linked to the treatment plants of the rollers of the valley of Paillon. Fishing activities remain but the number of professional fishermen is now less than 10. Nice, being the point of continental France nearest to Corsica, has ferry connections with the island developed with the arrival of NGV (navires à grande vitesse) or high-speed craft. Two companies provide the connections: SNCM, a partially public company and Corsica Ferries – Sardinia Ferries, an entirely private company. Located in front of the port, the Place Cassini has been renamed Place of Corsica.
- Nice Côte d'Azur Airport
Nice Côte d'Azur Airport is the third most important airport in France after Charles de Gaulle Airport and Orly Airport, both in Paris. It is on the Promenade des Anglais, near l'Arénas and has two terminals. Due to its proximity to the Principality of Monaco, it also serves as that city–state's airport. A helicopter service provided by Heli Air Monaco and Monacair links the city and airport; it averages 39 flights a day. It is run by the Chamber of Commerce and the Nice Côte d'Azur industry.[clarification needed] Its director is Hervé de Place, director of the Côte d'Azur airports, which includes Cannes - Mandelieu Airport. In 2009, 9,830,987 passengers travelled through the airport.
The main railway station is Nice-Ville, served both by high speed TGV trains connecting Paris and Nice in less than 6 hours and by local commuter TER services. Marseille is reached in 2.5 hours. Nice also has international connections to Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, and Russia. Nice is also served by several suburban stations including Nice St-Augustin, Nice St-Roch and Nice Riquier.
Nice is also the southern terminus of the independently run Chemins de Fer de Provence railway line which connects the city with Digne in approximatively 4 hours. A metro-like suburban service is also provided on the southern part of the line.
Tramway de Nice began operating horse-drawn trams in 1879. Electrified in 1900, the combined length of the network reached Script error: No such module "convert". by 1930. The replacement of trams with trolleybuses began in 1948 and was completed in 1953. In 2007, the new Tramway de Nice linked the northern and eastern suburbs via the city centre. Two other lines are currently in the planning stage. The second line will run east-west from Place Masséna to the Nice Côte d'Azur Airport, extending to Cagnes-sur-Mer and Le Port, while the third line will provide a connection to the future TGV Nice Saint-Augustin Lingostière rail station.
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The Promenade des Anglais ("Promenade of the English") is a promenade along the Baie des Anges ("Bay of the Angels"), which is a bay of the Mediterranean, in Nice. Before Nice was urbanised, the coastline at Nice was just bordered by a deserted stretch of beach covered with large pebbles. The first houses were located on higher ground well away from the sea, as wealthy tourists visiting Nice in the 18th century did not come for the beach, but for the gentle winter weather. The areas close to the water were home to Nice's dockworkers and fishermen.
In the second half of the 18th century, many wealthy English people took to spending the winter in Nice, enjoying the panorama along the coast. When a particularly harsh winter up north brought an influx of beggars to Nice, some of the rich Englishmen proposed a useful project for them: the construction of a walkway (chemin de promenade) along the sea.
The city of Nice, intrigued by the prospect of a pleasant promenade, greatly increased the scope of the work. The Promenade was first called the Camin dei Anglès (the English Way) by the Niçois in their native dialect, Nissart. After the annexation of Nice by France in 1860 it was rechristened La Promenade des Anglais, replacing the former Nissart name with its French translation.
The Hotel Negresco on the Promenade des Anglais was named after Henri Negresco (1868–1920) who had the palatial hotel constructed in 1912. In keeping with the conventions of the time, when the Negresco first opened in 1913 its front opened on the side opposite the Mediterranean.
Another place worth mentioning is the small street parallel to the Promenade des Anglais, leading from Nice's downtown, beginning at Place Masséna and running parallel to the promenade in the direction of the airport for a short distance of about 4 blocks. This section of the city is referred to as the "Zone Pietonne", or "Pedestrian Zone". Cars are not allowed (with exception to delivery trucks), making this avenue a popular walkway. Here, tourists can find a fine selection of restaurants, specializing in various types of cuisine, including Niçoise, French, Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish and Italian. There is also a large selection of cafés where one can sit and enjoy an apéritif, as well as several bakeries with coffee, cake, and a terrace. There are also plenty of small shops selling clothing, shoes, and souvenirs.
Old Nice is also home to the Opéra de Nice. It was constructed at the end of the 19th century under the design of François Aune, to replace King Charles Félix's Maccarani Theater. Today, it is open to the public and provides a regular program of performances.
Other sights include:
- Monument aux morts
- The port
- Cours Saleya
- Jardin botanique de la Ville de Nice (botanical garden)
- Musee Massena
- Marché aux fleurs
- Old Nice
- Grand Hôtel Impérial
- Fort of Mont Alban
The Place Masséna is the main square of the city. Before the Paillon River was covered over, the Pont-Neuf was the only practicable way between the old town and the modern one. The square was thus divided into two parts (North and South) in 1824. With the demolition of the Masséna Casino in 1979, the Place Masséna became more spacious and less dense and is now bordered by red ochre buildings of Italian architecture.
The recent rebuilding of the tramline gave the square back to the pedestrians, restoring its status as a real Mediterranean square. It is lined with palm trees and stone pines, instead of being the rectangular roundabout of sorts it had become over the years. Since its construction, the Place Masséna has always been the spot for great public events. It is used for concerts, and particularly during the summer festivals, the Corso carnavalesque (carnival parade) in February, the military procession of 14 July (Bastille Day) or other traditional celebrations and banquets.
The Place Masséna is a two-minute walk from the Promenade des Anglais, old town, town centre, and Albert I Garden (Jardin Albert Ier). It is also a large crossroads between several of the main streets of the city: avenue Jean Médecin, avenue Félix Faure, boulevard Jean Jaurès, avenue de Verdun and rue Gioffredo.
The Place Garibaldi also stands out for its architecture and history. It is named after Giuseppe Garibaldi, hero of the Italian unification (born in Nice in 1807 when Nice was part of the Napoleonic Empire, before reverting to the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia). The square was built at the end of the 18th century and served as the entry gate to the city and end of the road to Turin. It took several names between 1780 and 1870 (Plaça Pairoulièra, Place de la République, Place Napoléon, Place d'Armes, Place Saint-Augustin, Piazza Vittorio) and finally Place Garibaldi in September 1870.
A statue of Garibaldi, who was fiercely in favour of the union of Nice with Italy, stands in the centre of the square. The recent rebuilding of the area to accommodate the new tramway line gave mostly the entire square to pedestrians. The architecture is in line with the Turin model, which was the norm of urban renewal throughout the entire realm of the House of Savoy.
It is a crossroads between the Vieux Nice (old town) and the town centre. Place Garibaldi is close to the eastern districts of Nice, Port Lympia (Lympia Harbour), and the TNL commercial centre. This square is also a junction of several important streets: the boulevard Jean-Jaurès, the avenue de la République, the rue Cassini and the rue Catherine-Ségurane.
Entirely enclosed and pedestrianised, this square is located in the heart of the old town. With typical buildings in red and yellow ochres surrounding the square, the cathédrale Sainte-Réparate and the fountain in the centre, place Rossetti is a must-see spot in the old town. By day, the place is invaded by the terraces of traditional restaurants and the finest ice-cream makers. By night, the environment changes radically, with tourists and youths flocking to the square, where music reverberates on the walls of the small square. The square's lighting at night gives it a magical aspect.
Place Rossetti is in the centre of the old town, streets Jesus, Rossetti, Mascoïnat and the Pont-vieux (old bridge)
The Cours Saleya is situated parallel to the Quai des États-Unis. In the past, it belonged to the upper classes. It is probably the most traditional square of the town, with its daily flower market. The Cours Saleya also opens on the Palais des Rois Sardes (Palace of the Kings of Sardinia). In the present, the court is mostly a place of entertainment. There are good restaurants serving typical Nicois cuisine, markets and many pubs. It is no doubt one of the most active spots in Nice.
Place du Palais
As its name indicates, the Place du Palais is where the Palais de la Justice (Law courts) of Nice is located. On this square, there also is the Palais Rusca, which also belongs to the justice department (home of the tribunal de grande instance).
The square is also notable due to the presence of the city clock. Today, the Place du Palais is alive day and night. Often, groups of youths will hangout on the steps leading to the Palais de la Justice. Concerts, films, and other major public events frequently occur in this space.
It is situated halfway between the Cours Saleya and Place Masséna.
- Sainte-Réparate Cathedral, 17th century
- Russian Orthodox Cathedral
- Notre-Dame de Nice
- Sainte Jeanne d'Arc Church, 20th century
Sports and entertainment
- The city's major football club is OGC Nice. They play in Ligue 1 (the top division in France).
- The Olympic Nice swimming club (French: Olympic Nice Natation) is also notable; Camille Muffat and Yannick Agnel used to train there for example.
The metropolitan area of Nice, defined by INSEE, is home to 888,784 inhabitants (fifth most populous in France) and its urban area totals 933,080 inhabitants, which makes it the sixth largest in France.
The six largest immigrant groups are from:
- Spain
The city saw a big demographic rise in the second half of the 19th century, a period when the population more than doubled, mainly due to French immigration. At the beginning of the 20th century, this rise intensified with the arrival of internal immigrants from the County of Nice itself.
After the First World War, the city had a strong increase in population. Immigration was again the reason of this growth. The hotel industry and that of the construction industry, in full strength in the 1920s, attracted the world more and more and thus made it possible for Nice to become a town of national importance. In 1921, Nice then became the eleventh most populous town of France, then in 1931, the eighth, before being ranked sixth in 1946; thereafter the city reached its current demographic level due to the arrival of sixty thousand people including French citizens from Algeria.
Since the 1970s, the number of inhabitants has not changed significantly; the relatively high migration to Nice is compensated by a natural negative growth of the population. Nice has a high proportion of elderly people., and as such has one of the highest median ages in France.
Currently, the population of the city is growing again, the most likely reason of which is a preference for the climate. Nice was projected to have 360,000 citizens in 2008, and will have 370,000 by 2012.
The Observatoire de Nice (Nice Observatory) is located on the summit of Mont Gros. The observatory was established in 1879 by the banker Raphaël Bischoffsheim. The architect was Charles Garnier, and Gustave Eiffel designed the main dome.
The 76-cm (30-inch) refractor telescope that became operational in 1888 was at that time the world's largest telescope. It was outperformed one year later by the 36-inch (91-cm) refractor at the Lick Observatory at University of California, Santa Cruz.
As a scientific institution, the Nice Observatory was merged with CERGA in 1988 to form the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur. Many scientific activities still take place on the Nice Observatory site on Mount Gross above the city including gravity-wave and high-energy astrophysics, astrometric and interferometric astronomy and planetary science. The city is the namesake for the Nice model, which was developed at the observatory in 2005.
Nice is one of the oldest human settlements in the world. Terra-Amata, an archaeological site dating from the Lower Palaeolithic age, is situated near Nice. Nice itself was established by the ancient Greeks. There was also an independent Roman city, Cemenelum, near Nice, where the hill of Cimiez is located. It is an archaeological site with treasures, of which only a small part has been excavated. The excavated site includes thermal baths, arenas and Roman road.
Since the 2nd century AD, the light of the city has attracted many famous painters and sculptors such as Chagall, Matisse, Niki de Saint Phalle, Klein, Arman and Sosno. Nice inspired many composers and intellectuals in different countries e.g. Berlioz, Rossini, Nietzsche etc.
Nice also has numerous museums of all kinds: Musée Marc Chagall, Musée Matisse (arenas of Cimiez containing Roman ruins), Musée des Beaux-Arts, Musée international d'Art naïf Anatole Jakovsky, Musée Terra-Amata, Museum of Asian Art, Musée d'art moderne et d'art contemporain which devotes much space to the well-known École of Nice ”), Museum of Natural History, Musée Masséna, Naval Museum and Galerie des Ponchettes.
Being a vacation resort, Nice hosts many festivals throughout the year, such as the Carnaval de Nice and the Nice Jazz Festival.
Nice has a distinct culture due to its unique history. The local language Niçard (Nissart) is an Occitan dialect (but some Italian scholars argue that it is a Ligurian dialect). It is still spoken by a substantial minority. Strong Italian and (to a lesser extent) Corsican influences make it more intelligible than other extant Provençal dialects.
In the past, Nice welcomed many immigrants from Italy (who continue to make up a large proportion of the population), as well as Spanish and Portuguese immigrants. However, in the past few decades immigration has been opened to include immigrants from all over the world, particularly those from former Northern and Western African colonies, as well as southeast Asia. Traditions are still alive, especially in folk music and dances. The most famous dance is the farandole.
Since 1860 a cannon (based at the Château east of Old Nice) is shot at twelve o'clock sharp. The detonation can be heard almost all over the city. This tradition goes back to Sir Thomas Coventry, who intended to remind the citizens of having lunch on time.
The cuisine of Nice is especially close to those of Provence but also Liguria and Piedmont and uses local ingredients (olive oil, anchovies, fruit and vegetables) but also those from more remote regions, in particular from Northern Europe, because ships which came to pick up olive oil arrived full of food products, such as dried haddock.
Nice has a few local dishes. There is a local tart made with onions and anchovies (or anchovy paste), named "Pissaladière". Socca is a type of pancake made from chickpea flour. Farcis niçois is a dish made from vegetables stuffed with a mixture of breadcrumbs, meat (generally sausage and ground beef), and herbs; and salade niçoise is a tomato salad with green peppers of the "Corne" variety, baked eggs, tuna or anchovies, and olives.
Local meat comes from neighbouring valleys, such as the sheep of Sisteron. Local fish, such as mullets, bream, sea urchins, and anchovies (alevins) are used to a great extent, so much so that it has given birth to a proverb: "fish are born in the sea and die in oil".
Examples of Niçois specialties include:
- Beignets de fleurs de courgettes
- Soupe au pistou
- Tourte de blettes
- Salade niçoise
- University of Nice Sophia Antipolis
- Institut Eurécom
- École des hautes études commerciales du nord
- École pour l'informatique et les nouvelles technologies
- Villa Arson
- ESRA film school
- Institut supérieur européen de formation par l'action
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
Twin towns – Sister cities
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- 23x15px 23x15px Yalta, Ukraine or Russia (disputed)
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|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2013)|
- Giuseppe Garibaldi – Italian general, politician and patriot.
- Albert Calmette – French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist,
- Simone Veil – French lawyer and politician who served as Minister of Health, President of the European Parliament and member of the Constitutional Council of France. Survivor from the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp
- Joann Sfar – French comics artist, comic book creator and film director.
- Jean-Pierre Mocky – French film director, actor, screenwriter and producer
- J. M. G. Le Clézio – French author and professor, was awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Literature
- René Cassin – French jurist, law professor and judge, former student of Nice's Lycée Massena, he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1968
- André Masséna – 1st Duc de Rivoli, 1st Prince d'Essling, one of the original eighteen Marshals of the Empire, French military commander during the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, his nickname was l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire ("the Dear Child of Victory")
- Henry Cavendish – British scientist noted for his discovery of hydrogen
- Surya Bonaly – figure skater
- Jules Bianchi – Formula 1 Driver
- Dominic Howard – Drummer for Muse currently lives in Nice
- Hugo Lloris – footballer
- Georges Lautner – director born in Nice. He is buried in the cemetery of the Castle.
- Dick Rivers – born Hervé Forneri, rock singer, born in Nice in 1945
- René Goscinny – Asterix creator buried in Nice.
- Christian Estrosi – born in Nice in 1955.
- Léon Gambetta (1838–1881), buried in Nice
- Queen Victoria – Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland stayed many winters in Nice
- Eric Ciotti – born in Nice in 1965.
- Jean Behra (1921–1959) – racing driver, born in Nice
- Elton John – singer, owns a house in Mont Boron on the hills of Nice
- Dominique Jean-Zéphirin – footballer
- Gilles Simon – tennis player
- Alizé Cornet – tennis player
- Freda Betti – opera singer
- Henri Betti – composer and pianist
- Priscilla Betti – singer and actress
- Alexy Bosetti – footballer
- Michel Siffre – adventurer and scientist
- Robert W. Service – poet and writer of the Klondike Gold Rush lived in Nice during the summers from 1916 until 1940.
- Demographia: World Urban Areas, March 2010
- INSEE – Résultats du recensement de la population de 2008 – Aire urbaine de Nice – INSEE, 2008
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- "Yerevan - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
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- 12px This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Nice". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
- Nice : between sea and mountains – Official French website Invalid language code.
- Official website of the City of Nice Invalid language code.
- Official website of Nice Metropolis Invalid language code.
- Visitors and Convention Bureau Nice Invalid language code. Invalid language code.
- Nice at DMOZ
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