Open Access Articles- Top Results for Nordazepam


Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
AHFS/ International Drug Names
  •  ?
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability ?
Metabolism Hepatic
Half-life 36-200 hours[1]
Excretion Renal
1088-11-5 7pxY
PubChem CID 2997
DrugBank none 7pxN
ChemSpider 2890 7pxY
UNII 67220MCM01 7pxY
KEGG D08283 7pxY
ChEBI CHEBI:111762 7pxY
Chemical data
Formula C15H11ClN2O
 14pxN (what is this?)  (verify)

Nordazepam (marketed under brand names Nordaz, Stilny, Madar, Vegesan, and Calmday), also known as desoxydemoxepam and desmethyldiazepam, is a 1,4-benzodiazepine derivative. Like other benzodiazepine derivatives, it has amnesic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and sedative properties. However, it is used primarily in the treatment of anxiety. It is an active metabolite of diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, prazepam, pinazepam, and medazepam.[2]

Side effects

Common side effects of nordazepam include somnolence, which is more common in elderly patients and/or people on high-dose regimens. Hypotonia, which is much less common, is also associated with high doses and/or old age.

Contraindications and special caution

Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals, and individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders.[3] In fact, changes in liver function associated with aging or diseases such as cirrhosis, may lead to impaired clearance of nordazepam.[4]


Nordazepam is a partial agonist at the GABAA receptor, which makes it less potent than other benzodiazepines, particularly in its amnesic and muscle-relaxing effects.[5] Its elimination half life is between 36 and 200 hours, with wide variation among individuals; factors such as age and gender are known to impact it.[1] More specifically, nordazepam is hydroxylated to active metabolites including oxazepam, and temazepam before finally being glucuronidated and excreted in the urine.[6]

Pregnancy and nursing mothers

Nordazepam, like other benzodiazepines, easily crosses the placental barrier, so the drug should not be administered during the first trimester of pregnancy.[7] In case of serious medical reasons, nordazepam can be given in late pregnancy, but the baby, due to the pharmacological action of the drug, may experience side effects such as hypothermia, hypotonia, and sometimes mild respiratory depression. Since nordazepam and other benzodiazepines are excreted in breast milk, the molecule should not be administered to mothers who are breastfeeding. Discontinuing of breast-feeding is indicated for regular intake by the mother.[8]

Recreational use

Nordazepam and other sedative-hypnotic drugs are detected frequently in cases of people suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. Many drivers have blood levels far exceeding the therapeutic dose range, suggesting benzodiazepines are commonly used in doses higher than the recommended doses.[9]

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b C. Heather Ashton (March 2007). "Benzodiazepine Equivalence Table". Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  2. ^ Ator NA, Griffiths RR (September 1997). "Selectivity in the generalization profile in baboons trained to discriminate lorazepam: benzodiazepines, barbiturates and other sedative/anxiolytics". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 282 (3): 1442–57. PMID 9316858. 
  3. ^ Authier, N.; Balayssac, D.; Sautereau, M.; Zangarelli, A.; Courty, P.; Somogyi, AA.; Vennat, B.; Llorca, PM.; Eschalier, A. (November 2009). "Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome". Ann Pharm Fr 67 (6): 408–413. PMID 19900604. doi:10.1016/j.pharma.2009.07.001. 
  4. ^ Klotz U, Müller-Seydlitz P (January 1979). "Altered elimination of desmethyldiazepam in the elderly". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 7 (1): 119–20. PMC 1429605. PMID 367407. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1979.tb00908.x. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  5. ^ Gobbi M, Barone D, Mennini T, Garattini S (May 1987). "Diazepam and desmethyldiazepam differ in their affinities and efficacies at 'central' and 'peripheral' benzodiazepine receptors". J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 39 (5): 388–91. PMID 2886589. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1987.tb03404.x. 
  6. ^ Marland, A (Jan–Feb 1999). "The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose.". J Anal Toxicol 23 (1): 29–34. PMID 10022206. doi:10.1093/jat/23.1.29. 
  7. ^ Olive G, Rey E (1983). "[Benzodiazepines and pregnancy. Transplacental passage, labor and lactation]". L'Encéphale (in French) 9 (4 Suppl 2): 87B–96B. PMID 6144535. 
  8. ^ Dusci LJ, Good SM, Hall RW, Ilett KF (January 1990). "Excretion of diazepam and its metabolites in human milk during withdrawal from combination high dose diazepam and oxazepam". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 29 (1): 123–6. PMC 1380071. PMID 2105100. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1990.tb03612.x. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  9. ^ Jones AW; Holmgren A; Kugelberg FC. (April 2007). "Concentrations of scheduled prescription drugs in blood of impaired drivers: considerations for interpreting the results". Ther Drug Monit. 29 (2): 248–60. PMID 17417081. doi:10.1097/FTD.0b013e31803d3c04.