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Operation Barbarossa

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Operation Barbarossa
Part of the Eastern Front of World War II
German soldiers advancing, June 1941
Date22 June – 5 December 1941
(5 months, 1 week and 6 days)
LocationEuropean Russia, including present-day Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
23x15px Soviet Union
Commanders and leaders
Units involved
Frontline strength
3.8 million personnel[1][2]
3,350 tanks[3][1]
2,770 aircraft[3]
7,200 artillery pieces[1][3]
Frontline Strength
2.68 million personnel[2]
11,000 tanks[4]
7,133 military aircraft[5]
Casualties and losses

Total military casualties:

Total military casualties:

^a Finland was a co-belligerent that launched its own offensive on 25 June; it was an ally of but not a formal member of the Axis powers, and the Finnish offensive was coordinated with Operation Barbarossa. Soviet losses resulting from the Finnish offensive are included in the totals, as Finnish and German soldiers fought alongside each other in both Finland itself and the Nazi-occupied USSR.[13]

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941. Over the course of the operation, about four million soldiers of the Axis powers invaded Soviet Russia along a 2,900 kilometer front, the largest invasion force in the history of warfare. In addition to troops, the Germans employed some 600,000 motor vehicles and between 600–700,000 horses. The operation was driven by Adolf Hitler's ideological desire to conquer the Soviet territories as outlined in his 1925 manifesto Mein Kampf ("My Struggle"). It marked the beginning of the rapid escalation of the war, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition.

Prior to the invasion, the two countries had signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes. Hitler authorized an invasion of the Soviet Union on 18 December 1940 for a start date of 15 May 1941, but this was not met; instead, the invasion began on 22 June 1941. Operationally, the Germans won resounding victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union, mainly in Ukraine, inflicting heavy casualties while sustaining a lot themselves. Despite these successes, the German offensive stalled on the outskirts of Moscow (in the Battle of Moscow) and was pushed back by a Soviet counter-offensive. The Germans would never again mount a simultaneous offensive along the entire strategic Soviet-German front. The Red Army repelled the Wehrmacht's strongest blows and forced Germany into a war of attrition for which it was unprepared.

Operation Barbarossa's failure led to Hitler's demands for further operations inside the USSR, all of which eventually failed, such as the Siege of Leningrad (Operation Nordlicht), Operation Blue, and Operation Citadel, among other battles on occupied Soviet territory.

The failure of Operation Barbarossa was a turning point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most importantly, the operation opened up the Eastern Front, to which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history. Regions covered by the operation became the site of some of the largest battles, most horrific atrocities, and highest casualties for Soviets and Germans alike, all of which influenced the course of both World War II and the subsequent history of the 20th century. The German forces captured millions of Soviet prisoners who were not granted protections stipulated in the Geneva Conventions. Most of them never returned alive. Germany deliberately starved the prisoners to death as part of a "Hunger Plan" that aimed to reduce the population of Eastern Europe and then re-populate it with ethnic Germans.


Racial policies of Nazi Germany

As early as 1925, Adolf Hitler declared in his political manifesto and autobiography Mein Kampf ("My Struggle") that he would invade the Soviet Union, asserting that the German people needed to secure Lebensraum ("living space") to ensure the survival of Germany for generations to come.[14] Nazism viewed the Soviet Union (and all of Eastern Europe) as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen ("sub-humans"), ruled by "Jewish Bolshevik conspirators".[14] Mein Kampf said Germany's destiny was to "turn to the East" as it did "six hundred years ago".[15] Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples.[14] Verification of the belief in German ethnic predominance is discernible in official German records and by pseudo-scientifically validated articles in German periodicals at the time, works which covered matters like "how to deal with alien populations".[16]

Before and during the invasion of the Soviet Union, German troops were heavily indoctrinated with anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic and anti-Slavic ideology via movies, radio, lectures, books and leaflets.[17] Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as "Jewish Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood" and the "Red beast".[18] Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish, Gypsies and Slavic Untermenschen.[19] German army commanders cast the Jews as the major cause behind the "partisan struggle".[20] The main guideline policy for German troops was "Where there's a partisan, there's a Jew, and where there's a Jew, there's a partisan."[21] Many German troops did view the war in Nazi terms and regarded their Soviet enemy as sub-human.[22]

After the war began, the Nazis issued a ban on sexual relations between Germans and foreign slave workers.[23] There were regulations enacted against the Ost-Arbeiter ("Eastern Workers") that included the death penalty for sexual relations with a German person.[24] Heinrich Himmler, in his secret memorandum, Reflections on the Treatment of Peoples of Alien Races in the East, (dated 25 May 1940) outlined the future plans for the non-German populations in the East.[25] Himmler believed the Germanization process in Eastern Europe would be complete when "in the East dwell only men with truly German, Germanic blood".[26]

The Nazi secret plan Generalplan Ost ("General Plan for the East"), which was prepared in 1941 and confirmed in 1942, called for a "new order of ethnographical relations" in the territories occupied by Nazi Germany in Eastern Europe. The plan envisaged Ethnic cleansing, executions and enslavement of the overwhelming majority of the populations of conquered counties with very small differing percentages of the various conquered nations undergoing Germanisation, expulsion into the depths of Russia and other fates. The net effect of this plan would be to ensure that the conquered territories would be Germanized. It was divided into two parts: the Kleine Planung ("Small Plan"), which covered actions which were to be taken during the war, and the Grosse Planung ("Big Plan"), which covered actions to be undertaken after the war was won, and to be implemented gradually over a period of 25 to 30 years.[27] Verification of the belief in German ethnic predominance is discernible in official German records and by pseudoscientific articles in German periodicals at the time, works that covered matters such "how to deal with alien populations".[16]

German-Soviet relations of 1939–40

In August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact in Moscow known as the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact shortly before the German invasion of Poland that triggered the outbreak of World War II in Europe. A secret protocol to the pact outlined an agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union on the division of the eastern European border states between their respective "spheres of influence": the Soviet Union and Germany would partition Poland in the event of an invasion by Germany, and Russia would be allowed to overrun the Baltic states and Finland.[28][29] The conclusion of this pact was indeed followed by a Soviet invasion of Poland that led to the annexation of the eastern part of the country.[14] The pact stunned the world because of the parties' earlier mutual hostility and their conflicting ideologies.[30] As a result of the pact, Germany and the Soviet Union maintained reasonably strong diplomatic relations for two years and fostered an important economic relationship. The countries entered a trade pact in 1940 by which the Soviets received German military equipment and trade goods in exchange for raw materials, such as oil and wheat, to help Germany circumvent a British blockade of Germany.[31]

Despite the parties' ostensibly cordial relations, each side was highly suspicious of the other's intentions. After Germany entered the Axis Pact with Japan and Italy, it began negotiations about a potential Soviet entry into the pact.[32] After two days of negotiations in Berlin from 12 to 14 November 1940, Germany presented a proposed written agreement for a Soviet entry into the Axis. On 25 November 1940, the Soviet Union offered a written counter-proposal to join the Axis if Germany would agree to refrain from interference in the Soviet Union's sphere of influence, but Germany did not respond.[32] As both sides began colliding with each other in Eastern Europe, conflict appeared more likely, although they did sign a border and commercial agreement addressing several open issues in January 1941. Some historians also believe that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, despite providing an amicable front to Hitler, did not wish to remain allies with Germany. Rather, Stalin might have had intentions to break off from Germany and proceed with his own campaign against Germany as well as the rest of Europe.[33]

German invasion plans

File:Europe before Operation Barbarossa, 1941 (in German).png
The geo-political disposition of Europe in 1941, immediately before the start of Operation Barbarossa. The grey area represents Nazi Germany and countries under its firm control.

Stalin's reputation as a brutal dictator contributed both to the Nazis' justification of their assault and their faith in success; many competent and experienced military officers were killed in the Great Purge of the 1930s, leaving the Red Army with a relatively inexperienced leadership compared to that of their German counterparts. The Nazis often emphasized the Soviet regime's brutality when targeting the Slavs with propaganda.[34] They also claimed that the Red Army was preparing to attack the Germans, and their own invasion was thus presented as a pre-emptive strike.[34]

In the summer of 1940, following the rising tension between the Soviet Union and Germany over territories in the Balkans, an eventual invasion of the Soviet Union seemed to Hitler to be the only solution.[35] While no concrete plans were made yet, Hitler told one of his generals in June that the victories in Western Europe finally freed his hands for his important real task: the showdown with Bolshevism.[36]

Although German generals warned Hitler that occupying Western Russia would create "more of a drain than a relief for Germany's economic situation", Hitler anticipated compensatory benefits, such as the demobilization of entire divisions to relieve the acute labor shortage in German industry; the exploitation of Ukraine as a reliable source of immense agricultural products; the use of forced labor to stimulate Germany's overall economy; and the expansion of territory to improve Germany's efforts to isolate Great Britain.[37] Hitler was convinced that Britain would sue for peace once the Germans triumphed in the Soviet Union.[37]

On 5 December 1940, Hitler received the final military plans for the invasion the the German High Command had been working on since July 1940 under the codename "Operation Otto". Hitler, however, was dissatisfied with these plans and on 18 December issued Directive No. 21, which called for a new battle plan, now codenamed "Operation Barbarossa".[37] The operation was named after medieval Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of the Holy Roman Empire, a leader of the Third Crusade in the 12th century.[37] The invasion was set for 15 May 1941, but this objective would not be met.[38]

According to a 1978 essay by German historian Andreas Hillgruber, the invasion plans drawn up by the German military elite were coloured by hubris stemming from the rapid defeat of France at the hands of the "invincible" Wehrmacht and by ignorance tempered by traditional German stereotypes of Russia as a primitive, backward "Asiatic" country. Red Army soldiers were considered brave and tough, but the officer corps was held in contempt. The leadership of the Wehrmacht paid little attention to politics, culture and the considerable industrial capacity of the Soviet Union, in favour of a very narrow military view.[39] Hillgruber argued that because these assumptions were shared by the entire military elite, Hitler was able to push through with a "war of annihilation" that would be waged in the most inhumane fashion possible with the complicity of "several military leaders", even though it was quite clear that this would be in violation of all accepted norms of warfare.[39]

In autumn 1940, high-ranking German officials drafted a memorandum on the dangers of an invasion of the Soviet Union. They said Ukraine, Belorussia and the Baltic States would end up as only a further economic burden for Germany.[40] It was argued that the Soviets in their current bureaucratic form were harmless and that the occupation would not benefit Germany.[40] Hitler disagreed with economists about the risks and told his right-hand man Hermann Göring, the chief of the Luftwaffe, that he would no longer listen to misgivings about the economic dangers of a war with Russia.[41] It is speculated that this was passed on to General Georg Thomas, who had produced reports that predicted a net economic drain for Germany in the event of an invasion of the Soviet Union unless its economy was captured intact and the Caucasus oilfields seized in the first blow, and he consequently revised his future report to fit Hitler's wishes.[41] The Red Army's ineptitude in the Winter War against Finland in 1939–40 convinced Hitler of a quick victory within a few months. He did not anticipate a long campaign lasting into the winter, and therefore adequate preparations, such as the distribution of warm clothing, were not made.[37]

Beginning in March 1941, Göring's Green Folder laid out details for the disposal of the Soviet economy after conquest. The Hunger Plan outlined how the entire urban population of conquered territories was to be starved to death, thus creating an agricultural surplus to feed Germany and urban space for the German upper class.[42] Nazi policy aimed to destroy the Soviet Union as a political entity in accordance with the geopolitical Lebensraum ideals for the benefit of future generations of the "Nordic master race".[34] In 1941, Nazi-ideologue Alfred Rosenberg, later appointed Reich Minister of the Occupied Eastern Territories, suggested that conquered Soviet territory should be administered in the following Reichskommissariate ("Reich Commissionerships"):

Administration of conquered Soviet territory by Alfred Rosenberg[43][44]
Name Notes Map
Reichskommissariat Ostland The Baltic countries and Belarus
Reichskommissariat Ukraine Ukraine, enlarged eastwards to the Volga
Reichskommissariat Kaukasus Southern Russia and the Caucasus region
Reichskommissariat Moskowien Moscow metropolitan area and the rest of European Russia
Reichskommissariat Turkestan Central Asian republics and territories

While planning Barbarossa, Hitler and his generals disagreed on where Germany should focus its energy.[37] Hitler, in many discussions with his generals, repeated his order of "Leningrad first, the Donbass second, Moscow third".[45] Hitler believed Moscow to be of "no great importance" in the defeat of the Soviet Union and instead believed victory would come with the destruction of the Red Army west of the capital, especially west of the Western Dvina and Dnieper rivers, and this pervaded the plan for Barbarossa.[46][47] This belief later led to disputes between Hitler and several German senior officers, including Heinz Guderian, Gerhard Engel, Fedor von Bock and Franz Halder, who believed the decisive victory could only be delivered at Moscow.[48] Hitler had grown overconfident in his own military judgement from the rapid successes in Western Europe.[37]

German preparations

Further information: Lossberg study

The Germans had begun massing troops near the Soviet border even before the campaign in the Balkans had finished. By the third week of February 1941, 680,000 German soldiers were stationed on the Romanian-Soviet border.[49] In preparation for the attack, Hitler moved more than 3.2 million German and about 500,000 Axis soldiers to the Soviet border, launched many aerial surveillance missions over Soviet territory, and stockpiled war materiel in the East. Although the Soviet High Command was alarmed by this, Stalin's belief that the Third Reich was unlikely to attack only two years after signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact resulted in a slow Soviet preparation.[37] Since April 1941, the Germans had begun setting up cover operations to add substance to their claims that Britain was the real target. These simulated preparations in Norway and the English Channel coast included activities such as ship concentrations, reconnaissance flights and training exercises.[37]

German military planners also researched Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia. In their calculations, they concluded that there was little danger of a large-scale retreat of the Soviet Army into the Russian interior, as it could not afford to give up the Baltic states, Ukraine, or the Moscow and Leningrad regions, all of which were vital to the Red Army for supply reasons and would thus have to be defended.[50]

We have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down.[14]

—Adolf Hitler

The postponement of Barbarossa from the initially planned date of 15 May to the actual invasion date of 22 June 1941 (a 38-day delay) occurred for a number of reasons. Most importantly, the Balkans Campaign required a diversion of troops and resources that hampered preparations, and an unusually wet winter kept rivers at full flood until late spring. The full floods could have discouraged an earlier attack, even if it was unlikely to have happened before the end of the Balkans Campaign. The importance of the delay is still debated.[51] William Shirer argued that Hitler's Balkans Campaign had delayed the commencement of Barbarossa by several weeks and thereby jeopardized it.[52] He cited the deputy chief of the German General Staff in 1941 Friedrich Paulus, who claimed the campaign resulted in a delay of "about five weeks."[53] This figure is corroborated by both the German Naval War Diary and Gerd von Rundstedt.[53] Antony Beevor names a variety of factors that delayed Barbarossa, including the delay in distributing motor transport, problems with fuel distribution, and the difficulty in establishing forward airfields for the Luftwaffe.[54]

The Germans deployed one independent regiment, one separate motorized training brigade and 153 divisions for Barbarossa, which included 138 divisions (104 infantry, 19 panzer and 15 motorized infantry divisions) in three army groups, 9 security divisions to operate in conquered territories, 4 divisions in Finland and 2 divisions as reserve under the direct control of OKH.[55] These were equipped with about 3,350 tanks, 7,200 artillery pieces, 2,770 aircraft (that amounted to 65 percent of the Luftwaffe), about 600,000 motor vehicles and 625,000 horses.[56][57] Finland slated 14 divisions for the invasion, and Romania offered 13 divisions and 8 brigades over the course of Barbarossa.[3] The entire Axis forces, deployed across a front extending from the Arctic Ocean southward to the Black Sea,[58] were organized into Army Norway, Army Group North, Army Group Center and Army Group South, alongside three luftflotten (air fleets, the air force equivalent of army groups) that supported the army groups: Luftflotte 1 for North, Luftflotte 2 for Center and Luftflotte 4 for South.[3]

Army Norway was to operate in far northern Scandinavia and bordering Soviet territories.[3] Army Group North was to march through the Baltics into northern Russia, and either take or destroy the city of Leningrad. Army Group Center would advance to Smolensk and then Moscow, marching through what is now Belarus and the west-central regions of Russia proper. Army Group South was to strike the heavily populated and agricultural heartland of Ukraine, taking Kiev before continuing eastward over the steppes of southern USSR to the Volga with the aim of controlling the oil-rich Caucasus.[59][45] The German forces in the rear (mostly Waffen-SS and Einsatzgruppen units) were to operate in conquered territories to counter any partisan activity in areas they controlled, as well as to execute captured Soviet political commissars.[34] The official plan for Barbarossa assumed that the army groups would be able to advance freely to their primary objectives simultaneously, without spreading thin, once they had won the border battles and destroyed the Red Army's forces in the forward area.[60]

Soviet preparations

In the Soviet Union, speaking to his generals in December 1940, Stalin mentioned Hitler's references to an attack on the Soviet Union in Mein Kampf and that Hitler believed the Red Army would need four years to ready itself. Stalin declared "we must be ready much earlier" and "we will try to delay the war for another two years".[61]

File:RIAN archive 2410 Marshal Zhukov speaking.jpg
Marshal Zhukov speaking at a military conference in Moscow, September 1941

In 1930 Mikhail Tukhachevsky, a prominent military theorist in tank warfare in the interwar period and later Marshal of the Soviet Union, forwarded a memo to the Kremlin that lobbied for colossal investment in the resources required for the mass production of weapons, pressing the case for "40,000 aircraft and 50,000 tanks".[62] In the early 1930s, a very modern operational doctrine for the Red Army was developed and promulgated in the 1936 Field Regulations in the form of the Deep Battle Concept. Defense expenditure also grew rapidly from just 12 percent of the gross national product in 1933 to 18 percent by 1940.[63]

During Stalin's Great Purge in the 1930s, the officer corps of the Red Army was decimated and their replacements, appointed by Stalin for political reasons, often lacked military competence. Of the five Marshals of the Soviet Union appointed in 1935, only two survived Stalin's purge. 15 out of 16 army commanders, 50 out of the 57 corps commanders, 154 out of the 186 divisional commanders and 401 out of 456 colonels were killed, and many other officers were dismissed.[64] In total, about 30,000 Red Army personnel were executed.[65] Stalin further underscored his control by reasserting the role of political commissars at the divisional level and below to oversee the political loyalty of the Army to the regime. The commissars held a position equal to that of the commander of the unit they were overseeing.[64] But in spite of efforts to ensure the political subservience of the armed forces, about 80 percent of the officers dismissed during the Great Purge were reinstated by 1941. Also, between January 1939 and May 1941, 161 new divisions were activated. Although about 75 percent of all the officers had been in their position for less than one year at the start of the German invasion of 1941,[37][66] many of the short tenures can be attributed not only to the reversal of dismissals during the purge, but also to the rapid increase in creation of military units.[66]

The Soviets held a clear numerical advantage in tanks. In all, that they had some 23,000 in service,[37] of which about 11,000[4] were in the western military districts. Facing them were about 3,350 German tanks.[1][3] Hitler later declared to some of his generals, "If I had known about the Russian tank's strength in 1941 I would not have attacked".[67] However, maintenance and readiness standards were very poor; ammunition and radios were in short supply, and many armoured units lacked the trucks for supplies.[37] The most advanced Soviet tank models, the T-34 and KV-1, were not available in large numbers early in the war.[68] Furthermore, the Soviets had not yet adjusted adequately to more effective deployment of their tank forces. During the late 1930s, the Soviets partly dispersed their tanks to infantry divisions, but after their experiences in the Winter War and their observation of the German campaign against France, they began to emulate the Germans and organize most of their armored assets into large armored divisions and corps. This reorganization was still in prgress when Barbarossa commenced.[69] The Soviet numerical advantage in heavy equipment was thoroughly offset by the superior training and readiness of the Wehrmacht.[65]

The Soviet Armed Forces in the western Soviet Union were outnumbered at the start of the invasion.[70] In June 1941, about 3.8 million Axis in the Eastern Front faced about 2.6–2.7 million Soviets in the western Soviet Union.[2][71][70] The manpower of the overall Soviet military force was 5.3–5.5 million,[2][71][70] but could call upon a reserve force of 14 million with at least basic military training.[72][73] The Red Army was dispersed and thoroughly unprepared when the invasion commenced.[74] Their units were often separated and lacked adequate transportation. Tank units were rarely well equipped, and they lacked training and logistical support. Units were sent into combat with no arrangements in place for refueling, ammunition resupply, or personnel replacement. Often, after a single engagement, units were destroyed or rendered ineffective.[74]

Development of the Soviet Armed Forces — Compiled by Russian military historian Mikhail Meltyukhov[75]
1 January 1939 22 June 1941 Increase
Divisions calculated 131.5 316.5 140.7%
Personnel 2,485,000 5,774,000 132.4%
Guns and mortars 55,800 117,600 110.7%
Tanks 21,100 25,700 21.8%
Aircraft 7,700 18,700 142.8%

The Soviet Air Force (VVS) held the numerical advantage with a total of approximately 19,533 aircraft, which made it the largest air force in the world in the summer of 1941.[5] About 7,133 of these were deployed in the western military districts.[5] However, Soviet aircraft were largely obsolete, and Soviet artillery lacked modern fire-control techniques.[76]

In August 1940, British intelligence had received hints of German plans to attack the Soviets only a week after Hitler informally approved the plans for Barbarossa and warned the Soviet Union accordingly.[77] But Stalin's distrust of the British led him to ignore their warnings in the belief that they were a trick designed to bring the Soviet Union into the war on their side.[77] He had an ill-founded confidence in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and suspected the British of trying to spread false rumours in order to trigger a war between Germany and the USSR.[78] In early 1941, Stalin's own intelligence services and American intelligence gave regular and repeated warnings of an impending German attack.[79] Stalin acknowledged the possibility of an attack in general and therefore made significant preparations, but decided not to run the risk of provoking Hitler.[80] Russian spy Richard Sorge also gave Stalin the exact German launch date, but Sorge and other informers had previously given different invasion dates that passed peacefully before the actual invasion.[68]

Historians have debated whether Stalin was planning an invasion of German territory in the summer of 1941. The debate began in the late 1980s when Viktor Suvorov published a journal article and later the book Icebreaker in which he stated that Stalin had seen the outbreak of war in western Europe as an opportunity to spread communist revolutions throughout the continent, and that the Soviet military was being deployed for an imminent attack at the time of the German invasion.[81] This view had also been advanced by former German generals following the war.[82] Suvorov's thesis was fully or partially accepted by some historians, including Valeri Danilov, Joachim Hoffmann, Mikhail Meltyukhov and Vladimir Nevezhin, and attracted public attention in Germany, Israel and Russia.[83][84] However, it has been strongly rejected by most historians of this period,[85] and Icebreaker is generally considered to be an "anti-Soviet tract" in western countries.[86] David Glantz and Gabriel Gorodetsky wrote books to rebut Suvorov's arguments,[87] and most historians believe that Stalin was seeking to avoid war in 1941 as he believed that his military was not ready to fight the German forces.[88]

Order of battle

Order of battle – June 1941
Axis forces Soviet Forces

Army Group North[89]

Army Group Center[90]

Army Group South[91]

Northern Front[92]

North-Western Front[93]

Western Front[94]

South-Western Front[91]

Southern Front[91]


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-020-1268-36, Russland, russischer Gefallener, Panzer BT 7,.jpg
German infantryman in front of a dead Soviet soldier and a burning BT-7 tank in Ukraine, June 1941

At around 3:15 am on 22 June 1941, the Axis Powers commenced the invasion of the Soviet Union with the bombing of major cities in Soviet-occupied Poland[95] and an artillery barrage on Red Army defences on the entire front.[96] Roughly three million soldiers of the Wehrmacht went into action and faced slightly fewer Soviet troops at the border.[95]

At around noon, the news of the invasion was broadcast to the population by Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov: "The Red Army and the whole nation will wage a victorious Patriotic War for our beloved country, for honour, for liberty ... Our cause is just. The enemy will be beaten. Victory will be ours!"[97][98] By calling upon the population's devotion to their nation rather than the Party, Molotov struck a patriotic chord that helped a stunned people absorb the shattering news.[97] Stalin addressed the nation for the first time since the start of the German invasion on 3 July. Just like Molotov, he called for a "Patriotic War ... of the entire Soviet people".[99]

In Germany, on the morning of 22 June, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels announced the invasion to the waking nation in a radio broadcast, "At this moment a march is taking place that, for its extent, compares with the greatest the world has ever seen. I have decided today to place the fate and future of the Reich and our people in the hands of our soldiers. May God aid us, especially in this fight!"[100] Later the same morning, Hitler proclaimed to colleagues, "before three months have passed, we shall witness a collapse of Russia, the like of which has never been seen in history".[100]

Phase one

German advances from June to August, 1941

The Soviet military districts in the border area (which were redesignated "Fronts" immediately after the invasion began) were alerted by NKO Directive No. 1 just before 1:00 am, which called on them to "bring all forces to combat readiness," but to "avoid provocative actions of any kind."[101] It took up to 2 hours for several of the units subordinate to the Fronts to receive the order of the directive.[101] Moscow failed to grasp the magnitude of the catastrophe that confronted the Soviet forces in the border area.[37] At around 7:15 am, Stalin issued NKO Directive No. 2, which announced the invasion to the Soviet Armed Forces, and called on them to attack Axis forces wherever they had violated the borders and launch air strikes into the border regions of German territory.[102] At around 9:15 pm, Stalin issued NKO Directive No. 3, signed by Marshal Semyon Timoshenko, which called for a general counteroffensive on the entire front without any regards for borders that both men hoped would "sweep the enemy from Soviet territory".[103][101] Timoshenko's order was not based on a realistic appraisal of the military situation at hand, and it resulted in devastating casualties.[37]

Luftwaffe reconnaissance units worked frantically to plot Soviet troop concentration, supply dumps, and airfields, and mark them down for destruction.[37] In contrast, Soviet artillery observers based at the border area had been under the strictest instructions not to open fire on German aircraft prior to the invasion.[37] The Luftwaffe reported to have destroyed 1,489 aircraft on the first day of the invasion[104] and over 3100 over the first three days.[105] Hermann Göring, Minister of Aviation and Commander-in-Chief of the Luftwaffe, distrusted the reports and ordered the figure checked. Luftwaffe staffs surveyed the wreckage on Soviet airfields, and their original figure proved conservative, as over 2,000 Soviet aircraft were estimated to have been destroyed on the first day of the invasion.[104] In reality, Soviet losses were likely higher; according to Russian historian Viktor Kulikov, some 3,922 Soviet aircraft were lost during the first three days.[105] For its part, the Luftwaffe reported the loss of only 35 aircraft on the first day of combat. According to archival reports in the war diaries of the German High Command, the Luftwaffe by 5 July had lost 491 aircraft with 316 more damaged, leaving it with only about 70 percent of the strength it had at the start of the invasion.[106] The Luftwaffe quickly achieved air superiority in all sectors facing their army groups, and they would maintain it throughout the course of Barbarossa.[13][68]

In the opening hours of the invasion, the Luftwaffe destroyed the Western Front’s air force on the ground, and with the aid of Abwehr and their supporting anti-communist fifth columns operating in the Soviet rear paralyzed the Front's communication lines, which particularly cut off the Soviet 4th Army headquarters from headquarters above and below it.[107] On the same day, the 2nd Panzer Group crossed the Bug River, broke through the 4th Army, bypassed Brest Fortress, and pressed on towards Minsk, while the 3rd Panzer Group bypassed most of the 3rd Army and pressed on towards Vilnius.[107] Simultaneously, the German 4th and 9th Armies engaged the Western Front forces in the environs of Białystok.[37] On the order of Dmitry Pavlov, the 6th and 11th Mechanized Corps and the 6th Cavalry Corps launched a strong counterstrike towards Grodno on 24-25 June in hopes of destroying the 3rd Panzer Group. However, the 3rd Panzer Group had already moved on, with its forward units reaching Vilnius on the evening of 23 June, and the Western Front’s armoured counteroffensive instead ran into infantry and antitank fire from the V Army Corps of the German 9th Army, supported by Luftwaffe air attacks.[107] By the night of 25 June, the Soviet counteroffensive was defeated, and the commander of the 6th Cavalry Corps was captured. The same night, Pavlov ordered all the remnants of the Western Front to withdraw to Slonim towards Minsk.[107] Subsequent smaller counteroffensives to buy time for the withdrawal were launched against the German forces, but all of them failed.[107] On 27 June, the 2nd and 3rd Panzer Groups met near Minsk and captured the city the next day, completing the encirclement of almost all of the Western Front in two pockets: one around Białystok and another west of Minsk.[108] On 30 June, Stalin relieved Pavlov of his command, and on 22 July tried and executed him along with many members of his staff on charges of "cowardice" and "criminal incompetence".[109][110][68]

Phase two

German advances during the opening phases of Operation Barbarossa, August 1941

On 3 July, Hitler finally granted permission for the Panzers to resume their drive east after the infantry divisions had caught up.[13] However, a rainstorm typical of Russian summers slowed their progress and Russian defenses stiffened.[13] The delays gave the Soviets time to organize a massive counterattack against Army Group Center. Its ultimate objective was Smolensk, which commanded the road to Moscow. Facing the Germans was an old Soviet defensive line held by six armies. On 6 July, the Soviets attacked the 3rd Panzer Army with 700 tanks. The Germans defeated this counterattack with overwhelming air superiority.[13] The 2nd Panzer Army crossed the Dnieper River and closed in on Smolensk from the south while the 3rd Panzer Army, after defeating the Soviet counterattack, closed on Smolensk from the north.[13] Trapped between their pincers were three Soviet armies. On 18 July, the Panzer Groups came to within sixteen kilometres of closing the gap, but the trap did not snap shut until 26 July.[37] When the Panzer Groups finally closed the gap, 300,000 Red Army soldiers were captured,[13] but 200,000 Red Army soldiers escaped to stand between the Germans and Moscow.[37]

Four weeks into the campaign, the Germans realized they had grossly underestimated Soviet strength. The German troops had used their initial supplies without attaining the expected strategic freedom of movement. Operations were now slowed down to allow for resupply; the delay was to be used to adapt strategy to the new situation.[13] Hitler by now had lost faith in battles of encirclement as large numbers of Soviet soldiers had escaped the pincers. He now believed he could defeat the Soviets by economic damage, depriving them of the industrial capacity to continue the war. That meant seizing the industrial center of Kharkov, the Donbass and the oil fields of the Caucasus in the south and the speedy capture of Leningrad, a major center of military production, in the north.[37][13]

Fedor von Bock, the commander of Army Group Center, and almost all the German generals involved in Operation Barbarossa argued vehemently in favor of continuing the all-out drive toward Moscow. Besides the psychological importance of capturing the enemy's capital, the generals pointed out that Moscow was a major center of arms production, the center of the Soviet communications system and an important transportation hub. More importantly, intelligence reports indicated that the bulk of the Red Army was deployed near Moscow under Semyon Timoshenko for an all-out defense of the capital.[37] But Hitler was adamant, and he issued a direct order to the talented panzer ace Heinz Guderian — bypassing Guderian's commanding officer, von Bock — to send Army Group Center's tanks to the north and south, temporarily halting the drive to Moscow.[13]

Phase three

By mid-July, the Germans had advanced within a few kilometers of Kiev below the Pinsk Marshes. The 1st Panzer Army then went south while the 17th Army struck east and trapped three Soviet armies near Uman.[111] As the Germans eliminated the pocket, the tanks turned north and crossed the Dnieper. Meanwhile, the 2nd Panzer Army, diverted from Army Group Center, had crossed the Desna River with 2nd Army on its right flank. The two Panzer armies now trapped four Soviet armies and parts of two others.[112]

For its final attack on Leningrad, the 4th Panzer Army was reinforced by tanks from Army Group Center. On 8 August, the Panzers broke through the Soviet defenses. By the end of August, 4th Panzer Army had penetrated to within 48 kilometers of Leningrad. The Finns had pushed southeast on both sides of Lake Ladoga to reach the old Finnish-Soviet frontier.[13]

File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L19885, Russland, Heinz Guderian vor Gefechtsstand.jpg
General Guderian at a forward command post of a Panzer regiment near Kiev, 1941

The Germans attacked Leningrad in August 1941 with 6,000 cannons, 4,500 trench mortars, 19,000 machine guns, 1,000 planes, 1,000 tanks, and approximately 600,000 men in 40 divisions.[113] In the following three "black months" of 1941, 400,000 residents of the city worked to build the city's fortifications as fighting continued, and 160,000 others joined the ranks of the Red Army. On September 7, the German 20th Motorized Division seized Shlisselburg, cutting off all land routes to Leningrad. The Germans severed the railroads to Moscow and captured the railroad to Murmansk with Finnish assistance to inaugurate the start of a siege that would last for over two years.[114][115]

At this stage, Hitler ordered the final destruction of Leningrad with no prisoners taken, and on 9 September, Army Group North began the final push. Within ten days it had advanced within 11 kilometers of the city.[13] However, the push over the last Script error: No such module "convert". proved very slow and casualties mounted. Hitler, now out of patience, ordered that Leningrad should not be stormed, but rather starved into submission.[13] Deprived of its Panzer forces, Army Group Center remained static and was subjected to numerous Soviet counterattacks, in particular the Yelnya Offensive, in which the Germans suffered their first major tactical defeat since their invasion began. These attacks prompted Hitler to concentrate his attention back to Army Group Center and its drive on Moscow. The Germans ordered the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies to break off their Siege of Leningrad and support Army Group Center in its attack on Moscow.[13]

Before it could begin, operations in Kiev needed to be finished. Half of Army Group Center had swung to the south in the back of the Kiev position, while Army Group South moved to the north from its Dniepr bridgehead.[116] The encirclement of Soviet forces in Kiev was achieved on 16 September. A savage battle ensued in which the Soviets were hammered with tanks, artillery, and aerial bombardment.[116] After ten days of vicious fighting, the Germans claimed over 600,000 Soviet soldiers captured. Actual losses were 452,720 men, 3,867 artillery pieces and mortars from 43 divisions of the 5th, 21st, 26th, and 37th Soviet Armies.[116]

Phase four

Main article: Battle of Moscow
File:RIAN archive 2564 Soviet planes flying over Nazi positions near Moscow.jpg
Soviet planes flying over German positions near Moscow

After Kiev, the Red Army no longer outnumbered the Germans and there were no more trained reserves directly available. To defend Moscow, Stalin could field 800,000 men in 83 divisions, but no more than 25 divisions were fully effective. Operation Typhoon, the drive to Moscow, began on 2 October.[112] In front of Army Group Center was a series of elaborate defense lines, the first centered on Vyazma and the second on Mozhaysk.[112]

The first blow took the Soviets completely by surprise when the 2nd Panzer Army, returning from the south, took Oryol, just Script error: No such module "convert". south of the Soviet first main defense line.[112] Three days later, the Panzers pushed on to Bryansk, while the 2nd Army attacked from the west.[112] The Soviet 3rd and 13th Armies were now encircled. To the north, the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies attacked Vyazma, trapping the 19th, 20th, 24th and 32nd Armies.[112] Moscow's first line of defense had been shattered. The pocket eventually yielded 673,000 Soviet prisoners, bringing the tally since the start of the invasion to three million. The Soviets had now only 90,000 men and 150 tanks left for the defense of Moscow.[117]

The German government now publicly predicted the imminent capture of Moscow and convinced foreign correspondents of a pending Soviet collapse.[118] On 13 October, the 3rd Panzer Army penetrated to within Script error: No such module "convert". of the capital.[112] Martial law was declared in Moscow. Almost from the beginning of Operation Typhoon, however, the weather worsened. Temperatures fell while there was a continued rainfall. This turned the unpaved road network into mud and steadily slowed the German advance on Moscow to as little as Script error: No such module "convert". a day.[13] At the same time, the supply situation for the Germans rapidly deteriorated. On 31 October, the German Army High Command ordered a halt to Operation Typhoon while the armies were reorganized. The pause gave the Soviets, who were in a far better supply situation, time to consolidate their positions and organize formations of newly-activated reservists.[13] In little over a month, the Soviets organized eleven new armies that included 30 divisions of Siberian troops. These had been freed from the Soviet Far East after Soviet intelligence assured Stalin that there was no longer a threat from the Japanese.[13] Over 1,000 tanks and 1,000 aircraft arrived along with the Siberian forces.[13]

On 15 November, with the ground hardening due to the cold weather, the Germans once again began the attack on Moscow.[13] Although the troops themselves were now able to advance again, there had been no delay allowed to improve the supply situation. Facing the Germans were the 5th, 16th, 30th, 43rd, 49th, and 50th Soviet armies. The Germans intended to let the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies cross the Moscow Canal and envelop Moscow from the northeast. The 2nd Panzer Army would attack Tula and then close in on Moscow from the south.[68] As the Soviets reacted to the flanks, the 4th Army would attack the center. In two weeks of desperate fighting, lacking sufficient fuel and ammunition, the Germans slowly crept towards Moscow.[68] However, in the south, the 2nd Panzer Army was being blocked. On 22 November, Soviet Siberian units, augmented with the 49th and 50th Soviet Armies, attacked the 2nd Panzer Army and inflicted a shocking defeat on the Germans. The 4th Panzer Army pushed the Soviet 16th Army back, however, and succeeded in crossing the Moscow canal to begin the attempted encirclement of Moscow.[68]

File:Eastern Front 1941-06 to 1941-09.png
The German position of advances before the start of Operation Typhoon, September 1941

On 2 December, part of the 258th Infantry Division advanced to within Script error: No such module "convert". of Moscow and could see the spires of the Kremlin, but by then the first blizzards of the Russian Winter had already begun.[119][68] A reconnaissance battalion also managed to reach the town of Khimki, only about Script error: No such module "convert". away from the Soviet capital. It captured the bridge over the Moscow-Volga Canal as well as the railway station, which marked the farthest eastern advance of German forces.[120] But in spite of the progress made, the Wehrmacht was not equipped for winter warfare, and the bitter cold caused severe problems for their guns and equipment. Furthermore, weather conditions grounded the Luftwaffe from conducting any large-scale operations.[68] Newly-created Soviet units near Moscow now numbered over 500,000 men, and on 5 December, they launched a massive counterattack as part of the Battle of Moscow that pushed the Germans back over Script error: No such module "convert".. By late December 1941, the Germans had lost the Battle for Moscow, and the invasion had cost the German army over 830,000 casualties in killed, wounded, captured or missing in action.[68]


With the failure of the Battle of Moscow, all German plans of a quick defeat of the Soviet Union had to be revised. The Soviet counteroffensives in December 1941 caused heavy casualties on both sides, but ultimately eliminated the German threat to Moscow.[68]

Nevertheless, despite this setback for the Germans, the Soviet Union had suffered heavily from the loss of large parts of its army and industry, allowing the Germans to mount another large-scale offensive in July 1942, codenamed Case Blue, now directed towards the oil fields of Baku.[121] Again, while the Germans conquered great expanses of Soviet territory, they failed to achieve their ultimate goals when they were decisively defeated at Stalingrad.[13]

By 1943, the Soviet war economy was fully operational and was able to simply outproduce Germany, which was not prepared for a long war of attrition.[37] The war ended with the total defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany in May 1945.[37]

War crimes

The Soviet Union had not participated in the Geneva Conventions and therefore their troops could not rely on the protection the Conventions guaranteed soldiers during times of war.[122] Hitler called for the battle against Russia to be a "struggle for existence" and accordingly authorized crimes against Soviet prisoners of war. A Nazi memorandum from 16 July recorded by Martin Bormann quotes Hitler saying, "The giant area must naturally be pacified as quickly as possible; this will happen at best if anyone who just looks funny should be shot".[123]

Hitler issued the notorious Commissar Order, which called for all Soviet political commissars taken prisoner at the front to be shot immediately without trial.[122] German soldiers both willingly and unwillingly participated in these mass killings.[122] An estimated two million Soviet POWs died of starvation during Barbarossa alone; nothing was done for their survival.[122] The famished POWs were hardly able to walk by themselves.[124] By the end of the war, almost 60 percent of all Soviet prisoners of war were killed in German captivity.[125]

Organized crimes against civilians, including women and children, were also carried out on a huge scale by the Germans and local supporters.[122] Under the command of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, the Einsatzgruppen killing squads conducted large-scale massacres of Jews and communists in conquered Soviet territories. Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg puts the number of Jews murdered by "mobile killing operations" at 1,400,000.[126] The original instructions to kill "Jews in party and state positions" was broadened to include "all male Jews of military age" and was expanded once more to "all male Jews regardless of age." By the end of July, the Germans were regularly killing women and children.[124]

Burning houses suspected of being partisan meeting places and poisoning water wells became common practice for soldiers of the German 9th Army.[68] At Kharkov, the fourth largest city in the Soviet Union, the Germans were instructed to only give food to the small number of people who worked for them, with the rest designated to slowly starve.[68] Thousands of Soviets were shipped to Germany to be used as slave labor.[122]

The citizens of Leningrad were subjected to heavy bombardment and a siege that would last 872 days and starve more than a million people to death, of whom approximately 400,000 were children below the age of 14.[127] The German-Finnish blockade cut off access to food, fuel and raw materials, and rations reached a low, for the non-working population, of four ounces (five thin slices) of bread and a little watery soup per day.[113] Starving Soviet civilians began to eat their domestic animals, along with hair tonic and Vaseline. An estimated one million Leningrad residents died during the siege, mostly due to starvation, the intense cold, and stress.[128][129] Some desperate citizens resorted to cannibalism; Soviet records list 2,000 people arrested for "the use of human meat as food" during the siege, 886 of them during the first winter of 1941–42.[129] The Germans planned to seal off Leningrad, starve out the population, and then demolish the city entirely.[115]

Historical significance

Operation Barbarossa was the biggest and one of the fastest military operations in human history. More men, tanks, guns and aircraft were committed than had ever been deployed in a single offensive.[68] A total of 75 percent of the entire German military participated in Barbarossa.[37] The invasion opened up the Eastern Front, the largest theater of World War II, which saw titanic clashes of unprecedented violence and destruction for five years, resulting in more than 26 million deaths.[130] More people died fighting on the Eastern Front than in all other fighting across the globe during World War II.[131]

See also


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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Glantz 2001, p. 9.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Glantz 2010a, p. 20.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Mercatante 2012, p. 64.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Glantz 2010a, p. 28.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Heeresarzt 10-Day Casualty Reports per Theater of War, 1941".
  7. "Red Army and NKVD figures, 1941-1945".
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bergstrom 2007, p. 117.
  9. Graham Royde-Smith.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Krivosheev 1997, pp. 95–98.
  11. "AOK POW Reports".
  12. Sharp 2010, p. 89.
  13. 13.00 13.01 13.02 13.03 13.04 13.05 13.06 13.07 13.08 13.09 13.10 13.11 13.12 13.13 13.14 13.15 13.16 13.17 13.18 13.19 Hitler Strikes East, 2009.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler, 1989.
  15. Shirer 1990, p. 716.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Fahlbusch 1999, pp. 241–264.
  17. Evans 1989, p. 59.
  18. Evans 1989, pp. 59-60.
  19. Burleigh 2001, p. 512.
  20. Kershaw 2000, p. 466.
  21. Kershaw 2000, p. 467.
  22. Förster 2005, p. 127.
  23. Majer 2003, p. 180.
  24. Gellately 1991, p. 224.
  25. Himmler 1940, pp. 147-150.
  26. Mazower 2009, p. 181.
  27. Rössler & Schleiermacher 1996, pp. 270–274.
  28. Kirby 1980, p. 120.
  29. Text of the Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939.
  30. Roberts 2006, p. 30.
  31. Shirer 1990, pp. 668–669.
  32. 32.0 32.1 Roberts 2006, p. 57.
  33. Weeks 2002, p. 98.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 Hartmann 2013, pp. 9–24.
  35. Ericson 1999, p. 127.
  36. Ericson 1999, pp. 129–130.
  37. 37.00 37.01 37.02 37.03 37.04 37.05 37.06 37.07 37.08 37.09 37.10 37.11 37.12 37.13 37.14 37.15 37.16 37.17 37.18 37.19 37.20 37.21 37.22 37.23 Battle for Russia, 1996.
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  82. Smelser & Davies 2008, p. 243.
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  122. 122.0 122.1 122.2 122.3 122.4 122.5 General Wilhelm Keitel: The Lackey, 1998.
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