|Native to||Pakistan, Afghanistan|
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Ormuri is a member of the Eastern Iranian languages. It is spoken in the city of Kaniguram in South Waziristan, Pakistan by the Burki people. It may also be spoken by a few people in Baraki Barak in Logar, Afghanistan.
Ormuri is notable for its unusual sound inventory, which includes a voiceless alveolar trill, which does not exist in the surrounding Pashto. Ormuri also have voiceless and voiced alveolo-palatal fricatives (the voiceless being contrastive with the more common voiceless palato-alveolar fricative), which also exist in the Waziri Pashto, but could have been adopted from Ormuri due to its close proximity.
DialectsThere are two dialect of Ormuri, one is spoken in Kaniguram, Waziristan, which is the more archaic dialect, and the other one in Baraki-Barak, Logar. The Kaniguram dialect is not understood in Baraki-Barak. The linguist Georg Morgenstierne wrote:
While Kaniguram has borrowed freely from Waziri Pashto, the vocabulary of Logar has been influenced by other Pashto dialects, and, to a still greater extent, by Persian.The dialect of Kaniguram is currently strong, spoken by a relatively prosperous community of Ormur in an isolated part of the rugged Waziristan hills. However, the position of the dialect of Baraki Barak is not strong. Morgenstierne wrote he was told that:
Ormuri was no longer spoken in Baraki Barak, the ancient headquarters of the Ormur tribe. Even a man said to be from this village denied the existence of any other language than Persian and Pashto in his native place.
- Ormuri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ormuri". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Rozi Khan Burki. "Dying Languages; Special Focus on Ormuri". Originally published in Pakistan Journal of Public Administration; Volume 6. No. 2 in December 2001. Khyber.ORG.
- Daniel G. Hallberg (1992) Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 176 pp. ISBN 969-8023-14-3.