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Pan-Germanicism

Not to be confused with Pan-Germanism.

Pan-Germanicism is an ideology that promotes the unity of the Germanic peoples.[1]

History

Pan-Germanicism became especially significant beginning in 19th century Germany as a nationalist concept where it was promoted alongside pan-German ideas.[2]

In the 20th century the German Nazi Party sought to create a Greater Germanic Reich that would include most of the Germanic peoples of Europe within it under the leadership of Germany, including peoples such as the Danes, the Dutch, the Norwegians, and the Flemish within it, with the possible exception of the British.[3]

Pan-Germanicism met resistance within Scandinavian nations in the 19th century. They promoted Scandinavism (or pan-Scandinavianism) while rejecting pan-Germanicism, viewing Scandinavians as the "Old North" - descendents of the original Nordic peoples. Consequently, they were disgusted by the Germans attempting to dominate them, as they viewed Germans as inheritors of Nordic culture.[4] Anti-German Scandinavism surged in Denmark in the 1930s and 1940s in response to the pan-Germanic ambitions of Nazi Germany.[5]

Austrians have been identified as a Germanic people as they speak the German language, however Celtic people inhabited Austria for centuries and the first characteristically Celtic culture emerged in Austria; these Celts were culturally Romanized during Roman rule over the region of Austria that was known as Noricum in the Roman Empire, and the people in the region adopted Catholic Christianity.[6] After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Austria was taken over by the Germanic tribe of the Franks who established the Catholic bishopric of Salzburg.[7] Contemporary Austrians express pride in having Celtic heritage and Austria possesses one of the largest collections of Celtic artifacts in Europe.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Thomas Pedersen. Germany, France, and the integration of Europe: a realist interpretation. Pinter, 1998. P. 74
  2. ^ Ian Adams. Political Ideology Today. Manchester, England, UK: Manchester University Press, 1993. P. 95.
  3. ^ Germany: The Long Road West: Volume 2: 1933-1990. Digital version. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2007.
  4. ^ Martin Arnold. Thor: Myth to Marvel. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011. P. 116-117.
  5. ^ Stephen Barbour, Cathie Carmichael. Language and Nationalism in Europe. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000. P. 111.
  6. ^ Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason. Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing, 2006. P. 42.
  7. ^ Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason. Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing, 2006. P. 42.
  8. ^ Kevin Duffy. Who Were the Celts? Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1996. P. 20.