Open Access Articles- Top Results for Pangasinan


This article is about the Philippine province. For other uses, see Pangasinan (disambiguation).
Template:Infobox settlement/columns
Nickname(s): Heartland of the Philippines; Land of Miracles and Romance; Premier Province of the North
Map of the Philippines with Pangasinan highlighted

Coordinates: 15°55′N 120°20′E / 15.917°N 120.333°E / 15.917; 120.333Coordinates: 15°55′N 120°20′E / 15.917°N 120.333°E / 15.917; 120.333{{#coordinates:15|55|N|120|20|E|region:PH_type:adm1st_source:GNS-enwiki|| |primary |name=

Country [[{{#property:P17}}]]
Region Ilocos (Region I)
Founded 1580
Capital Lingayen
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Amado Espino (NPC)
 • Vice Governor Jose Calimlim, Jr. (NPC)
 • Total 5,451.01 km2 (2,104.65 sq mi)
Area rank 17th out of 81
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 2,779,862
 • Rank 3rd out of 81
 • Density 510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Density rank 11th out of 81
  including independent cities
 • Independent cities 1
 • Component cities 3
 • Municipalities 44
 • Barangays 1,333
including independent cities: 1,364
 • Districts 1st to 6th districts of Pangasinan (shared with Dagupan City)
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 2400 - 2447
Dialing code {{#property:P473}}
ISO 3166 code {{#property:P300}}
Languages Pangasinan, Ilocano, Bolinao, Tagalog, English
Website {{#property:P856}}

Pangasinan is a province of the Philippines. Its official language is Pangasinan or Pangasinense and its provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the western area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and South China Sea. It has a total land area of Script error: No such module "convert"..[1] According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 2,779,862 people.[2] The official number of registered voters in Pangasinan is 1,651,814.[3]

Pangasinan is the name for the province, the people, and the primary language spoken in the province. Indigenous Pangasinan speakers are estimated to number at least 1.5 million. The Pangasinan language is one of the officially recognized regional languages in the Philippines. Pangasinan is spoken as a second-language by many of the ethnic minorities in Pangasinan. The minority ethnic groups in Pangasinan are the Bolinao, Tagalog and Ilocano.

The name Pangasinan means "place for salt" or "place of salt-making"; it is derived from the prefix pang, meaning "for", the root word asin, meaning "salt”, and suffix an, signifying "location." The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines. Its major products include "bagoong" ("salted-fish") and "agamang" ("salted-shrimp")

Pangasinan was founded by Austronesian-speakers who called themselves Anakbanwa by at least 2500 BC. A kingdom called Luyag na Kaboloan, which expanded to incorporate much of northwestern Luzon, existed in Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began in the 16th century.[4] The ancient Pangasinan people were skilled navigators and the maritime trade network that once flourished in ancient Southeast Asia connected Pangasinan with other peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Pacific. The ancient kingdom of Luyag na Kaboloan was in fact mentioned in Chinese and Indian records as being an important kingdom on ancient trade routes.[4]

Popular tourist attractions in Pangasinan include the Hundred Islands National Park and the white-sand beaches of Bolinao and Dasol. Dagupan City is known for its Bangus Festival ("Milkfish Festival"). Pangasinan is also known for its delicious mangoes and ceramic oven-baked Calasiao puto ("rice muffin").

Pangasinan occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of Luzon, known as the rice granary of the Philippines. Pangasinan has been described as a gateway to northern Luzon and as the heartland of the Philippines.


Ancient history

The Pangasinan people, like most of the people in the Malay Archipelago, are descended from the Austronesian-speakers who settled in Southeast Asia since prehistoric times. Comparative genetics, linguistics, and archaeological studies locate the origin of the Austronesian languages in Sundaland, which was populated as early as 50,000 years ago by modern humans.[5][6][7] The Pangasinan language is one of many languages that belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family.

Southeast Asian maritime trade network

A vast maritime trade network connected the distant Austronesian settlements in Southeast Asia, the Pacific, and the Indian Ocean. The Pangasinan people were part of this ancient Austronesian civilization.

The ancient Austronesian-speakers were expert navigators. Their outrigger canoes and sailboats were capable of crossing the distant seas. The Malagasy sailed from the Malay archipelago to Madagascar, an island across the Indian Ocean, and probably reached Africa. The Polynesians settled the distant Pacific islands as far away as Hawaii and Easter Island, and probably reached the Americas. At least three hundred years before the arrival of Europeans, the Makasar and the Bugis from Sulawesi, in what is now Indonesia, as well as the Bajau of the Malay archipelago, carried out long-distance commerce with their prau or paraw ("sailboat") and established settlements in north Australia, which they called Marege.[8]

Pangasinan was founded by Austronesian-speakers who called themselves Anakbanwa during the Austronesian expansion from Taiwan in about 5000 - 2500 BC or the Austronesian dispersal from Sundaland at least 7,000 years ago after the last Ice Age. Anakbanwa means “child of banwa.Banwa (also spelled banua or vanua) is an Austronesian concept that could mean territory, homeland, habitat, society, civilization or cosmos. The Pangasinan people identified or associated banwa with the sun, which was their symbol for their banwa. The Pangasinan people are closely related to the Ibaloi in the neighboring province of Benguet and other peoples of Northern Philippines. The Anakbanwa established their settlements in the Agno River Valley and along the Lingayen Gulf. The coastal area came to be known as Pangasinan, and the interior area came to be known as Kaboloan. Eventually, the whole region and its people came to be known as Pangasinan. Archaeological evidence and early Chinese and Indian records show that the inhabitants of Pangasinan traded with India, China and Japan as early as the 8th century A.D.

Huangdom of Pangasinan or Luyag na Kaboloan

The Huangdom of Pangasinan (As known in Chinese records) and locally known as the ancient kingdom or state called Luyag na Kaboloan (also spelled Caboloan), with Binalatongan as its capital, existed in the fertile Agno River valley. Around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires arose in Indonesia that extended their influence to much of the Malay Archipelago. Urduja/Udaya, a legendary woman warrior, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century. The Luyag na Kaboloan expanded the territory and influence of Pangasinan to what are now the neighboring provinces of Zambales, La Union, Tarlac, Benguet, Nueva Ecija, and Nueva Vizcaya. Pangasinan enjoyed full independence until the Spanish conquest.

Anito and mana beliefs and practices

The ancient Pangasinan people, like other Austronesian peoples, practiced anito-worship. An anito was believed to be the spirit or divine power of an ancestor or the god or divine power in nature or natural phenomena. They believed in mana, an Austronesian concept which can be described as the divine power or vital or spiritual essence of every being and everything that exists. To the Pangasinan people, mana can be transferred, inherited or acquired, like from an ancestor, nature, or natural phenomena. Their belief or practice is similar to Shamanist or animist beliefs and rituals. They worshipped a pantheon of anito ("spirit" or "deity"). Their temples or altars were dedicated to a chief anito called Ama Kaoley (“Supreme Father”), who communicated through mediums or priests called manag-anito. These manag-anito wore special costumes when serving an anito and they made offerings of oils, ointments, essences, and perfumes in exquisite vessels.

Spanish accounts of pre-Hispanic Pangasinan

In the sixteenth-century Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by the Spanish. The locals wore native apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments. They also blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. Also, used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households. Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were also encountered in naval battles in the area.[9] In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south.

Pangasinans were also described as a warlike people who were long known for their resistance to Spanish conquest. Bishop Domingo Salazar described them as really the worst people, the fiercest and cruelest in the land. There was evidence of Christian influence even before Spanish colonization; they used vintage wine in small quantities for their sacramental practices. The church bragged that they won the northern part of the Philippines for Spain not Spanish military. They were also unusually strict against adulterers, with the punishment being death for both offending parties. Pangasinans were also known to take defeated Zambal and Negrito warriors to sell as slaves to Chinese traders.[10]


In 1324, Odoric of Pordenone, a Franciscan missionary from Friuli, Italy, is believed by some to have celebrated a Catholic Mass and baptized natives at Bolinao, Pangasinan. In July 2007, memorial markers were set up in Bolinao to commemorate Odoric's journey based on a publication by Luigi Malamocco, an Italian priest from Friuli, Italy, who claimed that Odoric of Perdenone held the first Catholic Mass in the Philippines in Bolinao, Pangasinan. That 1324 mass would have predated the mass held in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, which is generally regarded as the first mass in the Philippines, by some 197 years. However, historian William Henry Scott concluded after examining Oderic's writings about his travels that he likely never set foot on Philippine soil and, if he did, there is no reason to think that he celebrated mass.[11]

Spanish colonization

On April 27, 1565, the Spanish conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi arrived in the Philippine islands with about 500 soldiers to establish a Spanish settlement and begin the conquest of the archipelago. On May 24, 1570, the Spanish forces defeated Rajah Sulayman and other rulers of Manila and later declared Manila as the new capital of the Spanish East Indies. After securing Manila, the Spanish forces continued to conquer the rest of the island of Luzon, including Pangasinan.

Provincia de Pangasinan

In 1571, the Spanish conquest of Pangasinan began with an expedition by the Spanish conquistador Martín de Goiti, who came from the Spanish settlement in Manila through Pampanga. About a year later, another Spanish conquistador, Juan de Salcedo, sailed to Lingayen Gulf and landed at the mouth of the Agno River. Limahong, a Chinese pirate, fled to Pangasinan after his fleet was driven away from Manila in 1574. Limahong failed to establish a colony in Pangasinan, as an army led by Juan de Salcedo chased him out of Pangasinan after a seven-month siege.

The province of Pangasinan dates its actual beginnings as an administrative and judicial district, with Lingayen as the capital, to as early as 1580, but its territorial boundaries were first delineated in 1611. Lingayen has remained the capital of the province except for a brief period during the revolutionary Era when San Carlos served as temporary administrative headquarters, and during the slightly longer Japanese Occupation when Dagupan was the capital.[12]

The province of Pangasinan was formerly classified as an alcaldia mayor de termino, or first class civil province, during the Spanish regime and has, in fact, remained a first class-A province up to the present. Its territorial jurisdiction once included the entire province of Zambales and portions of what are not Tarlac and La Union provinces.[12]

Rebellion against the Spanish rule

Malong liberation

Andres Malong, a native chief of the town of Binalatongan (now named San Carlos City), liberated the province from Spanish rule in December 1660. The people of Pangasinan proclaimed Andres Malong Ari na Pangasinan ("King of Pangasinan"). Pangasinan armies attempted to liberate the neighboring provinces of Pampanga and Ilocos, but were repelled by a Spanish-led coalition of loyalist tribal warriors and mercenaries. In February 1661, the newly independent Kingdom of Pangasinan fell to the Spanish.

Palaris liberation

On November 3, 1762, the people of Pangasinan proclaimed independence from Spain after a rebellion led by Juan de la Cruz Palaris overthrew Spanish rule in Pangasinan. The Pangasinan revolt was sparked by news of the fall of Manila to the British on October 6, 1762. However, after the Treaty of Paris on March 1, 1763 that closed the Seven Years' War between Britain, France and Spain, the Spanish colonial forces made a counter-attack. On January 16, 1765, Juan de la Cruz Palaris was captured and Pangasinan independence was again lost.

Philippine revolution against Spain

The Katipunan, a nationalist secret society, was founded on July 7, 1892 with the aim of uniting the peoples of the Philippines and fighting for independence and religious freedom. The Philippine Revolution began on August 26, 1896 and was led by Andres Bonifacio, the leader of the Katipunan. On November 18, 1897, a Katipunan council was formed in western Pangasinan with Roman Manalang as Presidente Generalisimo and Mauro Ortiz as General. General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence on June 12, 1898. Dagupan City, the major commercial center of Pangasinan, was surrounded by Katipunan forces by July 18, 1898. The Battle of Dagupan lasted from July 18 to July 23 of that year with the surrender of 1,500 soldiers of the Spanish forces under Commander Federico J. Ceballos and Governor Joaquin de Orengochea.

File:Andres Urdaneta monumentua, Urdaneta City, Philippines.jpg
Andres Urdaneta monument, in front of the City Hall.
The Battle of Dagupan, fought fiercely by local Katipuneros under the overall command of General Francisco Makabulos, chief of the Central and Directive Committee of Central and Northern Luzon, and the last remnants of the once mighty Spanish Army under General Francisco Ceballos, led to the liberation of Pangasinan from the Spaniards. The five-day battle was joined by three local heroes: Don Daniel Maramba from Santa Barbara, Don Vicente Prado from San Jacinto and Don Juan Quezada from Dagupan. Their armies massed in Dagupan to lay siege on the Spanish forces, making a last stand at the brick-walled Catholic Church.
Grave of Don Daniel B. Maramba (Santa Barbara, Pangasinan).
Daniel B. Maramba Monument and 1970 NHI Marker

Maramba led the liberation of the town of Santa Barbara on March 7, 1898 following a signal for simultaneous attack from Makabulos. Hearing that Sta. Barbara fell into rebel hands, the Spanish forces in Dagupan attempted to retake the town, but were repulsed by Maramba's forces. Thus, after the setback, the Spaniards decided to concentrate their forces in Lingayen to protect the provincial capital. This enabled Maramba to expand his operations to Malasiqui, Urdaneta and Mapandan, taking them one after the other. He took one more town, Mangaldan, before proceeding to Dagupan to lay siege on the last Spanish garrison. Also on March 7, 1898, the rebels under the command of Prado and Quesada attacked convents in a number of towns in Zambales province, located west of Lingayen, which now constitute the western parts of Pangasinan.

Attacked and brought under Filipino control were Alaminos, Agno, Anda, Alos, Bani, Balincaguin, Bolinao, Dasol, Eguia and Potot. The revolt then spread to Labrador, Sual, Salasa and many other towns in the west. The towns of Sual, Labrador, Lingayen, Salasa and Bayambang were occupied first by the forces of Prado and Quesada before they proceeded to attack Dagupan.

At an assembly convened to organize a central governing body for Central and Northern Luzon on April 17, 1898, General Makabulos appointed Prado as politico-military governor of Pangasinan, with Quesada as his second in command. His appointment came a few days before the return of General Emilio Aguinaldo in May 1898 from his exile in Hong Kong following the signing of the Pact of Biac-na-Bato in December 1897. Aguinaldo's return gave fresh impetus to the renewal of the flame of the revolution. Thus, on June 3, 1898, General Makabulos entered Tarlac and from that day on, the fires of revolution spread.

So successful were the Filipinos in their many pitched battles against the Spaniards that on June 30, 1898, Spanish authorities decided to evacuate all their forces to Dagupan where a last stand against the rebels was to be made. Also ordered to go to Dagupan were all civilian and military personnel, including members of the volunteer locales of towns not yet in rebel hands. Those who heeded this order were the volunteer forces of Mangaldan, San Jacinto, Pozorrubio, Manaoag, and Villasis. Among those brought to Dagupan was the image of the Most Holy Rosary of the Virgin of Manaoag, which at that time was already the patron saint of Pangasinan.

When the forces of Maramba from the east and Prado from the west converged in Dagupan on July 18, 1898, the siege began. The arrival of General Makabulos strengthened the rebel forces until the Spaniards, holed up inside the Catholic Church, waved the flag of surrender five days later. Armed poorly, the Filipinos were no match at the very start with Spanish soldiers holed inside the Church. They just became mere sitting ducks to Spanish soldiers shooting with their rifles from a distance. But the tempo of battle changed when the attackers, under Don Vicente Prado, devised a crude means of protection to shield them from Spanish fire while advancing. This happened when they rolled trunks of bananas, bundled up in sawali, that enabled them to inch their way to the Church.

American colonization and the Philippine Commonwealth regime

Pangasinan and other parts of the Spanish East Indies were ceded to the Americans after the Treaty of Paris that closed the Spanish–American War. During the Philippine–American War, Lieutenant Col. Jose Torres Bugallon from the town of Salasa fought together with Gen. Antonio Luna to defend the First Philippine Republic against American colonization of Northern Luzon. Bugallon was killed in battle on February 5, 1899. The First Philippine Republic was abolished in 1901. In 1907, the Philippine Assembly was established and for the first time, five residents of Pangasinan were elected as its district representatives. In 1921, Mauro Navarro, representing Pangasinan in the Philippine Assembly, sponsored a law to rename the town of Salasa to Bugallon in order to honor General Bugallon.

During the Philippine Commonwealth regime, Manuel L. Quezon was inaugurated as the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines under the collaboration from the United States of America on November 15, 1935.

The 21st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army, USAFFE was found military establishment and built of the general headquarters was active on July 26, 1941 to June 30, 1946 and they stationed in Pangasinan during the pre-World War II era. From the conflict engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial military operations included the fall of Bataan and Corregidor and aiding the USAFFE ground force from January to May 1942 and the Japanese Insurgencies and Allied Liberation in Pangasinan from 1942 to 1945 and some parts in North-Central Luzon and helps local guerrillas and American forces against the Japanese.

Philippine Republic



After the declaration of Independence in Manila on July 4, 1946, Eugenio Perez, a Liberal Party congressman representing the fourth district of Pangasinan, was elected Speaker of the lower Legislative House. He led the House until 1953, when the Nacionalista Party became the dominant party.

Pangasinan, which was historically part of the Central Luzon region, was made part of the Ilocos Region (or Region I) in the gerrymandering of the Philippines by Ferdinand Marcos, despite the fact that Pangasinan has a distinct primary language, which is Pangasinan. The political classification of Pangasinan as part of the Ilocos Region has generated confusion among some Filipinos that the residents of Pangasinan are Ilocanos. Pangasinan has a distinct primary language and culture, its economy is bigger than the predominantly Ilocano provinces of Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, and La Union, and its population is more than 50 percent of the population of Region 1. Many people of Pangasinan prefer to have their own Pangasinan Region.


In February 1986, Vice Chief of Staff General Fidel V. Ramos, head of the Philippine Integrated National Police and a native of Lingayen, Pangasinan, became one of the instrumental figures of the EDSA people power revolution that led to the overthrow of President Ferdinand Marcos.

After the downfall of Marcos, all local government unit executives in the Philippines were ordered by President Corazon Aquino to vacate their posts. Some local executives were ordered to return to their seats as in the case of Mayor Ludovico Espinosa of Dasol, where he claims he joined the UNIDO, Mrs. Aquino's party during the height of the EDSA Revolution. Fidel Ramos was appointed as AFP Chief of Staff and later as Defense Secretary replacing Juan Ponce Enrile. Oscar Orbos, a congressman from Bani, Pangasinan, was appointed by Aquino as head of the Department of Transportation and Communications and later as Executive Secretary.

On May 11, 1992, Fidel V. Ramos ran for the position of President. He was elected and became the first Pangasinan President of the Philippines. Through his leadership, the Philippines recovered from a severe economy after the oil and power crisis of 1991. His influence also sparked the economic growth of Pangasinan when it hosted the 1995 Palarong Pambansa (Philippine National Games).

Jose de Venecia, who represented the same district as Eugenio Perez, was the second Pangasinan to be Speaker of the House of Representatives in 1992. He was reelected for the same position in 1995. De Venecia was selected by the Ramos' administration party Lakas NUCD to be its presidential candidate in 1998. De Venecia ran but lost to Vice President Joseph Estrada. Oscar Orbos, who served as Pangasinan governor from 1995, ran for Vice President, but lost to Senator Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, whose mother, former First Lady Evangelina Macaraeg-Macapagal, hails from Binalonan, Pangasinan.

Arroyo later ascended to the presidency after the second EDSA Revolution when President Joseph Estrada was overthrown.

On May 2004, actor-turned-politician Fernando Poe, Jr., whose family is from San Carlos City, Pangasinan, ran for President against incumbent Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo during the Philippine general election in 2004. The Pangasinan vote was almost evenly split by the two presidential candidates who both have Pangasinan roots. Arroyo was elected President, but her victory was tainted by charges of electoral fraud and vote-buying.

The state of crisis of the national government in Manila, corruption in Malacañang, widespread poverty, and the slow pace of economic development is forcing many Pangasinans to seek opportunities in Metro Manila, work in other countries or emigrate to wealthier countries, like the United States.



Pangasinan is located on the west central area of the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is bordered by La Union and Benguet to the north, Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva Ecija to the east, and Zambales and Tarlac to the south. To the west of Pangasinan is the South China Sea. The province also encloses the Lingayen Gulf.

The province has a land area of Script error: No such module "convert"..[1] It is 170 kilometers (105.633 mi) north of Manila, 50 kilometers (31.0685 mi.) south of Baguio City, 115 kilometers (71.4576 mi.) north of Subic International Airport and Seaport, and 80 kilometers (49.7096 mi.) north of Clark International Airport. At the coast of Alaminos, the Hundred islands have become a famous tourist spot.

The terrain of the province is typically flat, with a few being mountainous. The northeastern municipalities of San Manuel, San Nicolas, Natividad, San Quintin and Umingan have hilly to mountainous areas, situated at the tip of the Cordillera mountains. The Zambales mountains extend to the province's western towns of Labrador, Mabini, Bugallon, Aguilar, Mangatarem, Dasol, and Infanta forming the mountainous portions of those towns.

The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) reported several inactive volcanoes in the province: Amorong, Balungao, Cabaluyan, Cahelietan, Candong, and Malabobo. PHIVOLCS reported no active or potentially active volcanoes in Pangasinan. A caldera-like landform is located between the towns of Malasiqui and Villasis with a center at about 15° 55′ N and 120° 30′ E near the Cabaruan Hills.

File:Pangasinan Provincial Capitol.jpg
Pangasinan Provincial Capitol in Lingayen

Several rivers traverse the province. The longest is the Agno River, which originates from the Cordillera mountains of Benguet, eventually emptying its waters into the Lingayen Gulf. Other major rivers include the Bued River, Angalacan River, Sinocalan River, Patalan River, and the Cayanga River.

Administrative divisions

The province of Pangasinan is subdivided into 44 municipalities, 4 cities, and 1,364 barangay (which means "village" or "community"). There are six congressional districts in the province.

File:Ph fil pangasinan.png
Political map of Pangasinan

The capital of the province is Lingayen. In ancient times, the capital of Pangasinan was Binalatongan, now San Carlos City.


Pangasinan has 1,364 barangays comprising its 44 municipalities and 4 cities, ranking the province at 3rd with the most number of barangays in a Philippine province, only behind Iloilo and Leyte.

The most populous barangay in the province is Bonuan Gueset in Dagupan City, with a population of 22,042 in 2010. If cities are excluded, Poblacion in the municipality of Lingayen has the highest population at 12,642. Iton in Bayambang has the lowest with only 99 in the census of 2010.[13]

Further information: List of barangays in Pangasinan


Population census of Pangasinan
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 2,020,273—    
1995 2,178,412+1.42%
2000 2,434,086+2.41%
2007 2,645,395+1.15%
2010 2,779,862+1.82%
Source: National Statistics Office[2]


The Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan) are called Pangasinan or the hispanicized name Pangasinense, or simply taga-Pangasinan, which means "from Pangasinan". Pangasinan is the third most populated province in the Philippines. The estimated population of the indigenous speakers of the Pangasinan language in the province of Pangasinan is 1.5 million and is projected to double in about 30 years. According to the 2000 census, 47 percent of the population are Totoon Pangasinan and 44 percent are Ilocanos. Sambal settlers from Zambales also predominate in the westernmost municipalities of Bolinao and Anda. The Pangasinan people are closely related to the Austronesian-speaking peoples of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia.


Languages Spoken (2000)[14]
Language Speakers in '000

The Pangasinan language or Pangasinense is an agglutinative language. It belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian languages branch of the Austronesian languages family and is the primary language of the province of Pangasinan. The Pangasinan language is similar to the other Malayo-Polynesian languages of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Madagascar. It is closely related to the Ibaloi language spoken in the neighboring province of Benguet, located north of Pangasinan. The Pangasinan language is classified under the Pangasinic group of languages. The Pangasinic languages are:

  • Pangasinan or Pangasinense
  • Ibaloi
  • Karao
  • I-wak
  • Kalanguya
  • Keley-I
  • Kallahan
  • Kayapa
  • Tinoc

Other languages are spoken in some areas of the neighboring provinces of Benguet, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, and Ifugao.

The educated Pangasinans are mostly proficient in Ilocano, English, and Tagalog, as well as their native language. Pangasinan is mostly spoken in the central part of the province in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and is the second language in other parts of Pangasinan. Ilocano is widely spoken in the western and eastern part of Pangasinan in the 1st, 5th and 6th districts, and Bolinao is widely spoken in the western tip of the province in the Municipality of Bolinao and Anda.


The religion of the people of Pangasinan is predominantly Christianity with Roman Catholicism as the overwhelming majority at 83% affiliation in the population. Other religious denominations are divided with other Christian groups such as Aglipayan, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Baptist, Methodist, Church of Christs of Latter Day Saints (Mormon) and Jehovah's Witnesses. Few are strict believers and continue to practice their indigenous anito beliefs and rituals, like most of the people of the Philippines. Spanish and American missionaries introduced Christianity to Pangasinan. Prior to the Spanish conquest in 1571, the predominant religion of the people of Pangasinan was similar to the indigenous religion of the highland Igorot or the inhabitants of the Cordillera Administrative Region on the island of Luzon, who mostly retained their indigenous culture and religion. A translation of the New Testament (excluding Revelation) in the Pangasinan language by Fr. Nicolas Manrique Alonzo Lallave, a Spanish Dominican friar assigned in Urdaneta, was the first ever translation of a complete portion of the Bible in a Philippine language. Pangasinan was also influenced by Hinduism and Buddhism before the introduction of Christianity.


Commercial Salt Industry in Dasol

Pangasinan has export earnings of around $5.5 million.


The 1200 megawatt Sual Coal-Fired Power Plant, and 345 megawatt San Roque Multi-Purpose Dam, located in the municipalities of Sual and San Manuel respectively, are the primary sources of energy of the province.


Pangasinan is a major fish supplier in Luzon, and a major producer of salt in the Philippines. It has extensive fishponds, mostly for raising bangus, or "milkfish", along the coasts of the Lingayen Gulf and the South China Sea. Pangasinan's aquaculture includes oyster and sea urchin farms.


The major crops in Pangasinan are rice, mangoes, corn, and sugar cane. Pangasinan has a land area of 536,819 hectares, and 44 percent of the total land area of Pangasinan is devoted to agricultural production.


Pangasinan has 593 banking and financing institutions.


Pangasinan has a labor force of about 1.52 million, and 87 percent of the labor force are gainfully employed.


The Department of Trade and Industry in the Philippines has identified the following potential investment areas in Pangasinan:

  • Maguey production and handicraft center
  • Santiago Island Marine Park
  • Oyster processing facility
  • Bagoong technology and processing center
  • Tannery and leather production center
  • Oyster and aquaculture farming
  • Seaweed farming
  • Bamboo production
  • Handicraft and furniture making
  • Manufacture of construction bricks
  • Tourism development

Health and education

There are thousands of public schools and hundreds of private schools across the province for primary and secondary education. Many Pangasineneses go to Metro Manila and the United States for tertiary and higher education. The state and private colleges and universities in Pangasinan include the following:

  • Pangasinan National High School (PNHS)
  • Oakridge International School of Young Leaders
  • AMA Computer College
  • Asian Institute Of E-Commerce
  • Colegio de Dagupan
  • Colegio San Jose De Alaminos
  • Dagupan Colleges Foundation
  • Golden West Colleges
  • Kingfisher School of Business and Finance
  • Lyceum Northern Luzon
  • Lyceum Northwestern University
  • Luzon Colleges of Science and Technology
  • Palaris College
  • Pangasinan State University
  • Pangasinan Merchant Marine Academy
  • Panpacific University Northern Philippines
  • Philippine College of Science and Technology
  • Pimsat Colleges
  • Saint Columban's College
  • San Carlos College
  • Saint Therese of the Child Jesus College Foundation
  • St. Camillus College of Manaoag Foundation, Inc.
  • STI College
  • University of Luzon
  • University of Pangasinan
  • Urdaneta City University
  • University Of Perpetual Help – Jonelta Foundation (Pangasinan Campus)
  • University of Eastern Pangasinan - Binalonan
  • Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation
  • WCC Aeronautical and Technological College
  • Gospel of Christ Montessori School (GCMS
  • Precious Minds Montessori and High School (PMMHS)
  • Calasiao Comprehensive National High School (CCNHS)
  • Daniel Maramba National High School (DMNHS)
  • Cipriano P. Primicias National High School (CPPNHS)
  • Northern Luzon Adventist College (NLAC)

Pangasinan has 51 hospitals and clinics and 68 rural health units (as of July 2002). Although some residents go to Manila and the United States for extensive medical tests and treatment, most Pangasinenses go to the medical centers in the cities of Dagupan, San Carlos City, and Urdaneta.


The culture of Pangasinan is a blend of the indigenous Malayo-Polynesian and western Hispanic and American cultures, with some Indian and Chinese influences. Today, Pangasinan is very much westernized. The main centers of Pangasinense culture are Lingayen, San Carlos City, Dagupan, and Manaoag.

Sports and entertainment

  • Urdaneta City Sports and Cultural Complex
  • Urdaneta Coliseum
  • Dagupan City People's Astrodome
  • Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center
  • Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation Sports Complex
  • CSI STADIA (Jimmy Fernandez Complex)
  • Orient Pacific Center, Perez Blvd. Dagupan City
  • East Gate Plaza, A.B Fernandez East, Dagupan City
  • Robert B. Estrella, Sr. Memorial Stadium, Rosales

Places of interest


The Shrine of Our Lady of Manaoag is famous throughout the country for its supposed miraculous powers. Catholic devotees frequent the shrine, especially on the feast days on the first of October and the 18th day after Easter Sunday.

Natural attractions

File:Beach at Rock Garden Resort, Bolinao, Pangasinan.jpg
Sunny white beach at Rock Garden Resort, Bolinao, Pangasinan
The "Treasurers of Bolinao", Pangasinan
  • Lisland Rainforest Resort, San Vicente, Urdaneta City
  • Gold Land Resort, Cayambanan, Urdaneta City
  • Antong Falls in Sison
  • Beach Walk in Lingayen
  • Bolinao Caves (Wonderful Cave, Cindy's Cave, Enchanted Cave)
  • Ilog-Malino River, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Puerto Del Sol Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Punta Riviera Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Villa Carolina Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Garden Paradise Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Ilog-Malino Beach Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Cocos Beach Resort, Brgy. Ilog-Malino, Bolinao
  • Bonuan Blue Beach in Dagupan City
  • Binmaley Blue-Gray Beach
  • Binmaley Blue-Green, Museum Park (including Triangle "Estasyon" Park)
  • Cape Bolinao Lighthouse in Bolinao
  • Cacupangan Cave in Mabini
  • Cabongaoan Beach in Burgos
  • Hundred Islands National Park and Marine Sanctuary in Alaminos City
  • Manleluag Spring Protected Landscape in Mangatarem
  • Mount Balungao in Balungao
  • Pantal River Boat ride in Dagupan City
  • Rock Garden Resort in Bolinao
  • San Juan River in San Carlos City
  • Suasalito Viewdeck in Sual
  • Tambobong White Beach in Dasol
  • Tondol Beach in Anda
  • Umbrella Rocks of Agno
  • White Beach of San Fabian
  • Angel Cave, Brgy. Centro Toma, Bani


  • Bolinao Museum in Bolinao
  • Lingayen Gulf War Museum in Lingayen
  • Oceanographic Marine Laboratory in Alaminos City


  • Bagoong Festival, Lingayen
  • Pakwan Festival, Bani
  • Dumayo Festival, Urdaneta City
  • Mango-Bamboo Festival, San Carlos City
  • Pandan Festival, Mapandan
  • Bangus Festival in Dagupan City
  • Patupat Festival in Pozorrubio
  • Pistay Dayat (Feast of the Sea) all over Pangasinan
  • Mangunguna Festival, Bolinao
  • Sigay Festival, Binmaley
  • Puto Festival, Calasiao
  • Malangsi Fishtival, Bayambang
  • Galicayo Festival, Manaoag
  • Goat Festival, Balungao
  • Talong Festival, Villasis
  • Corn Festival, Sto. Tomas
  • Pindang Festival (Beef Festival), Mangaldan
  • Festival of the North all over Pangasinan
  • Longganisa Festival in Alaminos City


  • Provincial Capitol, Lingayen
  • Red Arrow Marker of the WWII 32nd US Infantry Division in San Nicolas
  • Narciso Ramos Sports and Civic Center in Lingayen
  • Plaza Pergola in Pozorrubio
  • San Carlos City Plaza
  • Urduja House in Lingayen
Sibblings Margaret F. Celeste, Cong. Jesus 'Boying' F. Celeste (Representative, Pangasinan, 1st District, House of Representatives, Quezon City), former Cong. Arthur F. Celeste, Pangasinan, 1st, Lakas-Kampi-CMD, 14th Congress of the Philippines), and Mayor Alfronso F. Celeste.


The current governor of Pangasinan is Amado Espino, Jr.. Among those who served as Governor of Pangasinan include Tito Primicias, Vicente Millora and Daniel Maramba.

Provincial Board Members:

  • 1st District: Napoleon C. Fontelera Jr., Anthony D. Sison


There are at least 20 local newspapers and magazines published in Pangasinan. At least seventeen local newspapers and magazines are published weekly.

  • Balon Silew (Pangasinan)
  • Ilocano Observer (English and Ilocano)
  • Luzon Examiner (English)
  • Luzon Island Bulletin (English)
  • Luzon Standard Country Mail (English)
  • Media Eye Tiempo (English)
  • Northern Courier (English)
  • Northern Journal (English)
  • Northern Times (English)
  • (English & Pangasinan)
  • Pangasinan News (English)
  • Pangasinan Post (English)
  • Pangasinan Star Online (English and Pangasinan)
  • Pangasinan Today (English)
  • Pangasinan Sentinel (English) (Mangaldan Publication)
  • People’s Digests (English)
  • Sun Star – Pangasinan (English)
  • Sunday Punch (English)
  • The Midweek Punch (English)
  • The Regional Examiner (English)
  • NORTHERN WATCH (English and Filipino)
  • The Weekly Forum (English)
  • The Weekly Guardian (English)

Other publications that circulate in Pangasinan include:

  • Northwest Luzon Times
  • Pangasinan Pinoy Journal
  • Weekly Luzon Times
  • News Time
  • The Pangasinan Post
  • Classyfied Mag

The only magazine published monthly is the Traveler Magazine.

Television and radio

Television Networks:

FM Radio Stations:

  • DWIZ - 89.3 DWIZ News Radio FM (formerly DWQT - 89dot3 Home Radio Dagupan)
  • DWYS - 104.1 YES FM! Urdaneta City
  • DWAI - 92.1 I FM Urdaneta City
  • DWKT - 90.3 Energy FM
  • DWTL - 93.5 Campus Radio
  • DWEC - 94.3 MOR For Life!
  • DWID - 98.3 Love Radio
  • DWTJ - 99.3 Spirit FM (from Alaminos City)
  • DWHY - 100.7 Star FM
  • DWON - 104.7 iFM Siguradong Enjoy Ka!
  • DWHR - 106.3 Hot FM
  • DWHT - 107.9 RMN Dagupan (operational)

AM Radio Stations:

  • DWCM - 1161 Aksyon Radyo
  • DWDH - 1440 kHz (DZRH Manila Feed)
  • DZWN - 1125 Bombo Radyo, Dagupan City (Pangasinan language)
  • DWPR - 1296 Power Radio (RADYO ASENSO)
  • DZRD - 981 DZRD 981 Sonshine Radio
  • DZSD - 1548 Super Radyo (Relay Station only)
  • DWIN - 1080 Eagle Radio (Relay Station only)
  • DZMQ Radyo Ng Bayan-Dagupan 576 kHz. AM (Government Radio Station under the Office of the Press Secretary)

Notable people from Pangasinan

Some prominent people of Pangasinan heritage (though not necessarily ethnic identification) include:

See also


  1. ^ a b c "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c "Population and Annual Growth Rates for The Philippines and Its Regions, Provinces, and Highly Urbanized Cities" (PDF). 2010 Census and Housing Population. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 13 February 2013. 
  3. ^ "Pangasinan voters already 1,651,814," Sunday Punch. December 10, 2012
  4. ^ a b Minahan, James (10 June 2014). Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific. ABC-CLIO. p. 34. ISBN 1598846604. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  5. ^ New DNA evidence overturns population migration theory in Island Southeast Asia - University of Oxford
  6. ^ New research forces U-turn in population migration theory
  7. ^ Mark Donohue; Tim Denham (April 2010). "Farming and Language in Island Southeast Asia : Reframing Austronesian History" (PDF). Current Anthropology 51 (2). 
  8. ^ PLoS ONE: The History of Makassan Trepang Fishing and Trade
  9. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay. Manila Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 187. 
  10. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay. Manila Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press. pp. 248–249. 
  11. ^ Scott, William Henry (1984). Prehispanic source materials for the study of Philippine history. New Day Publishers. pp. 81–82. ISBN 978-971-10-0226-8. 
  12. ^ a b "History of Pangasinan". Retrieved 24 June 2014. 
  13. ^ "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay:as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines). Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  14. ^ Table 4. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Pangasinan, 2000
  • Agoncillo, Teodoro A. History of the Filipino People. (Quezon City: Garotech Publishing, Eighth Edition, 1990).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1572-1800. (Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1974; New Day Publishers, 1975).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1801-1900: The Beginnings of Modernization. (Cellar Book Shop, April 1991).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. Pangasinan, 1901-1986: A Political, Socioeconomic, and Cultural History. (Cellar Book Shop, April 1991).
  • Cortes, Rosario Mendoza. The Filipino Saga: History as Social Change. (Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 2000).
  • Craig, Austin. "Lineage Life and Labors of Jose Rizal". (Manila: Philippine Education Company, 1913).
  • Mafiles, Victoria Veloria; Nava, Erlinda Tomelden. The English Translations of Pangasinan Folk Literature. (Dagupan City, Philippines: Five Ed Printing Press, 2004).
  • Quintos, Felipe Quintos. Sipi Awaray Gelew Diad Pilipinas (Revolucion Filipina). (Lingayen, Pangasinan: Gumawid Press, 1926).
  • Samson-Nelmida, Perla. Pangasinan Folk Literature, A Doctoral Dissertation. (University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City: May 1982).

External links

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