Open Access Articles- Top Results for Participant evolution

Participant evolution

Participant evolution is a process of deliberately redesigning the human body and brain using technological means, rather than through the natural processes of mutation and natural selection, with the goal of removing "biological limitations." The idea of participant evolution was first put forward by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in the 1960s in their article Cyborgs and Space, where they argued that the human species was already on a path of participant evolution. Science fiction writers have speculated what the next stage of such participant evolution will be.

Whilst Clynes and Kline saw participant evolution as the process of creating cyborgs, the idea has been adopted and propounded by transhumanists who argue that individuals should have the choice of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children, to progressively become transhuman and ultimately posthuman, as part of a voluntary regimen of participant evolution.

See also


  • "Manfred Clynes and the Cyborg". by Chris Hables Gray. Archived from the original on April 19, 2005. Retrieved June 12, 2005.  which in turn cites an interview with Manfred E. Clynes in
    • Gray, Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera (1995). The Cyborg Handbook. New York: Routledge.  pages 29-34, which in turn cites
      • Clynes, Manfred E. and Nathan S. Kline (1960). "Cyborgs and Space". Astronautics. September: 26–27 and 74–75. 
  • "Cyborg Systems". ISTF Brochures. Retrieved June 12, 2005. 
  • "Frequently Asked Questions about Transhumanism". Futurist Transhuman Think Tank. Archived from the original on 2003-02-23. Retrieved June 12, 2005.