Open Access Articles- Top Results for Pendrin


SymbolsSLC26A4 ; DFNB4; EVA; PDS; TDH2B
External IDsOMIM605646 MGI1346029 HomoloGene20132 IUPHAR: 1100 GeneCards: SLC26A4 Gene
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE SLC26A4 206529 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_000441NM_011867
RefSeq (protein)NP_000432NP_035997
Location (UCSC)Chr 7:
107.3 – 107.36 Mb
Chr 12:
31.52 – 31.56 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

Pendrin, also known as sodium-independent chloride/iodide transporter, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A4 gene (solute carrier family 26, member 4).[1][2] Pendrin is the protein which is mutated in pendred syndrome, which is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, goiter and a partial organification problem detectable by a positive perchlorate test.[3]

By phylogenetic analysis, pendrin has been found to be a close relative of prestin present on the hair cells or organ of corti in the inner ear. Prestin is primarily an electromechanical transducer but pendrin is an ion transporter.


Pendrin is an ion exchanger found in many types of cells in the body. For example it is found in the cortical collecting duct lining cells in the kidney.[4]

File:Thyroid hormone synthesis.png
Thyroid hormone synthesis, with Pendrin seen at center between the follicular colloid and the follicular cell.

Pendrin is found at the apical (luminal) membrane of follicular cells in the thyroid gland. It transports iodide from the cytoplasm to the follicle lumen. Its activity is necessary for production of thyroid hormone.

Pendrin is also found in the cells of the inner ear, where its function is not well understood.

Clinical significance

Mutations in this gene are associated with Pendred syndrome, the most common form of syndromic deafness, an autosomal-recessive disease. Pendred syndrome is also characterized by hypothyroidism. SLC26A4 is highly homologous to the SLC26A3 gene; they have similar genomic structures and this gene is located 3' of the SLC26A3 gene. The encoded protein has homology to sulfate transporters.[1]

Another little-understood role of pendrin is in airway hyperreactivity and inflammation, as during asthma attacks and allergic reactions. Expression of pendrin in the lung increases in response to allergens and high concentrations of IL-13,[5][6] and overexpression of pendrin results in airway inflammation, hyperreactivity, and increased mucus production.[7][8] These symptoms could result from pendrin's effects on ion concentration in the airway surface liquid, possibly causing the liquid to be less hydrated.[9]


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: SLC26A4 solute carrier family 26, member 4". 
  2. ^ Everett LA, Glaser B, Beck JC, Idol JR, Buchs A, Heyman M, Adawi F, Hazani E, Nassir E, Baxevanis AD, Sheffield VC, Green ED (December 1997). "Pendred syndrome is caused by mutations in a putative sulphate transporter gene (PDS)". Nat. Genet. 17 (4): 411–22. PMID 9398842. doi:10.1038/ng1297-411. 
  3. ^ Patterson C, Runge MS (2006). Principles of molecular medicine. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 957. ISBN 1-58829-202-9. 
  4. ^ Wall S (2006). "The renal physiology of pendrin (SLC26A4) and its role in hypertension". Novartis Found Symp. Novartis Foundation Symposia 273: 231–9; discussion 239–43, 261–4. ISBN 978-0-470-02957-2. PMID 17120771. doi:10.1002/0470029579.ch15.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  5. ^ Kuperman DA, Lewis CC, Woodruff PG, Rodriguez MW, Yang YH, Dolganov GM, Fahy JV, Erle DJ (August 2005). "Dissecting asthma using focused transgenic modeling and functional genomics". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 116 (2): 305–11. PMID 16083784. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.03.024. 
  6. ^ Zhen, G. et al. (2007). "IL-13 and epidermal growth factor receptor have critical but distinct roles in epithelial cell mucin production". Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Bio. 36 (2): 244–253. PMC 1899314. PMID 16980555. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2006-0180OC. 
  7. ^ Pedemonte N, Caci E, Sondo E, Caputo A, Rhoden K, Pfeffer U, Di Candia M, Bandettini R, Ravazzolo R, Zegarra-Moran O, Galietta LJ (April 2007). "Thiocyanate transport in resting and IL-4-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells: role of pendrin and anion channels". J. Immunol. 178 (8): 5144–53. PMID 17404297. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.178.8.5144. 
  8. ^ Nakao, I. et al. (2008). "Identification of pendrin as a common mediator for mucus production in bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". J. Immunol. 180 (9): 6262–6269. PMID 18424749. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.180.9.6262. 
  9. ^ Nakagami, Y. et al. (2008). "The epithelial anion transporter pendrin is induced by allergy and rhinovirus infection, regulates surface airway liquid, and increases airway reactivity and inflammation in an asthma model". J. Immunol. 181 (3): 2203–2210. PMC 2491716. PMID 18641360. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.181.3.2203. 

Further reading

  • Markovich D (2001). "Physiological roles and regulation of mammalian sulfate transporters". Physiol. Rev. 81 (4): 1499–533. PMID 11581495. 
  • Baldwin CT, Weiss S, Farrer LA et al. (1996). "Linkage of congenital, recessive deafness (DFNB4) to chromosome 7q31 and evidence for genetic heterogeneity in the Middle Eastern Druze population". Hum. Mol. Genet. 4 (9): 1637–42. PMID 8541853. doi:10.1093/hmg/4.9.1637. 
  • Coyle B, Coffey R, Armour JA et al. (1996). "Pendred syndrome (goitre and sensorineural hearing loss) maps to chromosome 7 in the region containing the nonsyndromic deafness gene DFNB4". Nat. Genet. 12 (4): 421–3. PMID 8630497. doi:10.1038/ng0496-421. 
  • Sheffield VC, Kraiem Z, Beck JC et al. (1996). "Pendred syndrome maps to chromosome 7q21-34 and is caused by an intrinsic defect in thyroid iodine organification". Nat. Genet. 12 (4): 424–6. PMID 8630498. doi:10.1038/ng0496-424. 
  • Gausden E, Armour JA, Coyle B et al. (1996). "Thyroid peroxidase: evidence for disease gene exclusion in Pendred's syndrome". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 44 (4): 441–6. PMID 8706311. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.1996.714536.x. 
  • Coucke P, Van Camp G, Demirhan O et al. (1997). "The gene for Pendred syndrome is located between D7S501 and D7S692 in a 1.7-cM region on chromosome 7q". Genomics 40 (1): 48–54. PMID 9070918. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.4541. 
  • Li XC, Everett LA, Lalwani AK et al. (1998). "A mutation in PDS causes non-syndromic recessive deafness". Nat. Genet. 18 (3): 215–7. PMID 9500541. doi:10.1038/ng0398-215. 
  • Van Hauwe P, Everett LA, Coucke P et al. (1999). "Two frequent missense mutations in Pendred syndrome". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 (7): 1099–104. PMID 9618166. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.7.1099. 
  • Coyle B, Reardon W, Herbrick JA et al. (1999). "Molecular analysis of the PDS gene in Pendred syndrome". Hum. Mol. Genet. 7 (7): 1105–12. PMID 9618167. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.7.1105. 
  • Usami S, Abe S, Weston MD et al. (1999). "Non-syndromic hearing loss associated with enlarged vestibular aqueduct is caused by PDS mutations". Hum. Genet. 104 (2): 188–92. PMID 10190331. doi:10.1007/s004390050933. 
  • Scott DA, Wang R, Kreman TM et al. (1999). "The Pendred syndrome gene encodes a chloride-iodide transport protein". Nat. Genet. 21 (4): 440–3. PMID 10192399. doi:10.1038/7783. 
  • Masmoudi S, Charfedine I, Hmani M et al. (2000). "Pendred syndrome: phenotypic variability in two families carrying the same PDS missense mutation". Am. J. Med. Genet. 90 (1): 38–44. PMID 10602116. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(20000103)90:1<38::AID-AJMG8>3.0.CO;2-R. 
  • Reardon W, OMahoney CF, Trembath R et al. (2000). "Enlarged vestibular aqueduct: a radiological marker of pendred syndrome, and mutation of the PDS gene". QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians 93 (2): 99–104. PMID 10700480. doi:10.1093/qjmed/93.2.99. 
  • Bogazzi F, Raggi F, Ultimieri F et al. (2000). "A novel mutation in the pendrin gene associated with Pendred's syndrome". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 52 (3): 279–85. PMID 10718825. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2265.2000.00930.x. 
  • Bidart JM, Mian C, Lazar V et al. (2000). "Expression of pendrin and the Pendred syndrome (PDS) gene in human thyroid tissues". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85 (5): 2028–33. PMID 10843192. doi:10.1210/jc.85.5.2028. 
  • Adato A, Raskin L, Petit C, Bonne-Tamir B (2000). "Deafness heterogeneity in a Druze isolate from the Middle East: novel OTOF and PDS mutations, low prevalence of GJB2 35delG mutation and indication for a new DFNB locus". Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 8 (6): 437–42. PMID 10878664. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200489. 
  • Lohi H, Kujala M, Kerkelä E et al. (2001). "Mapping of five new putative anion transporter genes in human and characterization of SLC26A6, a candidate gene for pancreatic anion exchanger". Genomics 70 (1): 102–12. PMID 11087667. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6355. 
  • Royaux IE, Wall SM, Karniski LP et al. (2001). "Pendrin, encoded by the Pendred syndrome gene, resides in the apical region of renal intercalated cells and mediates bicarbonate secretion". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (7): 4221–6. PMC 31206. PMID 11274445. doi:10.1073/pnas.071516798. 
  • Campbell C, Cucci RA, Prasad S et al. (2001). "Pendred syndrome, DFNB4, and PDS/SLC26A4 identification of eight novel mutations and possible genotype-phenotype correlations". Hum. Mutat. 17 (5): 403–11. PMID 11317356. doi:10.1002/humu.1116. 

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