Open Access Articles- Top Results for Pineapple


This article is about the large fruit. For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation).
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Scientific classification
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(L.) Merr.

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The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries,[2][3] and the most economically significant plant in the Bromeliaceae family.[4]

Pineapples may be cultivated from a crown cutting of the fruit,[2][5] possibly flowering in 20–24 months and fruiting in the following six months.[5][6] Pineapple does not ripen significantly post-harvest.[7]

Pineapples can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced, and preserved, and are found in a wide array of cuisines. In addition to consumption, the pineapple leaves are used to produce the textile fiber piña in the Philippines, commonly used as the material for the men's Barong Tagalog and women's Baro't saya formal wear in the country. The fiber is also used as a component for wallpaper and other furnishings.[8]


File:Pineapple and cross section.jpg
Pineapple and its cross section
File:Ananas comosus flower.jpg
A pineapple flower in Iriomote, Japan

The word "pineapple" in English was first recorded in 1398, when it was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones). The term "pine cone" for the reproductive organ of conifer trees was first recorded in 1694. When European explorers discovered this tropical fruit in the Americas, they called them "pineapples" (first so referenced in 1664 due to resemblance to what is now known as the pine cone).[9][10]

In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit",[11] as recorded by André Thevet in 1555, and comosus, "tufted", refers to the stem of the fruit. Other members of the Ananas genus are often called "pine", as well, in other languages. In Spanish, pineapples are called piña ("pine cone"), or ananá (ananás) (example, the piña colada drink).


The pineapple is a herbaceous perennial which grows to Script error: No such module "convert". tall, although sometimes it can be taller. In appearance, the plant itself has a short, stocky stem with tough, waxy leaves. When creating its fruit, it usually produces up to 200 flowers, although some large-fruited cultivars can exceed this. Once it flowers, the individual fruits of the flowers join together to create what is commonly referred to as a pineapple. After the first fruit is produced, side shoots (called 'suckers' by commercial growers) are produced in the leaf axils of the main stem. These may be removed for propagation, or left to produce additional fruits on the original plant.[5] Commercially, suckers that appear around the base are cultivated. It has 30 or more long, narrow, fleshy, trough-shaped leaves with sharp spines along the margins that are Script error: No such module "convert". long, surrounding a thick stem. In the first year of growth, the axis lengthens and thickens, bearing numerous leaves in close spirals. After 12 to 20 months, the stem grows into a spike-like inflorescence up to Script error: No such module "convert". long with over 100 spirally arranged, trimerous flowers, each subtended by a bract. Flower colors vary, depending on variety, from lavender, through light purple to red.

The ovaries develop into berries which coalesce into a large, compact, multiple accessory fruit. The fruit of a pineapple is arranged in two interlocking helices, eight in one direction, thirteen in the other, each being a Fibonacci number.[12]

Pineapple carries out CAM photosynthesis, fixing carbon dioxide at night and storing it as the acid malate and then releasing it during the day, aiding photosynthesis.


Seed formation needs pollination, but the presence of seeds harms the quality of the fruit. In Hawaii, where pineapple is cultivated on an agricultural scale, importation of hummingbirds is prohibited for this reason.[13] Certain bat-pollinated wild pineapples open their flowers only at night.

Culinary uses

Pineapple, raw
Nutritional value per Script error: No such module "convert".
Energy Script error: No such module "convert".
13.12 g
Sugars 9.85 g
Dietary fiber 1.4 g
0.12 g
0.54 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.079 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.032 mg
Niacin (B3)
0.5 mg
0.213 mg
Vitamin B6
0.112 mg
Folate (B9)
18 μg
5.5 mg
Vitamin C
47.8 mg
Trace metals
13 mg
0.29 mg
12 mg
0.927 mg
8 mg
109 mg
1 mg
0.12 mg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
File:Pineapple Juice.jpg
Pineapple Juice

The flesh and juice of the pineapple are used in cuisines around the world. In many tropical countries, pineapple is prepared, and sold on roadsides as a snack. It is sold whole, or in halves with a stick inserted. Whole, cored slices with a cherry in the middle are a common garnish on hams in the West. Chunks of pineapple are used in desserts such as fruit salad, as well as in some savory dishes, including pizza toppings and a grilled ring on a hamburger.[14][15] Crushed pineapple is used in yogurt, jam, sweets, and ice cream. The juice of the pineapple is served as a beverage, and is also as a main ingredient in such cocktails as the piña colada.


In a 100 gram serving, raw pineapple is an excellent source of manganese (44% daily value (DV) and vitamin C (58% DV), but otherwise contains no essential nutrients in significant content (table).[16]


Present in all parts of the pineapple plant,[17] bromelain is a mixture of proteolytic enzymes. Bromelain is under preliminary research for a variety of clinical disorders, but to date has not been adequately defined for its effects in the human body.[18] Bromelain may be unsafe for some users, such as in pregnancy, allergies or anticoagulation therapy.[18]

If having sufficient bromelain content, raw pineapple juice may be used as a meat marinade and tenderizer. Pineapple enzymes can interfere with the preparation of some foods, such as jelly and other gelatin-based desserts, but are destroyed during cooking and canning. The quantity of bromelain in a typical serving of pineapple fruit is probably not significant; further, an ingested enzyme like bromelain is unlikely to survive intact the proteolytic processes of stomach digestion.


The plant is indigenous to South America and is said to originate from the area between southern Brazil and Paraguay;[2] however, little is known about the origin of the domesticated pineapple (Pickersgill, 1976). M.S. Bertoni (1919)[19] considered the ParanáParaguay River drainages to be the place of origin of A. comosus.[20] The natives of southern Brazil and Paraguay spread the pineapple throughout South America, and it eventually reached the Caribbean, Central America and Mexico, where it was cultivated by the Mayas and the Aztecs. Columbus encountered the pineapple in 1493 on the leeward island of Guadeloupe. He called it piña de Indes, meaning "pine of the Indians," and brought it back with him to Europe, thus making the pineapple the first bromeliad to leave the New World.[21] The Spanish introduced it into the Philippines, Hawaii (introduced in the early 19th century, first commercial plantation 1886), Zimbabwe and Guam. The fruit is said to have been first introduced in Hawaii when a Spanish ship brought it there in the 1500s.[22] The Portuguese took the fruit from Brazil and introduced it into India by 1550.[23]

Charles II presented with the first pineapple grown in England (1675 painting by Hendrik Danckerts)

The pineapple was brought to northern Europe by the Dutch from their colony in Surinam. The first pineapple to be successfully cultivated in Europe, is said to have been grown by Pieter de la Court at Meerburg in 1658.[24] In England, a huge "Pineapple stove" needed to grow the plants had been built at the Chelsea Physic Garden in 1723.[25] In France, King Louis XV was presented with a pineapple that had been grown at Versailles in 1733. Catherine the Great ate pineapples grown on her own estates before her death in 1796.[26] Because of the expense of direct import and the enormous cost in equipment and labour required to grow them in a temperate climate, using hothouses called "pineries", pineapples soon became a symbol of wealth. They were initially used mainly for display at dinner parties, rather than being eaten, and were used again and again until they began to rot.[27] By the second half of the 18th century, the production of the fruit on British estates had become the subject of great rivalry between wealthy aristocrats.[27] John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore built a hothouse on his estate surmounted by a huge stone cupola 14 metres tall in the shape of the fruit; it is known as the Dunmore Pineapple.[28]

John Kidwell is credited with the introduction of the pineapple industry to Hawaii. Large-scale pineapple cultivation by US companies began in the early 1900s on Hawaii. Among the most famous and influential pineapple industrialists was James Dole who moved to Hawaii in 1899[29] and started a pineapple plantation in 1900.[30] The companies Dole and Del Monte began growing pineapple on the island of Oahu in 1901 and 1917, respectively. Dole's pineapple company began with the acquisition of Script error: No such module "convert". of land in 1901, and has grown into a major company. Maui Pineapple Company began pineapple cultivation on the island of Maui in 1909.[31] In 2006, Del Monte announced its withdrawal from pineapple cultivation in Hawaii, leaving only Dole and Maui Pineapple Company in Hawaii as the US's largest growers of pineapples.

In the US, in 1986, the Pineapple Research Institute was dissolved and its assets were divided between Del Monte and Maui Land and Pineapple. Del Monte took cultivar '73–114', which it dubbed 'MD-2', to its plantations in Costa Rica, found it to be well-suited to growing there, and launched it publicly in 1996. (Del Monte also began marketing '73–50', dubbed 'CO-2', as 'Del Monte Gold'). In 1997, Del Monte began marketing its 'Gold Extra Sweet' pineapple, known internally as 'MD-2'. MD-2 is a hybrid that originated in the breeding program of the now-defunct Pineapple Research Institute in Hawaii, which conducted research on behalf of Del Monte, Maui Land and Pineapple Company, and Dole.


Pineapple production – 2009
Country Production
23x15px Brazil 2206
23x15px Philippines 2198
23x15px Thailand 1894
23x15px Costa Rica 1682
Template:Country data Indonesia 1558
Template:Country data India 1341
23x15px China 1042
23x15px Nigeria 1000
23x15px Mexico 749
23x15px Vietnam 500
23x15px Taiwan 434
Source: UN FAOSTAT [32]

In 2009, Brazil produced 2,206,492 tonnes, closely followed by the Philippines, which produced 2,198,497 tonnes, and Thailand, 1,894,862 tonnes. Total world production in 2009 was 19,488,240 tonnes. The primary exporters of fresh pineapples in 2001 were Costa Rica, 322,000 tons; Côte d'Ivoire, 188,000 tons; and the Philippines, 135,000 tons.[32] Since 2000, the most common fresh pineapple fruit found in U.S. and European supermarkets is a low-acid hybrid that was developed in Hawaii in the early 1970s.[citation needed]

In commercial farming, flowering can be induced artificially, and the early harvesting of the main fruit can encourage the development of a second crop of smaller fruits. Once removed during cleaning, the top of the pineapple can be planted in soil and a new plant will grow. Slips and suckers are planted commercially.[2]

An unripe pineapple from Nepal 
A pineapple field in Ghana 
Pineapple field, Hawaii (1958) 
File:Ornamental pine-apple.jpg
Ornamental pineapple

Ethical and environmental concerns

Three-quarters of pineapples sold in Europe are grown in Costa Rica, where pineapple production is highly industrialised. Growers typically use Script error: No such module "convert". of pesticides per hectare in each growing cycle,[33] a process that may affect soil quality and biodiversity. The pesticides – organophosphates, organochlorines and hormone disruptors – have the potential to affect workers' health and can contaminate local drinking water supplies.[33] Many of these chemicals have potential to be carcinogens, and may be related to birth defects.[33]

Because of commercial pressures, many pineapple workers – 60% of whom are Nicaraguan – in Costa Rica are paid low wages.[quantify] European supermarkets' price-reduction policies have lowered growers' incomes.[33] One major pineapple producer contests these claims.[34]


There are many cultivars.[2] The leaves of the commonly grown "smooth cayenne" are smooth[35] and it is the most commonly grown worldwide. Many cultivars have become distributed from its origins in Paraguay and the southern part of Brazil, and later improved stocks were introduced into the Americas, the Azores, Africa, India, Malaysia and Australia.[2] Varieties include:

  • 'Hilo': a compact 1–1.5 kg (2–3 lb) Hawaiian variant of smooth cayenne, the fruit is more cylindrical and produces many suckers, but no slips.
  • 'Kona sugarloaf': 2.5–3 kg (5–6 lb), white flesh with no woodiness in the center, cylindrical in shape, it has a high sugar content but no acid, an unusually sweet fruit.
  • 'Natal queen': 1–1.5 kg (2–3 lb), golden yellow flesh, crisp texture and delicate mild flavor, well-adapted to fresh consumption, keeps well after ripening, spiny leaves, grown in Australia, Malaysia, and South Africa
  • 'Pernambuco' ('eleuthera'): 1–2 kg (2–4 lb) with pale yellow to white flesh, sweet, melting and excellent for eating fresh, poorly adapted for shipping, spiny leaves, grown in Latin America
  • 'Red Spanish': 1–2 kg (2–4 lb), pale yellow flesh with pleasant aroma, squarish in shape, well-adapted for shipping as fresh fruit to distant markets, spiny leaves, grown in Latin America
  • 'Smooth cayenne': 2.5–3 kg (5–6 lb), pale yellow to yellow flesh, cylindrical in shape, high sugar and acid content, well-adapted to canning and processing, leaves without spines. It is an ancient cultivar developed by Amerind peoples.[36] Until recently, this was the variety from Hawaii, and the most easily obtainable in US grocery stores, but has been replaced by 'MD-2'.[36] It is one of the ancestors of cultivars '73–114' (also called 'MD-2') and '73-50' (also called 'MD-1' and 'CO-2').[36]
  • Some Ananas species are grown as ornamentals for color, novel fruit size and other esthetic qualities.

Traditional medicine and preliminary research

Both the root and fruit may be eaten or applied topically as an anti-inflammatory or as a proteolytic agent. In some practices, it may be used to induce abortion or menstruation or as an antihelminthic agent.[37]

Pests and diseases

Pineapples are subject to a variety of diseases, the most serious of which is wilt disease vectored by mealybugs[38] typically found on the surface of pineapples, but possibly in the closed blossom cups.[2] Other diseases include pink disease, bacterial heart rot, anthracnose,[38] fungal heart rot, root rot, black rot, butt rot, fruitlet core rot, and yellow spot virus.[39] Pink disease is characterized by the fruit developing a brownish to black discoloration when heated during the canning process. The causal agents of pink disease are the bacteria Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans, and Pantoea citrea.[40]

Some pests that commonly affect pineapple plants are scales, thrips, mites, mealybugs, ants, and symphylids.[39]

Storage and transport

Some buyers prefer green fruit, others ripened or off-green. A plant growth regulator, Ethephon, is typically sprayed onto the fruit one week before harvest, developing ethylene, which turns the fruit golden yellow. After cleaning and slicing, a pineapple is typically canned in sugar syrup with added preservative.[2]

A pineapple will never become any riper than it was when harvested,[41] though a fully ripe pineapple can bruise and rot quickly.

The fruit itself is quite perishable[2] and if it is stored at room temperature, it should be used within two days; however, if it is refrigerated, the time span extends to five to seven days.[42]

Usage in culture

In the Caribbean, Europe and North America, the pineapple became associated with the return of ships from extended voyages, and an emblem of welcome and hospitality that made its way into contemporary art.[43][44]

In the television show Psych, the writers have included a pineapple in every episode as a running joke, and there's a website dedicated to compiling a list of every pineapple.[45]

In the American cartoon SpongeBob SquarePants, SpongeBob's home is a pineapple under the sea.


See also


  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 25 July 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Morton, Julia F (1987). "Pineapple, Ananas comosus". Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  3. ^ "Pineapple Definition | Definition of Pineapple at". Retrieved 6 December 2009. 
  4. ^ Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Freddy Leal (2003). "Chapter 2: Morphology, Anatomy, and Taxonomy". In D.P Bartholomew, R.E. Paull, and K.G. Rohrbach. The Pineapple: Botany, Production, and Uses. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 0-85199-503-9. 
  5. ^ a b c "How to grow a pineapple in your home". Pineapple Working Group-International Horticultural Society. Retrieved 15 August 2010. 
  6. ^ "Pineapple Growing". Tropical (Birgit Bradtke). Retrieved 15 August 2010. [dead link]
  7. ^ "Pineapple". Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. 
  8. ^ "piña cloth". Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia]. The Free Dictionary. Retrieved on 2014-11-06.
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary entries for pineapple and pine cones, 1971.
  10. ^ History of the Pineapple
  11. ^ Davidson A. (2008) The Penguin Companion to Food. Penguin Books.
  12. ^ Jones, Judy; William Wilson (2006). "Science". An Incomplete Education. Ballantine Books. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-7394-7582-9. 
  13. ^, list of prohibited animals. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2 October 2011.
  14. ^ "The Counter: Custom Built Burgers: Menu" (PDF). The Counter, Culver City, CA. 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "The Menu Charburgers: Habit Burger". The Habit Burger Grill, Irvine, CA. 2014. Archived from the original on 13 February 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Nutrient data for pineapple, raw, all varieties, per 100 g serving"., USDA SR-21. Retrieved 1 March 2012. 
  17. ^ Arshad ZI, Amid A, Yusof F, Jaswir I, Ahmad K, Loke SP (2014). "Bromelain: an overview of industrial application and purification strategies". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98 (17): 7283–97. PMID 24965557. doi:10.1007/s00253-014-5889-y. 
  18. ^ a b "Bromelain". MedlinePlus, US National Institutes of Health. 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  19. ^ Bertoni, "Contributions a l'étude botanique des plantes cultivées. Essai d'une monographie du genre Ananas, Annales Cient. Paraguay (2nd series) 4 (1919:250–322).
  20. ^ K.F. Baker, J.L. Collins, "Notes on the distribution and ecology of Ananas and Pseudananas in South America", American Journal of Botany, 1939; Collins, The pineapple: botany, utilization, cultivation, (London:Leonard Hill) J L. 1960.
  21. ^ McKenzie, Gene (2010). "A Little Bit of History". Journal of the Bromeliad Society 60 (4): 187–189. 
  22. ^ "Fruit of the Islands". Pittsburg Magazine 39 (3): 92. 2008. 
  23. ^ Collingham, Lizzie (2006). "Curry: a Tale of Cooks and Conquerors". New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517241-8
  24. ^ "Oxford Index - Pieter de La Court van der Voort". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  25. ^ Beauman, Francesca (2005) The Pineapple: King of Fruits, Chatto & Windus ISBN 978-0701176990 (p. 82)
  26. ^ Beauman p. 89
  27. ^ a b Beauman p. 87
  28. ^ Stevenson, Jack, Exploring Scotland's Heritage: Glasgow, Clydesdale and Stirling. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1995 (p. 83).
  29. ^ Hawkins, Richard (2007). "James D. Dole and the 1932 Failure of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company". Hawaiian Journal of History 41: 149–170. 
  30. ^ "Pineapple". Retrieved 6 December 2009. 
  31. ^ "Sunrise, Sunset". Hawaii Business 46 (2): 60. 2000. 
  32. ^ a b "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Division of Statistics". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. 
  33. ^ a b c d Felicity Lawrence (2 October 2010). "Bitter Fruit". London: Guardian News and Media Limited. 
  34. ^ Russ Martin (8 October 2010). "Dole Responds to Costa Rican Pineapple Criticism". – Costa Rica. 
  35. ^ Kochhar, S. L. (2006). Economic Botany in the Tropics. Macmillan India. p. 203. ISBN 0-333-93118-1. 
  36. ^ a b c Duane P. Bartholomew (2009). "‘MD-2’ Pineapple Transforms the World’s Pineapple Fresh Fruit Export Industry" (PDF). Pineapple News 16: 2–5. Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  37. ^ Monzon, R. B.; Adebiyi, Adebowale (1995). "Traditional medicine in the treatment of parasitic diseases in the Philippines". Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health 26 (3): 421–428. doi:10.1080/13880200490902608. 
  38. ^ a b "Diseases of Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.)". Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  39. ^ a b Pests and Diseases of Pineapple: Food Market Exchange – B2B e-marketplace for the food industry. Food Market Exchange. Retrieved on 2 October 2011.
  40. ^ Marin-Cevada, Vianey; Caballero-Mellado, Jesãºs; Bustillos-Cristales, Rocão; Muã±Oz-Rojas, Jesãºs; Mascarãºa-Esparza, Miguel A.; Castaã±Eda-Lucio, Miguel; Lã³Pez-Reyes, Lucãa; MartãNez-Aguilar, Lourdes; Fuentes-RamãRez, Luis E. (2010). "Tatumella ptyseos, an Unrevealed Causative Agent of Pink Disease in Pineapple". Journal of Phytopathology 158 (2): 93–99. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0434.2009.01575.x. 
  41. ^ Sheraton, Mimi (21 April 1982). "A guide to choosing a ripe pineapple". The New York Times. 
  42. ^ Sundia True Fruit | Fresh Pineapple Storage, Pineapple Storage Temperature. Retrieved on 2 October 2011.
  43. ^ Symbolism of the Pineapple. Retrieved on 2 October 2011.
  44. ^ "Newport Slavery". Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  45. ^ "Where in the World Is The Psych Pineapple". Retrieved 8 December 2013. 
  46. ^ "Queen Formosa, sweetest pineapple, promoted in Daet". Philippine Information Agency. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 

Further reading

  • Francesca Beauman, 'The Pineapple', ISBN 0-7011-7699-7, publisher Chatto and Windus
  • Menzel, Christopher. "Tropical and Subtropical Fruit." Encyclopedia of Agricultural Science—Volume 4. Charles J. Arntzen. New York, NY: Academic Press, 1994. 380–382.

External links

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