Politics of Slovakia
|This article does not cite any references or sources. (December 2009)|
|President||Andrej Kiska||Independent||15 June 2014|
|Prime Minister||Robert Fico||Direction-Social Democracy||4 April 2012|
The president is the head of state and the formal head of the executive, though with very limited powers. The president is elected by direct, popular vote, under the two round system, for a five-year term.
Following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president. Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister has to receive the majority in the parliament. From July 2006 till July 2010 the coalition consisted of Smer, SNS and HZDS. After the 2010 elections a coalition was formed by the former opposition parties SDK√ö, KDH and Most‚ÄďH√≠d and newcomer SaS.
Slovakia's sole constitutional and legislative body is the 150-seat unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic. Delegates are elected for 4-year terms on the basis of proportional representation.
The National Council considers and approves the Constitution, constitutional statutes and other legal acts. It also approves the state budget. It elects some officials specified by law as well as the candidates for the position of a Justice of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic and the Prosecutor General. Prior to their ratification, the parliament should approve all important international treaties. Moreover, it gives consent for dispatching of military forces outside of Slovakia's territory and for the presence of foreign military forces on the territory of the Slovak Republic.
Political parties and elections
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal, equal, and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Presidential election: The president is elected by direct, popular vote, under the two round system, for a five-year term. Two rounds of the last election were held on March 15 and 29, 2014 (next to be held 2019).
Parliamentary election: Members of the National Council of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: N√°rodn√° rada Slovenskej Republiky), are elected directly for a 4-year term, under the proportional representation system. Like the Netherlands, the country is a single multi-member constituency. Voters may indicate their preferences within the semi-open list. The election threshold is 5%. Last elections were hold on June 12, 2010.
|Direction ‚Äď Social Democracy||1,134,280||44.41||62||83||11px21|
|Christian Democratic Movement||225,361||8.82||15||16||11px1|
|Ordinary People and Independent Personalities||218,537||8.55||0||16||11px16|
|Slovak Democratic and Christian Union ‚Äď Democratic Party||155,744||6.09||28||11||11px17|
|Freedom and Solidarity||150,266||5.88||22||11||11px11|
|Slovak National Party||116,420||4.55||9||0||11px9|
|Party of the Hungarian Coalition||109,483||4.28||0||0||11px0|
|People's Party ‚Äď Movement for a Democratic Slovakia||23,772||0.93||0||0||11px0|
|Total (turnout 59.11%)||2,553,726||100%||150||150||11px0|
|Source: Statistics Bureau of Slovakia|
|Candidates and nominating parties||1st round||2nd round|
|Robert Fico (Smer)||531,919||28.0||893,841||40.61|
|Andrej Kiska (Independent)||455,996||24.0||1,307,065||59.38|
|Radoslav Proch√°zka (Independent)||403,548||21.2|
|Milan KŇąaŇĺko (Independent)||244,401||12.9|
|Gyula B√°rdos (SMK‚ÄďMKP)||97,035||5.1|
|Pavol HruŇ°ovsk√Ĺ (KDH, SDK√ö‚ÄďDS, Most)||63,298||3.3|
|Helena Mezensk√° (Independent)||45,180||2.4|
|J√°n JuriŇ°ta (KSS)||12,209||0.6|
|J√°n ńĆarnogursk√Ĺ (Independent)||12,207||0.6|
|Viliam Fischer (Independent)||9,514||0.5|
|Jozef Beh√Ĺl (Independent)||9,126||0.5|
|Milan Meln√≠k (Independent])||7,678||0.4|
|Jozef Ň†imko (SMS)||4,674||0.2|
|Stanislav Martinńćko (KOS)||2,547||0.1|
|Total (turnout 43.40% / 50.48% )||1,899,332||100.00||2,200,906||100.00|
Other election results:
- -EU parliament, see European Parliament election, 2009 (Slovakia)
- -Regions, see Slovak regional elections, 2005
- -local authorities, see Slovak local authority election, 2002
- -older elections, see Elections in Slovakia
Political parties: The Slovak political scene supports a wide spectrum of political parties including the communists (KSS) and the nationalists (SNS). New parties arise and old parties cease to exist or merge at a frequent rate. Major parties are members of the European political parties. Some parties have regional strongholds, for example SMK is supported mainly by the Hungarian minority living in southern Slovakia. Although the main political cleavage in the 1990s concerned the somewhat authoritarian policy of HZDS, the left-right conflict over economic reforms (principally between Direction - Social Democracy and Slovak Democratic and Christian Union - Democratic Party) has recently become the dominant power in Slovakia's politics.
The country's highest appellate forum is the Supreme Court (NajvyŇ°Ň°√≠ s√ļd), the judges of which are elected by the National Council; below that are regional, district, and military courts. In certain cases the law provides for decisions of tribunals of judges to be attended by lay judges from the citizenry. Slovakia also has the Constitutional Court of Slovakia (√östavn√Ĺ s√ļd Slovenskej Republiky), which rules on constitutional issues. The 13 members of this court are appointed by the president from a slate of candidates nominated by Parliament.
In 2002 Parliament passed legislation which created a Judicial Council. This 18-member council, composed of judges, law professors, and other legal experts, is now responsible for the nomination of judges. All judges except those of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the president from a list proposed by the Judicial Council. The Council also is responsible for appointing Disciplinary Senates in cases of judicial misconduct.
International organization participation
Slovakia is member of ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, European Audiovisual Observatory, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC[clarification needed], ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS[clarification needed] (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UPU, Visegr√°d Group, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO, ZC
Political pressure groups and leaders
- Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Asoci√°cia zamestn√°vateńĺsk√Ĺch zv√§zov a zdruŇĺen√≠) (AZZZ) (President: Rastislav Machunka)
- Association of Employers of Slovakia (AZS)
- Association of Towns and Villages of Slovakia (Slovak: ZdruŇĺenie miest a obc√≠ Slovenska) (ZMOS) (Chairman: Jozef Dvonńć) - pressure group consisting of almost all Slovak towns.
- Confederation of Trade Unions of the Slovak Republic (Slovak: Konfeder√°cia odborov√Ĺch zv√§zov) (KOZ) (President: Miroslav Gazd√≠k)
- Club 500 (Slovak: Klub 500) (Chairman: Vladim√≠r Sot√°k) - union of Slovak companies employing more than 500 employees.
- Metal Workers Unions (Slovak: Odborov√Ĺ zv√§z KOVO) (KOVO) (Chairman: Emil Machyna) - merged with OZ METALURG on 1. January 2010.
- Republic Union of Employers (Slovak: Republikov√° √ļnia zamestn√°vateńĺov) (R√öZ) (President: Mari√°n Jusko)
- Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovak: Slovensk√° akad√©mia vied) (SAV) (Chairman: Jarom√≠r Pastorek) - the highest scientific institution in Slovakia.
- Slovak Merchant and Industrial Chamber (Slovak: Slovensk√° obchodn√° a priemyseln√° komora) (SOPK)
- Union of Slovak Pensioners (Slovak: Jednota d√īchodcov Slovenska) (Chairman: Kamil Vajnorsk√Ĺ)
- Slovensk√° Ňĺivnostensk√° komora (Chairman: Vojtech Gottschall) (SŇĹK) - it was created by Law No. 126/1998 Z. z. from 12. December 1998.
- Slovensk√Ĺ Ňĺivnostensk√Ĺ zv√§z (Chairman: ńĆiŇĺm√°rik Stanislav) (SŇĹZ)
- General Bishop's Office (Slovak: Gener√°lny biskupsk√Ĺ √ļrad) (Director: DuŇ°an Vagask√Ĺ)
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