Journals

Conferences

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Porsche Panamera

Porsche Panamera

Porsche Panamera (970)
File:Porsche Panamera Hybrid 1.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Porsche AG
Production April 2009–present
Model years 2010–present
Assembly Leipzig, Germany
Designer Michael Mauer
Body and chassis
Class Full size luxury car
Body style 4-door fastback,[1][2][3] Gran Turismo[4]
Layout Front engine,
rear-wheel drive or
four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine 3.0 L V6 (Diesel)
3.6 L V6 (Panamera/Panamera 4)
3.0 L V6 (Panamera S Hybrid)
4.8 L V8 (Panamera S/Panamera 4S)
4.8 L V8 (Panamera GTS)
4.8 L V8 (Panamera Turbo)
4.8 L V8 (Panamera Turbo S)
Transmission 6-speed manual
7-speed ZF PDK dual clutch
8-speed Aisin Tiptronic S
Dimensions
Wheelbase Script error: No such module "convert".
Length Script error: No such module "convert".
Width Script error: No such module "convert".
Height Script error: No such module "convert".
Kerb weight Script error: No such module "convert".

The Porsche Panamera (type number 970) is a luxury four-door sedan.[3][5][6] It is front-engined with two-wheel drive, with all-wheel drive versions also available.

The Porsche Panamera production model was unveiled at the 13th Auto Shanghai International Automobile Show in Shanghai, China, on April 2009.[7] In 2011, hybrid and diesel versions were launched. In April 2013, a facelift to the Panamera was announced, launching again at the Auto Shanghai show.[8] A plug-in hybrid version, the Panamera S E-Hybrid, was released in the U.S. market in November 2013.[9]

Concept and description

File:Porsche-Panamera at Porsche-Museum.JPG
Porsche Panamera in front of the new Porsche Museum

The Panamera's name is derived, like the Porsche Carrera line, from the Carrera Panamericana race. The Panamera is generally considered to be the long-awaited fruit of Porsche's 989 concept from the late 1980s.

Like the Porsche Cayenne SUV (which has become the marque's best-selling vehicle), the Panamera upset many Porsche purists, since it was seen as an attempt to broaden Porsche's appeal beyond that of hardcore fans. The Panamera ran contrary to the company's signature offerings, particularly its light two-door rear-engine sports cars like the 911. The Panamera on the other hand is considered a full-size luxury car, weighing nearly Script error: No such module "convert"., with four doors, and its engine mounted in the front. The Panamera's appearance with its long hood and rear hatch bears little resemblance to a stretched 911, although it does resemble the 911 from certain angles.[10] The iconic 911 has a sparse interior, as it was focused on raw performance, while the Panamera has a sumptuous interior loaded with modern technological amenities and expensive leather upholstery.[11][12]

Production

Engines are first assembled in Stuttgart, and the car's body is built and painted at the Volkswagen Group facility in Hannover. The final assembly of the vehicle takes place in Leipzig, Germany, alongside the Cayenne.[13]

Production began in April 2009, one month after its debut in the Shanghai Motor Show in China.[14]

First generation

The V8-powered Panamera S, 4S, and Turbo models were the first versions that debuted in 2009. In addition to the 4.8L Twin Turbo Script error: No such module "convert". V8, Porsche launched two further models in 2010: the Panamera and Panamera 4 which are both powered by 3.6-litre V6 engines producing Script error: No such module "convert"..

Being derived from the V8 engine of the Panamera S and Panamera 4S, the V6 retains the V8's technologies like Direct Fuel Injection, infinitely variable intake camshaft adjustment with variable valve lift (VarioCam Plus), an on-demand oil pump, water cooling with thermal management, a variable intake manifold, as well as integrated dry sump lubrication with two-stage extraction of oil, and an Auto Start-Stop function (only with the PDK transmission).[15] Turbo version uses active aerodynamics with a multi-stage, adjustable rear spoiler.[16] Optional Sports Chrono Packages include a Sport Plus button, which has tighter damping and air springs, and lowers the car body by Script error: No such module "convert"..[17]

In 2011, the Panamera S Hybrid,[18] Diesel,[19] Turbo S[20] and GTS variants were added to the range. The GTS achieves a lateral acceleration of 0.96g.[21]

The Panamera, S, Hybrid and Diesel models are rear-wheel drive, while the Panamera 4, 4S and GTS have the same four-wheel drive system as the Turbo and Turbo S, called Porsche Traction Management (PTM).

Panamera introduced Adaptive air suspension, the Porsche Dynamic Chassis Control (PDCC) active anti-roll bars[22] and the Porsche Active Suspension Management (PASM).

Engines

car model displacement &
configuration
max. motive power @ rpm max. torque @ rpm max. speed emissions CO2
Panamera 3.6 litre V6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,750–4,250 Script error: No such module "convert". 265 g/km (manual)
Panamera 4 3.6 litre V6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,750–4,250 Script error: No such module "convert". 225 g/km
Panamera Diesel 3.0 litre V6 turbodiesel Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,800 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 1,750–2,750 Script error: No such module "convert". 172 g/km
Panamera S 4.8 litre V8 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,500–5,000 Script error: No such module "convert". 293 g/km (manual)
Panamera 4S 4.8 litre V8 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,500–5,000 Script error: No such module "convert". 254 g/km
Panamera GTS 4.8 litre V8 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,500–5,000 Script error: No such module "convert". 256 g/km
Panamera S Hybrid 3.0 litre V6 supercharged Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5,500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,000–5,250 Script error: No such module "convert". 167 g/km
Panamera Turbo 4.8 litre V8 twin turbo Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2,250–4,500 Script error: No such module "convert". 270 g/km
Panamera Turbo S 4.8 litre V8 twin turbo Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2,250–4,500 Script error: No such module "convert". 270 g/km

Transmissions

The new ZF seven-speed PDK dual clutch transmission is standard on the Panamera 4, 4S and Turbo models.[23][24] With the addition of the optional sport chrono package, this provides faster acceleration times. In some markets a six-speed manual is available for rear-wheel drive petrol versions. The S Hybrid and Diesel models have an Aisin-supplied eight-speed automatic transmission called Tiptronic S.

Panamera Turbo S

The Panamera Turbo S is the most powerful mass production Porsche currently on sale. While the 918 Spyder hybrid supercar is more powerful, it doesn't qualify as a mass production model since only 918 units are being built. The Panamera Turbo S engine has bigger turbochargers than the standard Panamera Turbo’s 4.8-litre V8, as well as high-pressure fuel injection, and aluminium-alloy pistons. The piston rings are coated in a low-friction surface to help eke out even more poke. The Panamera Turbo S accelerates to 62 mph in 3.8 seconds with launch control engaged. Roll-on acceleration should be more impressive, changes to the PDK (Porsche Doppelkupplung) gearbox allow for even faster gearshifts, and the alleged 27.7mpg fuel economy is no worse than the less powerful Panamera Turbo.[25]

  • Drag Coefficient: 0.30[26]
  • Script error: No such module "convert".: 3.2 seconds[26]
  • Script error: No such module "convert".: 7.2 seconds [26]
  • 1/4 mile: 11.5 seconds @ Script error: No such module "convert". [26]
  • Braking Script error: No such module "convert". to Script error: No such module "convert".: Script error: No such module "convert". [26]

Panamera S Hybrid

File:2011-03-04 Autosalon Genf 1215.JPG
Porsche Panamera S Hybrid at the Geneva Auto Show 2011

In 2008, Porsche AG announced the development of a parallel hybrid system for the Panamera.[27] and in February 2011, Porsche unveiled the Panamera S Hybrid. Using the same drivetrain seen in the Cayenne S Hybrid—an Audi-sourced[28] supercharged 3.0-litre V6 engine producing Script error: No such module "convert". along with an electric motor rated at Script error: No such module "convert"., as well as the Cayenne's eight-speed Tiptronic S transmission—the Script error: No such module "convert". Panamera S Hybrid can accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 6.0 seconds. The Panamera S Hybrid produces only 193 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer, rendering it the cleanest car in the entire Porsche model range,[29] but still provides a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert"..

Deliveries began in the United States in 2011, and cumulative sales reached 684 units through March 2013.[30][31] The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rated the fuel economy for the 2013/2012 model year Panamera Hybrid at Script error: No such module "convert". for city driving, Script error: No such module "convert". for highway, and Script error: No such module "convert". combined.[32]

Panamera Diesel

The Panamera Diesel was launched in May 2011. The vehicle uses the same Audi 3.0L V6 engine used in the Cayenne Diesel, itself a tuned carryover of an existing engine. The Panamera's engine has a power output of Script error: No such module "convert".. The car is capable of accelerating from 0–100 km/h in 6.8 seconds and has a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert".. It is also the most economical Porsche in the entire vehicle range, consuming just 6.3 liters per 100 kilometers (37 US MPG/45 UK MPG).

Special Editions

In October 2012, Porsche introduced the Panamera Platinum Edition. The exterior of the Panamera Platinum Edition is enveloped in one of five basic colors – black, white, basalt black, carbon gray metallic, and mahogany metallic. It includes more standard equipment, larger wheels, and an exclusive interior leather combination of luxor beige and black. It will be offered with rear and all wheel drive, and has a Script error: No such module "convert". time of under 5.8 seconds or faster on all variants. Exclusive equipment includes the special interior combination, platinum rear overhang, and front lower grille, platinum door sills, and platinum mirrors. The finalizing touch to this special edition includes an exclusive set of 19-inch Panamera Turbo alloy wheels with the red, black, and gold Porsche crest. It will be very limited, with most dealers receiving just one or two examples.

In March 2015, Porsche announced that they were releasing a new special edition Panamera called the "Panamera Edition". The car is based on the 310 horsepower base model cars, The car includes high-gloss black trim strips outline the windows,19-inch Panamera Turbo wheels with colored center caps, the sills are inscribed with the word "Edition," and body-colored door handles are additional add on when the costumer chooses the Porsche Entry & Drive option. The car also includes performance upgrades include active suspension. The Panamera Edition will cost $80,000 USD.

First generation (facelift)

File:Porsche Panamera 2013 Facelift3.JPG
Side view of the Facelifted Porsche Panamera

Porsche announced its updated Panamera on 3 April 2013, with a scheduled formal launch at Auto Shanghai. The revised model can be identified by new front and rear bumpers and some technical changes included the addition of a new 3.0L twin turbocharged Panamera S and a new E-Hybrid model. A long wheelbase version with an additional 150 mm will be available for selected left-hand drive markets, and the Turbo S is scheduled to follow in 2014. The long wheelbase versions are only available on 4S, Turbo, and Turbo S models.[33]

Engines

car model displacement &
configuration
max. motive power @ rpm max. torque @ rpm max. speed emissions CO2
Panamera 3.6 litre (3605cc) V6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,750 Script error: No such module "convert". 196 g/km
Panamera 4 3.6 litre (3605cc) V6 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,200 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,750 Script error: No such module "convert". 203 g/km
Panamera Diesel 3.0 litre (2967 cc) V6 turbodiesel Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,800-4,400 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 1,750–2,750 Script error: No such module "convert". 166 g/km
Panamera S 3.0 litre (2997 cc) V6 twin turbo Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 1,750–5,000 Script error: No such module "convert". 204 g/km
Panamera 4S 3.0 litre (2997 cc) V6 twin turbo Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 1,750–5,000 Script error: No such module "convert". 208 g/km
Panamera S E-Hybrid 3.0 litre (2995cc) V6 supercharged Script error: No such module "convert". @ 5,500 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 1,250–4,000 Script error: No such module "convert". 71 g/km
Panamera GTS 4.8 litre (4806cc) V8 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,700 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 3,500 Script error: No such module "convert". 249 g/km
Panamera Turbo 4.8 litre (4806cc) V8 twin turbo Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2,250–4,500 Script error: No such module "convert". 239 g/km
Panamera Turbo S 4.8 litre (4806cc) V8 twin turbo Script error: No such module "convert". @ 6,000 Script error: No such module "convert". @ 2,250–4,500 Script error: No such module "convert". 239 g/km

Panamera S E-Hybrid

File:IAA 2013 Porsche Panamera S e-hybrid (9834184944).jpg
Retail deliveries of the Panamera S E-Hybrid began in the U.S. in October 2013.

As part of the 2013 Panamera facelift, Porsche announced the introduction of a plug-in hybrid model, the Panamera S E-Hybrid. The plug-in version was unveiled at the April 2013 Shanghai Auto Show.[34][35] The S E-Hybrid is powered by a Script error: No such module "convert". electric motor, with a total system power of Script error: No such module "convert".. Top speed is Script error: No such module "convert". in all-electric mode, and its time from Script error: No such module "convert". is 5.2 seconds. The plug-in electric hybrid will have a 9.4 kWh lithium-ion battery pack capable of delivering a range of more than Script error: No such module "convert". under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) standard. The battery can be fully charged in approximately 2½ hours from a 240V power source. The Panamera plug-in hybrid reduces fuel consumption to Script error: No such module "convert"., down from Script error: No such module "convert". for the current Panamera hybrid, which translates to CO2 emissions of 71 g/km, down from 167g/km for the current hybrid.[34][35]

In November 2013, the UK Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) approved the eligibility of the Panamera S E-Hybrid for the Plug-in Car Grant which entitles customers to a maximum purchase subsidy of £5,000 ( ~ US$8,000). The plug-in hybrid was rated with a fuel economy of Script error: No such module "convert". and CO2 emissions of 71 g/km.[36]

EPA fuel economy ratings
Vehicle Model
year
Operating
mode
(AER)
EPA fuel economy ratings[37] Cost
to drive
25 miles
Annual
Fuel Cost(1)
(15,000 mi)
Combined City Highway
Panamera S E-Hybrid 2014 Electricity
and gasoline
(16 mi)(2)
50 mpg-e
(52 kWh/100 mi)
- - US$3.55 US$1,900
Gasoline only 25 mpg 23 mpg 29 mpg US$3.90
Porsche Panamera S 2014 Gasoline only 21 mpg 17 mpg 27 mpg US$4.64 US$2,800
Porsche Panamera Turbo 2014 Gasoline only 18 mpg 15 mpg 24 mpg US$5.42 US$3,250
Porsche Panamera Turbo S 2014 Gasoline only 18 mpg 15 mpg 24 mpg US$5.42 US$3,250
Notes: (1) Based on 45% highway and 55% city driving. Values rounded to the nearest $50. Electricity cost of US$0.12/kWh, premium gasoline price
of US$3.90 per gallon (as of 4 April 2014). Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kWh. (2) The all-electric range is between 0 to 15 mi[37]
Markets and sales

The Panamera S E-Hybrid was released in the European market during the fourth quarter of 2013. Retail deliveries began in the U.S. in October 2013.[9] As of December 2013, a total of 90 units were delivered in France,[38] 86 units in the United States,[39] 59 units in the Netherlands,[40] 14 in Spain,[41] and about 12 in Germany.[42]

In the American market the 2014 model year price starts at US$99,000 before any applicable government incentives.[43] Since its introduction, 698 Panamera S E-Hybrids have been sold in the United States through August 2014.[44] Global sales between January and August 2014 totaled over 1,500 units, presenting 9% of all Panamera models sold worldwide and 1.3% of all Porsche vehicles sold during this period.[45]

Reception

Despite the differences in dimensions and design, a reviewer noted that the Panamera's driving dynamics were close to that of the 911, and it "seems to occupy the no-man's-land between really good sports sedans and proper sports cars", and so far the Panamera has won every comparison test against other four-door performance cars on the market such as the Maserati Quattroporte and Aston Martin Rapide.[46][47] Function was also praised, with the Script error: No such module "convert". hatchback trunk, and the four-corner adaptive air suspension that retained superior handling while also providing a comfortable ride for public roads. Edmunds stated that the Panamera was an innovative engineering feat that "makes a unique statement about the way that luxury transportation and serious high-performance potential can be mixed together in one car".[11][12]

Unlike most of the V8-engined contemporaries, all models of the Panamera avoid the US Gas Guzzler Tax. The V6-powered Panamera was also praised, as its smaller engine still retained respectable acceleration,[48] and as it had even better handling than its V8 siblings, due to the engine being lighter by Script error: No such module "convert". which gave the car better weight distribution.[49]

However, CAR magazine of the U.K. described the S model as lacking sportiness, which they attributed to their test car's being "about as oriented to comfort as it’s possible to get"[50] and called the Turbo model "a missed opportunity on behalf of Porsche" to be "the world’s first lightweight four seater" as the top model weighs as much as an Audi S8.[51]

The 30 November 2008 edition of BBC's Top Gear featured a look at the Panamera in its news section, with the three presenters being very critical of the look. In the June 2009 edition, Richard Hammond and James May were seen driving the Panamera along the A30 in Devon, Great Britain They were racing against a letter sent via Royal Mail between the Isles of Scilly and the Orkney Islands. Jeremy Clarkson reviewed the Porsche Panamera for an article with The Times newspaper and was quite critical.[52]

Sales

As of 2011, the largest national market was the United States with 6188 sold.[53] Sales by cities: Los Angeles (890), New York (760), Hong Kong (300), Dubai (285), Tokyo (223), Munich (206), Moscow (203), Shanghai (188), Hamburg (117) and Berlin (108).[54] Sales internationally by model variant: Panamera 4S (9394), Turbo (6171), S (4563) and V6 (2390—introduced weeks earlier).[53]

In 2012, U.S. sales of the Panamera totaled 7614 and Canadian sales of the Panamera totaled 422.[55]

Publicity

130px 130px
130px 130px
Porsche Panamera Sport Turismo at the 2012 Paris Motor Show.

On the 20 April 2007, a spy video of the Porsche Panamera became available on the Internet.[56]

In September 2008, Porsche released the first teaser image for the Panamera.[57] In early October 2008, an undisguised Panamera was captured on film in Busan, South Korea.[58]

On 28 November 2008, Porsche sent a mailer containing two photos of the Panamera which were labeled as "the first official images of the Porsche Panamera" with an invitation to have online access to via Porsche USA's website.[59]

On 19 April 2009, Porsche finally unveiled the Porsche Panamera sedan to the public at the 2009 Shanghai Auto Show.[60] One of the highlights of the Panamera's debut was fitting the car in the freight elevator of the Shanghai World Financial Center and sending it to the skyscraper's 94th floor.[61]

An estate version concept of the Panamera was introduced at the 2012 Paris Motor Show called Sport Turismo.[62] Powered by an advancement of Porsche's current hybrid system utilized in the Panamera S Hybrid, the Sport Turismo concept's new "e-Hybrid" system uses the 333-horsepower, supercharged 3.0-litre V6 and a 95-horsepower electric motor for 416 combined horses and a 30-kilometer electric range. As opposed to the current production system, this e-Hybrid setup prioritizes all-electric motivation unless the driver instructs the car otherwise. The Sport Turismo is technically a plug-in hybrid since the lithium-ion battery pack can be fully charged in as little as 2.5 hours when plugged into a wall outlet. Porsche declares that the combined powertrain is proficient for 0-62 mph acceleration in less than six seconds, and that the Sport Turismo can exceed 80 mph while running purely on electric power.[63]


References

  1. ^ "Last Auto News – Porsche Panamera Sedan Launched – Shows A "Liftback" Bodystyle | Auto News - Daily Last Auto News". Lastautonews.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  2. ^ "2010 Porsche Panamera Photo Trunk Open - Consumer Guide Automotive". Consumerguideauto.howstuffworks.com. 2007-07-30. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  3. ^ a b "First Test: 2010 Porsche Panamera S". Motor Trend. Oct 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  4. ^ "All Panamera Models - All Porsche Vehicles - HOME - Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG". Porsche.com. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  5. ^ Porsche ready new Panamera saloon (2009-03-20). "Porsche ready new Panamera saloon - Cars and Motorbikes - Mirror.co.uk". Blogs.mirror.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  6. ^ "First Drives » First Drive: 2010 Porsche Panamera". CanadianDriver. 2009-12-24. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  7. ^ "2010 Porsche Panamera: 20 New Photos". Left Lane. 2008-11-25. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  8. ^ "2013 Porsche Panamera revealed: in pictures". MSN Autos. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Eric Loveday (2013-12-03). "2014 Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid Sales Started In November". Inside EVs. Retrieved 2013-12-03. 
  10. ^ "2010 Porsche Panamera Reviews by Cars.com Experts and Consumers". Cars.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  11. ^ a b "2010 Porsche Panamera Reviews, Prices + Rankings | U.S. News Cars". Usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  12. ^ a b "2010 Porsche Panamera - Test drive and new car review - 2010 Porsche Panamera". Cars.about.com. 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  13. ^ "Future: Porsche Panamera". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  14. ^ Kaufmann, Alex (2008-11-24). "Porsche Panamera official details". Motorauthority.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  15. ^ "New Panamera: World Debut in China". Porsche.com. 2009-01-05. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  16. ^ Paukert, Chris (2009-03-18). "U.S. Porsche Panamera to get start/stop, active aero among other features". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  17. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-03-20). "Porsche Panamera: In-depth tech briefing and first ride". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  18. ^ "Top Gear 16 February 2011". Topgear.com. 2011-02-16. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  19. ^ "Autocar 2 May 2011". Autocar.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  20. ^ Porsche. "Telegraph 30 March 2011". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-28. 
  21. ^ http://www.edmunds.com/car-reviews/track-tests/porsche-panamera-gts-vs-tesla-model-s-track-test.html
  22. ^ http://www.porsche.com/international/models/panamera/panamera-turbo-s/chassis/pdcc-including-ptv-plus/ PDCC including PTV Plus
  23. ^ "Porsche Doppelkupplung (PDK) - Panamera Models". Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG. Porsche.com. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  24. ^ "ZF 7-speed dual clutch transmission". ZF Friedrichshafen AG. ZF.com. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  25. ^ "Porsche Panamera Turbo S (2013) pictures, specs, and price". CAR Magazine site. 
  26. ^ a b c d e "Porsche Panamera Turbo S" (PDF). Car and Driver. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 
  27. ^ Lavrinc, Damon (2008-01-07). "Confirmed! Porsche Panamera to come with hybrid flavor". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  28. ^ Jurnecka, Rory (September 2009). "2011 Porsche Cayenne S Hybrid First Drive and Review". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2013-02-01. 
  29. ^ "Next-Generation Porsche Cayenne Led by Intelligent, Powerful Hybrid". Porsche News. Porsche. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  30. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-01-08). "December 2012 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-04-07.  See the section: December 2012 Hybrid Cars Numbers. A total of 52 Panamera S Hybrids were sold in 2011 and 570 units in 2012.
  31. ^ Jeff Cobb (2013-04-03). "March 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2013-04-07.  See the section: March 2013 Electric Car Sales Numbers. A total of 62 Panamera S Hybrids were sold during the first quarter of 2013
  32. ^ U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. "Fuel Economy - Compare Side-by-Side". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  33. ^ Kew, Ollie (3 April 2013). "Porsche Panamera facelift and S E-hybrid (2013) first pictures". Car. Retrieved 3 April 2013. 
  34. ^ a b Douglas A. Bolduc (2013-04-03). "Porsche's plug-in Panamera to start at 110,400 euros". Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  35. ^ a b PR News Wire (2013-04-03). "Porsche introducing first plug-in hybrid with second generation of the Panamera". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  36. ^ Philippe Crowe (2013-11-28). "Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid Gains OLEV Approval". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-11-29. 
  37. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-04-04). "Compare Side-by-Side - Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid/2014 Porsche Panamera S/2014 Porsche Panamera Turbo/2014 Porsche Panamera Turbo S". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-05. 
  38. ^ Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  39. ^ Jeff Cobb (2014-01-06). "December 2013 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  40. ^ Enrique García (2014-01-02). "Las matriculaciones de híbridos y eléctricos alcanzan ritmos históricos en Holanda" [Electric and hybrid car registrations reached historical records in the Netherlands] (in Spanish). AutoBlog en Español. Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  41. ^ Enrique García (2014-01-17). "Asi fueron las ventas de híbridos y eléctricos en España durante 2013" [So were the sales of hybrids and electrics in Spain in 2013]. Auto Blog en Español (in Spanish). Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  42. ^ Jose Pontes (2014-01-20). "Germany December 2013". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  43. ^ Philippe Crowe (2013-09-05). "Porsche Panamera S E-Hybrid Now Available In The US". HybridCars.com. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  44. ^ Jay Cole (2014-09-03). "August 2014 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales Report Card". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2014-09-04.  U.S. sales totaled 86 units in 2013 and 612 during the first eight months of 2014.
  45. ^ Mike Millikin (2014-09-12). "Porsche has sold more than 1,500 Panamera E-hybrid PHEVs this year; 9% of Panamera sales". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-09-12. 
  46. ^ "Porsche Panamera S vs. BMW 750i, Maserati Quattroporte Sport GT S - Comparison Tests - Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  47. ^ "2010 Aston Martin Rapide vs. 2010 Porsche Panamera Turbo - Comparison Tests - Auto Reviews". Car and Driver. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  48. ^ Neil, Dan (2010-11-13). "2011 Porsche Panamera 4: The Case of Panamera v. Porsche Purists". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  49. ^ "First Drive: 2011 Porsche Panamera (V6) [Review]". Leftlanenews.com. 2010-08-11. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  50. ^ Ben Barry (2009-06-24). "Porsche Panamera S (2009) CAR review". CAR magazine. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  51. ^ Georg Kacher (2009-07-28). "Porsche Panamera Turbo (2009) CAR review". Car magazine. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  52. ^ Clarkson, Jeremy (2009-10-18). "Porsche Panamera 48 V8 Turbo". The Times (London). Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  53. ^ a b Evans, Scott (2010-09-10). "Cold Hard Truth: One Year Later, The Panamera is Porsche’s Sales Leader". Motor Trend. Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  54. ^ "The Panamera is in high demand internationally". Porsche (press release). 2010-09-10. Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  55. ^ "Porsche Panamera Sales Figures - GOOD CAR BAD CAR". goodcarbadcar.net. 
  56. ^ Fallah, Alborz (2007-04-20). "Porsche Panamera Spy Video". Caradvice.com.au. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  57. ^ Panamera at porsche.com
  58. ^ "Porsche Panamera makes Korea move". Ausmotive.com. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  59. ^ "Welcome to the Family | Porsche Panamera". Porscheusa.com. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  60. ^ "Porsche Panamera Debuts In Shanghai – With Videos". Automoblog.net. 
  61. ^ "How to Fit a Porsche Panamera into an Elevator". Left Lane News. 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  62. ^ Kable, Greg (2012-09-26). "Porsche previews new Panamera wagon at Paris show". Autoweek. Retrieved 2012-09-26. 
  63. ^ Jonathon Ramsey. "Porsche Sport Turismo Concept introduces Panamera to pulchritude and plugging in [w/video]". Autoblog. 

External links

Template:Porsche vehicles