Open Access Articles- Top Results for Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F38.8
ICD-9 Controversial. Either 311,[1] 625.4, or none[2]
MedlinePlus 007193
eMedicine article/293257
NCI Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
Patient UK Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome affecting 3–8% of women.[3] It is a diagnosis associated primarily with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, comprising a "cluster of affective, behavioral and somatic symptoms".[3]


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Like PMS, premenstrual dysphoric disorder follows a predictable, cyclic pattern. Symptoms begin in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (after ovulation) and end shortly after menstruation begins.[4] On average, the symptoms last six days, with the most intense symptoms happening in the two days before through the day of the start of menstrual blood flow.[5]

Emotional symptoms are generally present, and in PMDD, mood symptoms are dominant.[4] Substantial disruption to personal relationships is typical for women with PMDD.[4] Anxiety, anger, and depression may also occur. The main symptoms, which can be disabling, include:[medical citation needed]

  • Feelings of sadness or despair, or even thoughts of suicide
  • Feelings of tension or anxiety
  • Panic attacks
  • Mood swings or frequent crying
  • Lasting irritability or anger that affects other people
  • Lack of interest in daily activities and relationships
  • Trouble thinking or focusing
  • Tiredness or low energy
  • Food cravings or binge eating
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Feeling out of control
  • Physical symptoms, such as bloating, breast tenderness, headaches, and joint or muscle pain

The symptoms occur during the week before menstruation, and go away once it starts. A diagnosis of PMDD requires the presence of at least five of these symptoms.[medical citation needed]


A demonstrable hormonal imbalance in women with PMDD has not been identified. It is hypothesized that normal ovarian function produces biochemical events in the nervous system that cause the premenstrual symptoms in women who have a predisposition to the disorder.[4]


PMDD is listed in the DSM-IV, and was originally included as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder LLPDD in the DSM-III.[6] In many parts of the world, PMDD is not recognized as a disease and it is not listed as a separate disorder in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD).[7]

In 2003, the manufacturer of Prozac (fluoxetine) was required by the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products to remove PMDD from the list of indications for fluoxetine sold in Europe.[8] Reflecting the approach of the ICD-10, the committee found that

...PMDD is not a well-established disease entity across Europe... There was considerable concern that women with less severe pre-menstrual symptoms might erroneously receive a diagnosis of PMDD resulting in widespread inappropriate short and long-term use of fluoxetine.[9]

In Australia, although PMDD is recognized by the Therapeutic Goods Administration, SSRIs are not reimbursed for it under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.[10]


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have emerged as first-line therapy.[4] Unlike treatments for other depressive disorders, SSRIs do not need to be taken daily but instead can be taken only in the luteal phase or for the duration of PMDD symptoms.[3] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved four SSRIs for the treatment of PMDD: Fluoxetine (available as generic or as Prozac or Sarafem), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil) and escitalopram oxalate (Lexapro).[medical citation needed]

Hormonal birth control containing drospirenone and low levels of estrogen helps relieve severe PMDD symptoms, for at least the first three months it is used.[11]

There is some evidence that vitamin B6 can alleviate symptoms, but studies are of poor quality.[12]


From three to eight percent of women of reproductive age meet the PMDD criteria.[3]

Bipolar depression, anxiety disorders, and other Axis I disorders are more common in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) than in women without PMDD.[13]


  1. ^ Halbreich U (December 2004). "The diagnosis of premenstrual syndromes and premenstrual dysphoric disorder--clinical procedures and research perspectives". Gynecol. Endocrinol. 19 (6): 320–34. PMID 15724807. doi:10.1080/0951590400018215. 
  2. ^ Endicott J, McLaughlin TP, Grudzinski AN (December 2003). "Comparison of managed care charges among patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for premenstrual dysphoric disorder". J Clin Psychiatry 64 (12): 1511–6. PMID 14728114. doi:10.4088/JCP.v64n1216. 
  3. ^ a b c d Rapkin, AJ; Lewis, EI (November 2013). "Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder". Womens Health (Lond Engl) 9 (6): 537–56. PMID 24161307. doi:10.2217/whe.13.62. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Steiner, M; Pearlstein, T; Cohen, LS (2006). "Expert guidelines for the treatment of severe PMS, PMDD, and comorbidities: the role of SSRIs". J Womens Health (Larchmt) 15 (1): 57–69. PMID 16417420. doi:10.1089/jwh.2006.15.57. 
  5. ^ Biggs WS, Demuth RH (October 2011). "Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder". Am Fam Physician 84 (8): 918–24. PMID 22010771. 
  6. ^ Chrisler JC, Caplan P (2002). "The strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Ms. Hyde: how PMS became a cultural phenomenon and a psychiatric disorder". Annu Rev Sex Res 13: 274–306. PMID 12836734. 
  7. ^ Worcester, Nancy; Whatley, eds, Mariamne H. (2004). Women's health: Readings on social, economic, and political issues. Sage Publications. 
  8. ^ Ray Moynihan (2004-02-14). "Controversial disease dropped from Prozac product information". BMJ 328 (7436): 7436. PMC 341379. PMID 14962861. doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7436.365. 
  9. ^ European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products, Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (2003-06-13). "Summary Information...for Prozac and associated names" (PDF). 
  10. ^ Sertraline (Zoloft), fluoxetine (Lovan, Prozac) for premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) National Prescribing Service Limited. (Australia)
  11. ^ Lopez, LM.; Kaptein, AA.; Helmerhorst, FM. (2012). "Oral contraceptives containing drospirenone for premenstrual syndrome.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD006586. PMID 22336820. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006586.pub4. 
  12. ^ Wyatt, Katrina; Paul Dimmock; Peter Jones; P M Shaughn O'Brien (22 May 1999). "Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review". BMJ 318 (7195): 1375–1381. PMC 27878. PMID 10334745. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7195.1375. 
  13. ^ Kim DR, Gyulai L, Freeman EW, Morrison MF, Baldassano C, Dubé B (February 2004). "Premenstrual dysphoric disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity". Arch Womens Ment Health 7 (1): 37–47. PMID 14963731. doi:10.1007/s00737-003-0027-3. 

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