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India achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, initially as a Dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as the King of India, represented in the country by a Governor-General. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a completely new constitution for the country. The Constitution of India was eventually enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950,:26 making India a republic.:9 The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as the first incumbent.:1
The constitution of Indian republic (Articles 53,79 & 111) made it very responsible authority to defend and protect the constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after president's assent. President shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. He is the foremost, empowered and prompt defender of the constitution (article 60) who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature. The role of judiciary in upholding the constitution of India is the second line of defense only particularly in nullifying the unconstitutional actions of executive and legislative entities of the Indian union.
Powers and duties
The primary duty of the President is to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath (Article 60 of Indian constitution). He is liable for impeachment for violation of the constitution (Article 61). President is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions, recommendations (Article 3, Article 111, etc.) and supervisory powers (Article 78 c, Article 108, Article 111, etc.) on the executive and legislative entities of India shall be in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the President to contest in the court of law.
Legislative power is constitutionally vested in the Parliament of India of which the president is the head to facilitate law making process as per constitution (Article 78, Article 86, etc.). The President summons both the Houses (the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha) of the Parliament and prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha.:147 As per Article 74, President shall abide by the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister provided the given advice is in accordance with the constitution. Article 143 gave power to the president to consult supreme court for constitutional validity of any issue.
The President inaugurates the Parliament by addressing it after the general elections and also at the beginning of the first session each year. Presidential address on these occasions is generally meant to outline the new policies of the government.:145
All bills passed by the Parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the President. After a bill is presented to him, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it. As a third option, he can return a bill to the Parliament, if it is not a money bill or a constitutional amendment bill, for reconsideration. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed and presented to the President, with or without amendments, the President cannot withhold his assent from it. The President can also withhold his assent to a bill when it is initially presented to him (rather than return it to the Parliament) thereby exercising a pocket veto.
When either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, and if government feels the need for immediate procedure, the President can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as laws passed by Parliament. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the Parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under article 123, President as the upholder of the constitution shall get satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the central cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the Parliament needed for the passing of the ordinance in to an act and Parliament can be summoned to deliberate on the passing of the ordinance as soon as possible. The promulgated ordinance is treated an act of Parliament when in force and it is the responsibility of the President to withdraw the ordinance as soon as when the reasons for promulgation of ordinance are no more applicable. Bringing laws in the form of ordinances have become a routine matter by the government and President but the provision made in article 123 are meant for mitigating with unusual circumstances where immediate action is inevitable when the extant constitutional provisions are inadequate. President should take moral responsibility when an ordinance elapses automatically or not approved by the parliament. President is liable for prosecution for his wrong deeds.
The President appoints, as Prime Minister, the person most likely to command the support of the majority in the Lok Sabha (usually the leader of the majority party or coalition). The President then appoints the other members of the Council of Ministers, distributing portfolios to them on the advice of the Prime Minister.:72
The Council of Ministers remains in power during the 'pleasure' of the President.
The President appoints 12 members of the Rajya Sabha from amongst persons who have special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as literature, science, art and social service.
The President is responsible for making a wide variety of appointments. These include::72
All money bills originate in Lok Sabha / House of the people (Article 109). The president shall cause to be laid before Parliament (Article 112), the Annual Budget and supplementary Budget for its approval. No money bill can be introduced in Parliament without his assent. The President appoints a finance commission every five years. Withdrawal from the contingency fund of India is done after the permission of the President.:48
The Contingency Fund of India is at the disposal of the President.
The President appoints the Chief Justice of the Union Judiciary and other judges on the advice of the Chief Justice. He dismisses the judges if and only if the two Houses of the Parliament pass resolutions to that effect by a two-thirds majority of the members present.
According to Article 143 of Indian Constitution, if the President considers a question of law or a matter of public importance has arisen, he can ask for the advisory opinion of the Supreme Court.
All international treaties and agreements are negotiated and concluded on behalf of the President.:18 However, in practice, such negotiations are usually carried out by the Prime Minister along with his Cabinet (especially the Foreign Minister). Also, such treaties are subject to the approval of the Parliament. The President represents India in international forums and affairs where such a function is chiefly ceremonial. The President may also send and receive diplomats, i.e. the officers from the Indian Foreign Service.:143 The President is the first citizen of the country.
The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence forces of India. The President can declare war or conclude peace,  subject to the approval of the parliament and the advice of the Prime Minister ,Council of the Chiefs of Staffs of the Armed Forces, Military Secretary and President's Officer (Deputy Military Secretary). All important treaties and contracts are made in the President's name.
He also appoints the chiefs of the service branches of the armed forces.
As mentioned in Article 72 of Indian Constitution, the President is empowered with the powers to grant pardons in the following situations:
- Punishment is for offence against Union Law
- Punishment is by a Military Court
- Sentence is that of death
The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the President are independent of the opinion of the Prime Minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most cases, however, the President exercises his executive powers on the advice of the Prime Minister and the cabinet:239
The President can declare three types of emergencies:- national, state, financial under articles 352, 356 & 360 in addition to promulgating ordinances under article 123.:12
National emergency can be declared in the whole of India or a part of its territory on causes of war or armed rebellion or an external aggression. Such an emergency was declared in India in 1962 (Indo-China war), 1971 (Indo-Pakistan war), 1975 to 1977 (declared by Indira Gandhi on account of "internal disturbance").[see main]
Under Article 352 of the India Constitution, the President can declare such an emergency only on the basis of a written request by the Cabinet Ministers headed by the Prime Minister. Such a proclamation must be approved by the Parliament within one month. Such an emergency can be imposed for six months. It can be extended by six months by repeated parliamentary approval, there's no maximum duration.
In such an emergency, Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens can be suspended.:33 The six freedoms under Right to Freedom are automatically suspended. However, the Right to Life and Personal Liberty cannot be suspended.(Article 21):20.6
The President can make laws on the 66 subjects of the State List (which contains subjects on which the state governments can make laws). Also, all money bills are referred to the President for its approval.:88 The term of the Lok Sabha can be extended by a period of up to one year, but not so as to extend the term of Parliament beyond six months after the end of the declared emergency.:223
If the President is dissatisfied, on the basis of the report of the Governor of the concerned state or from other sources that the governance in a state cannot be carried out according to the provisions in the Constitution, he can declare a state of emergency in the state. Such an emergency must be approved by the Parliament within a period of 2 months.
Under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, it can be imposed from six months to a maximum period of three years with repeated parliamentary approval every six months. If the emergency needs to be extended for more than three years, this can be achieved by a constitutional amendment, as has happened in Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir.
During such an emergency, the President can take over the entire work of the executive, and the Governor administers the state in the name of the President. The Legislative Assembly can be dissolved or may remain in suspended animation. The Parliament makes laws on the 66 subjects of the state list (see National emergency for explanation).
A State Emergency can be imposed via the following:
- By Article 356Template:Spaced ndashIf that state failed to run constitutionally i.e. constitutional machinery has failed:159
- By Article 365Template:Spaced ndashIf that state is not working according to the given direction of the Union Government.
This type of emergency needs the approval of the parliament within 2 months. It can last up to a maximum of three years via extensions after each 6-month period. However, after one year it can be extended only if
- A state of National Emergency has been declared in the country or in the particular state.
- The Election Commission finds it difficult to organise an election in that state.
There is no provision in the constitution to re-promulgate president rule in a state when the earlier promulgation ceased to operate for want of parliaments approval with in two months duration. During the year 2014 in Andhra Pradesh, president rule was first imposed on 1-3-2014 and it ceased to operate on 30-4-2014. The president rule was promulgated after fully aware that the earliest parliament session is feasible in the end of May, 2014 after the general elections. It is reimposed again unconstitutionally on 28-4-2014 by the president.
Article 282 accords financial autonomy in spending the financial resources available with the states for public purpose.
Under article 360 of the constitution, President can proclaim financial emergency when the financial stability or credit of the nation or of any part of its territory is threatened. However till now, no guide lines defining the situation of financial emergency in the entire country or a state or a union territory or a panchayat or a municipality or a corporation, are framed either by finance commission or by central government.
Such an emergency must be approved by the Parliament within two months by simple majority. It has never been declared.:604 A state of financial emergency remains in force indefinitely until revoked by the President.:195
The President can reduce the salaries of all government officials, including judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, in case of a financial emergency. All money bills passed by the State legislatures are submitted to the President for approval. He can direct the state to observe certain principles (economy measures) relating to financial matters.
Article 58 of the Constitution sets the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the President.
A President must be:
A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.
Certain office-holders, however, are permitted to stand as Presidential candidates. These are:
In the event that the Vice President, a State Governor or a Minister is elected President, they are considered to have vacated their previous office on the date they begin serving as President.
Under The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952, a candidate, to be nominated for the office of president needs 50 electors as proposers and 50 electors as seconders for his name to appear on ballot.
Conditions for Presidency
Certain conditions, as per Article 59 of the Constitution, debar any eligible citizen from contesting the presidential elections.
The conditions are:
- The President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as President.
- The President shall not hold any other office of profit.
- The President shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residences and shall be also entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.
- The emoluments and allowances of the President shall not be diminished during his term of office.:170
Whenever the office becomes vacant, the new President is chosen by an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both houses of Parliament(M.P.), the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha) of all States and the elected members of the legislative assemblies (M.L.A.) of two Union Territories i.e., National Capital Territory(NCT) of Delhi and Union Territory of Puducherry.
The nomination of a candidate for election to the office of the President must be subscribed by at least 50 electors as proposers and 50 electors as seconders. Each candidate has to make a security deposit of ₹15,000 (US$240) in the Reserve Bank of India. The security deposit is liable to be forfeited in case the candidate fails to secure one-sixth of the votes polled.
The election is held in accordance to the system of Proportional representation by means of Single transferable vote method. The Voting takes place by secret ballot system. The manner of election of President is provided by Article 55 of the Constitution.
Each elector casts a different number of votes. The general principle is that the total number of votes cast by Members of Parliament equals the total number of votes cast by State Legislators. Also, legislators from larger states cast more votes than those from smaller states. Finally, the number of legislators in a state matters; if a state has few legislators, then each legislator has more votes; if a state has many legislators, then each legislator has fewer votes.
The actual calculation for votes cast by a particular state is calculated by dividing the state's population by 1000, which is divided again by the number of legislators from the State voting in the electoral college. This number is the number of votes per legislator in a given state.Every elected member of the parliament enjoys same number of votes which may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of legislative assemblies by the total number of elected representatives of the parliament.
Although Indian presidential elections involve actual voting by MPs and MLAs, they tend to vote for the candidate supported by their respective parties.
Elections For The Post
- 1952: Dr. Rajendra Prasad (507,000 electoral votes) defeated K T Shah (92,000), Lakshman Ganesh (Kartar Singh) Thatte, Chowdhry Hari Ram
- 1957: Rajendra Prasad defeated Hari Ram
- 1962: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (553,067 votes) defeated Hari Ram (6,341)
- 1967: Zakir Hussain (471,000) defeated Koka Subbarao (363,000), Hari Ram (zero votes), and 10-11 other inconsequential candidates
- 1969: V V Giri (401,000) defeated Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (313,000) and C D Deshmukh (112,000); second round Giri (420,000) beat Reddy (405,000)
- 1974: Fakruddin Ali Ahmad defetaed Tridib Chaudhuri
- 1977: N Sanjiv Reddy elected unopposed
- 1982: Zail Singh defeated Hans Raj Khanna
- 1987: R Venkarataman beat V R Krishna Iyer
- 1992: Shankar Dayal Sharma bt G G Swell
- 1997: K R Narayanan defeated T N Seshan
- 2002: A P J Abdul Kalam defeated Laxmi Sahgal
- 2007: Pratibha Patil defeated Bhairon Singh Shekhawat
- 2012: Pranab Mukherjee
Oath or affirmation
The President is required to make and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice of India (or in his absence, the senior-most Judge of the Supreme Court), an oath or affirmation that he/she shall protect, preserve and defend the Constitution as follows:
I, (name), do swear in the name of God (or solemnly affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of the Republic of India, and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law, and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of India.
— Article 60, Constitution of India
| Date established
|| Salary in 1998
|| Salary in 2008
| 30 December 2008
|| ₹50,000 (US$790)
|| ₹1.5 lakh (US$2,400)
The President of India used to receive ₹10,000 (US$200) per month as per the Second Schedule of the Constitution. This amount was increased to ₹50,000 (US$800) in 1998. On 11 September 2008 the Government of India increased the salary of the President to ₹1.5 lakh (US$2,400). However, almost everything that the President does or wants to do is taken care of by the annual ₹225 million (US$Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). million) budget that the Government allots for his or her upkeep. Rashtrapati Bhavan, the President's official residence, is the largest Presidential Palace in the world. The Rashtrapati Nilayam at Bolarum, Hyderabad and Retreat Building at Chharabra, Shimla are the official Retreat Residences of the President of India. The official state car of the President is a custom-built heavily armoured Mercedes Benz S600 (W221) Pullman Guard.
- Presidential Amenities
Rashtrapati Bhavan, official residence of the President, located at New Delhi.
Residency House Bolarum.jpg
Rashtrapati Nilayam is the official retreat of the President located in Hyderabad.
Air India 001.jpg
Air India One is the call sign of any aircraft carrying the President. The aircraft are operated as VIP flights by the Indian Air Force.
The President may be removed before the expiry of the term through impeachment. A President can be removed for violation of the Constitution of India.
The process may start in either of the two houses of the Parliament. The house initiates the process by levelling the charges against the President. The charges are contained in a notice that has to be signed by at least one quarter of the total members of that house. The notice is sent up to the President and 14 days later, it is taken up for consideration.
A resolution to impeach the President has to be passed by a special majority (two-third majority of the total number of members of the originating house). It is then sent to the other house. The other house investigates the charges that have been made. During this process, the President has the right to defend oneself through an authorised counsel. If the second house also approves the charges made by special majority again, the President stands impeached and is deemed to have vacated his/her office from the date when such a resolution stands passed. Other than impeachment, no other penalty can be given to the President for the violation of the Constitution.:69
No president has faced impeachment proceedings so the above provisions have never been used.
In the event of a vacancy created for the President's post due to death, resignation, impeachment, etc., Article 65 of the Indian Constitution says that the Vice President of India will have to discharge the duties.:20.10 The Vice President reverts to office when a new President is elected and enters office. When the President is unable to act because of absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice President discharges the President's functions until the President resumes the duties.
A Vice President who acts as or discharges the functions of the President has all the powers and immunities of the President and is entitled to the same emoluments as the President.
The Indian Parliament has enacted the law ( The President (Discharge of Functions) Act, 1969) for the discharge of the functions of the President when vacancies occur in the offices of the President and of the Vice President simultaneously, owing to removal, death, resignation of the incumbent or otherwise. In such an eventuality, the Chief Justice, or in his absence, the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court of India available discharges the functions of the President until a newly elected President enters upon his office or a newly elected Vice President begins to act as President under Article 65 of the Constitution, whichever is the earlier.:96
Important presidential interventions in the past
The President's role as defender of the Constitution and the powers as Head of State, especially in relation to those exercised by the Prime Minister as leader of the government, have changed over time. In particular, Presidents have made a number of interventions into government and lawmaking, which have established and challenged some conventions concerning Presidential intervention.
Proving majority in the parliament
In 1979, the Prime Minister, Charan Singh, did not enjoy a Parliamentary majority. He responded to this by simply not advising the President to summon Parliament. Since then, Presidents have been more diligent in directing incoming Prime Ministers to convene Parliament and prove their majority within reasonable deadlines (2 to 3 weeks). In the interim period, the Prime Ministers are generally restrained from making policy decisions.
Proof of Majority to form a Government
Since the 1990s, Parliamentary elections have generally not resulted in a single party or group of parties having a distinct majority, until the 2014 Lok Sabha elections when BJP received a clear majority. In such cases, Presidents have used their discretion and directed Prime Ministerial aspirants to establish their credentials before being invited to form the government. Typically, the aspirants have been asked to produce letters from various party leaders, with the signatures of all the MPs who are pledging support to their candidature. This is in addition to the requirement that a Prime Minister prove he has the support of the Lok Sabha (by a vote on the floor of the House) within weeks of being sworn into office.
Pocket veto of the Postal Bill
Since the Indian Constitution does not provide any time limit within which the President is to declare his assent or refusal, the President could exercise a "pocket veto" by not taking any action for an indefinite time. The veto was used in 1986 by the then President Zail Singh over the Postal Bill. The President did not give assent to the bill, arguing that its scope was too sweeping and would give the government arbitrary powers to intercept postal communications indiscriminately.
Rashtrapati Bhavan communiqués
In the late 1990s, President K. R. Narayanan introduced explaining to the nation (by means of Rashtrapati Bhavan communiqués), the thinking that led to the various decisions he took while exercising his discretionary powers; this has led to openness and transparency in the functioning of the President.
Offices of Profit Bill
The constitution gives the President the power to return a bill unsigned but it circumscribes the power to send it back only once for reconsideration. If the Parliament sends back the bill with or without changes, the President is obliged to sign it. In mid-2006, President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam sent back a controversial bill regarding the exclusion of certain offices from the scope of 'offices of profit', the holding of which would disqualify a person from being a member of parliament. The combined opposition, the NDA, hailed the move. The UPA chose to send the bill back to the president without any changes and, after 17 days, Kalam gave his assent on 18 August 2006.
List of Presidents of India
Living former Presidents of India
- ↑ "President okays her own salary hike by 300 per cent". The Indian Express. 3 January 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- ↑ Constitution of India (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. 1 December 2007. p. 26. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- ↑ http://www.parliamentofindia.nic.in/ls/intro/p4.htm
- ↑ Larson, Gerald James (1995). India's Agony Over Religion. SUNY Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-7914-2411-7.
- ↑ Singh, Manisha (22 July 2012). "Pranab Mukherjee: The 13th President of India". Zee News. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- ↑ Pradhan, Bibhudatta (19 July 2007). "Patil Poised to Become India's First Female President". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
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- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 "THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA". Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- ↑ Bhatt, Sheela (June 9, 2006). "How Kalam asserted presidential power". Rediff India. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
- ↑ "Invalid Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 (page 8)". Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- ↑ 13.0 13.1 13.2 Gupta, V. P. (26 August 2002). "The President's role". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 Roy Chowdhury, Biswaroop (2006). Memory Unlimited. Diamond Pocket Books. ISBN 978-81-8419-017-5.
- ↑ Bakshi, P.M. (June 1956). "Comparative Law: Separation of Powers in India". ABA Journal (American Bar Association) 42: 554. ISSN 0747-0088.
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 16.6 Kumar, Rajesh (2011). Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India. Universal Law Publishing. ISBN 978-93-5035-011-9.
- ↑ 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 17.4 Pratiyogita Darpan (March 2007). "Pratiyogita Darpan" (9). Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 60. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
- ↑ 18.0 18.1 Bakshi, P. M. (2010). The Constitution Of India. Universal Law Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-7534-840-0.
- ↑ Deogaonkar, S.G. (1997). Parliamentary System in India. Concept Publishing. p. 25. ISBN 978-81-7022-651-2.
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 The Constitution of India: For all Academic and Competitive Examinations. Bright Publications. p. 48. ISBN 978-81-7199-054-2.
- ↑ Woods, Patricia J. (2008). Judicial Power and National Politics: Courts and Gender in the Religious-Secular Conflict in Israel. SUNY Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-7914-7400-6.
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 22.2 Laxmikanth, M (2010). Indian Polity for Civil Services Examinations. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-015316-5.
- ↑ 23.0 23.1 Thorpe, Vandana (2008). The Pearson Guide To Bank Probationary Officer Recruitment Examinations. Pearson Education India. p. 12. ISBN 978-81-317-1568-0.
- ↑ Barrington, Lowell W.; Bosia, Michael J.; Bruhn, Kathleen (2009). Comparative Politics: Structures and Choices. Cengage Learning. p. 267. ISBN 978-0-618-49319-7.
- ↑ Omar, Imtiaz (2002). Emergency Powers and the Courts in India and Pakistan. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 129. ISBN 978-90-411-1775-5.
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 Arora, N.D. (2010). Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 978-0-07-009094-1.
- ↑ History & Civics. Rachna Sagar. p. 14. ISBN 978-81-8137-037-2.
- ↑ New ICSE History and Civics. Frank Brothers. p. 3. ISBN 978-81-8409-587-6.
- ↑ Hardgrave, Robert L.; Kochanek, Stanley A. (2008). India: Government and Politics in a Developing Nation. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-495-00749-4.
- ↑ Srivastava, Meera (1980). Constitutional Crisis in the States in India. Concept Publishing Company. p. 17. GGKEY:0BS5QYU7XF2. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ↑ "Re-proclamation of President rule in Andhra Pradesh" (PDF). 2014. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
- ↑ "Andhra Pradesh mired in President rule imbroglio". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- ↑ "Supreme Court Judgement: Bhim Singh vs U.O.I & Ors on 6 May, 2010". Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- ↑ 34.0 34.1 Sharma, Kanhaiyalal (2002). Reconstitution of Constitution of India. Deep and Deep Publications. ISBN 81-7629-405-5.
- ↑ general studies Indian polity. Upkar Prakashan. p. 106. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- ↑ "The Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act, 1952" (PDF). lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- ↑ "The President and Vice-President Election rules, 1974". Ministry of Law & Justice, Government of India. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ↑ "Election to the president of India" (PDF). Election commission of India. p. 16. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
- ↑ Great Britain. Ministry of Overseas Development. Library; Great Britain. Overseas Development Administration. Library. Public Administration. Upkar Prakashan. pp. 167–. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- ↑ "Balance of power in presidential race". NDTV. 22 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- ↑ Pratiyogita Darpan (October 2007). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 67. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- ↑ "The President(Emoluments And) Pension Act" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. p. 2. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- ↑ "President gets richer, gets 300 pc salary hike". CNN-IBN. 11 September 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2008.
- ↑ Randhawa, Gurcharan Singh; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha (1986). Floriculture in India. Allied Publishers. p. 593. ISBN 978-81-7023-057-1.
- ↑ Randhawa, Mohindar Singh; Randhawa, Gurcharan Singh; Chadha, K. L.; Singh, Daljit; Horticultural Society of India (1971). The Famous gardens of India. Malhotra Publishing House.
- ↑ India Foreign Policy and Government Guide. International Business Publications. 1 May 2001. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7397-8298-9.
- ↑ Article 56 (1) (b) and Article 61 of the Constitution of India.
- ↑ 48.0 48.1 Bhardwaj, A.P. Study Package For CLAT and LL.B Entrance Examinations. McGraw-Hill Education (India). pp. 238–239. ISBN 978-0-07-107468-1.
- ↑ http://22.214.171.124/pres2012/4000rs.pdf
- ↑ Subrahmaniam, Vidya (10 November 2005). "K.R. Narayanan – President who defied stereotype". The Hindu. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- ↑ "President appoints Manmohan Prime Minister". The Hindu. 20 May 2004. Retrieved 15 June 2012.
- ↑ Sundar Rajan, K.T. (4 December 1996). "Presidential Years". Outlook. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- ↑ Bhattacharjya, Satarupa (12 June 2006). "Show Of Dissent". India Today. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
- ↑ Interview with K. R. Narayanan on Independence day, 15 August 1998; by N. Ram, Editor, Frontline ["K. R. Narayanan in conversation with N. Ram", The Hindu, 10 November 2005. Retrieved 24 February 2006].
- ↑ "Kalam returns Office of Profit Bill". CNN-IBN. 31 May 2006. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- ↑ "Signing office of profit bill was toughest decision:A P J Kalam". The Economic Times. PTI. 18 July 2010. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- ↑ "'Kalam erred on Office of Profit bill'". The Times of India. PTI. 22 April 200. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
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