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The Prime Minister of Zimbabwe was a political office in the government of Zimbabwe that existed on two separate occasions. The first person to hold the position was Robert Mugabe from 1980 to 1987 following independence from the United Kingdom. He took office when Rhodesia became the Republic of Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980. This position was abolished when the constitution was amended in 1987 and Mugabe became President of Zimbabwe, replacing Canaan Banana as the head of state whilst also remaining the head of government. The office of Prime Minister was restored in 2009 and held by Morgan Tsvangirai until the position was again abolished by the 2013 Constitution of Zimbabwe.
Zimabawe's prime ministerial office owes its origins to the country's predecessor states. The position began with George Mitchell who became Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia in 1933. All subsequent predecessor-states continued with the post until Abel Muzorewa who became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979. The Lancaster House Agreement brought an independence constitution which made provision for a Prime Minister of Zimbabwe along with a mostly-ceremonial President. The 1980 election resulted in a ZANU–PF victory with Robert Mugabe becoming Prime Minister and Canaan Banana President. Mugabe and Banana were returned to office in the 1985 election. However, in 1987 the government revised the constitution. The presidency and the prime ministerial posts were abolished and replaced with an executive presidency.
The restoration of the office of Prime Minister in 2009 was a result of a power-sharing agreement made in September 2008 between Mugabe's ZANU–PF and rival candidate Morgan Tsvangirai's MDC–T after the 2008 presidential election and later run-off. Mugabe remained president while Tsvangirai was sworn into the office of Prime Minister on 11 February 2009. Executive authority was shared between the president, the prime minister and the cabinet, with ZANU–PF and the MDC–T sharing portfolio ministries. It was the Prime Minister's role to chair the council of ministers and act as the Deputy Chairperson of Cabinet and also oversee the formulation of government policies by the Cabinet. In addition, the prime minister was a member of the National Security Council, chaired by the president and sat alongside the heads of the armed forces, intelligence, prison services and police. According to section 20.1.8 of the Constitution of Zimbabwe (No. 19) Amendment, the Prime Minister, Vice-Presidents and Deputy Prime Ministers became ex officio members of the House of Assembly without needing to represent parliamentary constituencies, and the party of a constituency-based MP who concurrently served in any of the above offices held the right to nominate non-constituency members to such offices. The post of prime minister did not hold the full executive powers it held during the 1980s and the President remained head of the cabinet. In 2012 Tsvangirai claimed that the power-sharing agreement was not being honoured and that he was not being consulted by the President over some appointments. The government held a referendum in March 2013 to approve a new constitution. As a result the post of Prime Minister was abolished from 11 September 2013. Tsvangirai and Mugabe both contested the general election in July 2013 for the single post of President. Mugabe was elected.
List of Prime Ministers of Zimbabwe (1980–2013)
Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU)
Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai (MDC–T)
| Took office
|| Left office
|| Political Party
|| Robert Mugabe
| 18 April 1980
|| 31 December 1987
|Post abolished (31 December 1987 – 11 February 2009)
|| Morgan Tsvangirai
| 11 February 2009
|| 11 September 2013
|Post abolished (11 September 2013 – present)
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