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October 26, 1906|
June 29, 1967 (aged 60)|
|Wins by KO||72|
Primo Carnera (Italian pronunciation: [ˈprimo karˈnɛra]; October 26, 1906 – June 29, 1967), nicknamed the Ambling Alp, was an Italian professional boxer and the World Heavyweight Champion from June 29, 1933, to June 14, 1934.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Biography
- 3 Accusations
- 4 Depictions in popular culture
- 5 Professional boxing record
- 6 Championships and accomplishments
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
On March 13, 1939, Carnera married Giuseppina Cavazzi (1913 - 1980).
In 1953 they became American citizens. They settled in Los Angeles, where Carnera opened a restaurant and a liquor store. They had two children, one of whom became a medical doctor.
Carnera died in 1967 in his native town of a combination of liver disease and complications from diabetes.
Carnera was touted in America as being 6' 7" tall and thus the tallest heavyweight in history (up until that time), but he was actually 6′ 5½″ tall (197 cm). He fought at as much as Script error: No such module "convert".,. Until December 19, 2005, when the 7' 1", 147 kg Nikolay Valuev won the WBA title, Jess Willard who stood 6' 6½" was the tallest champion in boxing history.
At a time when the average height in Italy was approximately Script error: No such module "convert". and in the United States Script error: No such module "convert"., Carnera was considered a giant. Though an inch shorter than Willard, he was around 40 lb heavier and was the heaviest champion before Valuev in boxing history.
He enjoyed a sizable reach advantage over most rivals, and when seen on fight footage, he seems like a towering giant compared to many heavyweights of his era, who were usually at least 60 pounds (27 kg) lighter and 7 inches (18 cm) shorter. One publicity release about him read in part: "For breakfast, Primo has a quart of orange juice, two quarts of milk, nineteen pieces of toast, fourteen eggs, a loaf of bread and half a pound of Virginia ham."  His size earned him the nickname "The Ambling Alp." Time Magazine called him "The Monster".
September 12, 1928 was the date of Carnera's first professional fight, against Leon Sebilo, in Paris. Carnera won by knockout in round two. He won his first six bouts, then lost to Franz Diener by disqualification in round one at Leipzig. Then, he won seven more bouts in a row before meeting Young Stribling. He and Stribling exchanged disqualification wins, Carnera winning the first in four rounds, and Stribling winning the rematch in round seven. In Carnera's next bout he avenged his defeat to Diener with a knockout in round six.
In 1930, he moved to the United States, where he toured extensively, winning his first seventeen bouts there by knockout. George Godfrey broke the streak in Philadelphia by disqualification in the fifth round. Carnera lost a decision to Jim Maloney in Boston to finish 1930.
The year 1933 was one of the most important in Carnera's life. On February 10, he knocked out Ernie Schaaf in thirteen rounds in New York City. Schaaf died four days later. For his next fight, Carnera faced the world heavyweight champion Jack Sharkey. The championship date was June 29, at the Madison Square Garden Bowl in Queens, New York. Carnera became world champion by knocking out Sharkey in round six. The fight came under the eye of fans and sportswriters alike when the uppercut that KO'd Sharkey was believed[by whom?] not to have landed. Rumours of a mob fix were brought up causing some[who?] to maintain Sharkey threw the fight. Sharkey himself would later confess to having taken a dive.
He retained the title against Paulino Uzcudun (who was attempting to become the first Spanish world heavyweight champion) and Tommy Loughran, both by decision in 15 rounds, but in his next fight on June 14, 1934 against Max Baer, Carnera was knocked down 11 times and was defeated in 11 rounds.
After that, Carnera won his next four fights, three of them as part of a South American tour that took him to Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, as well as two exhibitions in the southern American continent. But then, in his next fight of importance, on June 25, 1935, he was knocked out in six rounds by Joe Louis, who would become world heavyweight champion in 1937.
For the next two and a half years, he had a rather ordinary record, winning five and losing three of eight total fights. But in 1938, Carnera, a diabetic, had to have a kidney removed, which forced him into retirement by 1944.
Carnera's record was 89 wins and 14 losses. His 72 wins by knockout made him a member of the exclusive club of boxers that won 50 or more bouts by knockout.
Carnera appeared in a short film in 1931. During his tenure as world champion he played a fictional version of himself in the 1933 film The Prizefighter and the Lady starring Max Baer and Myrna Loy. Here he plays the heavyweight champion who barely holds onto his title with a draw decision after a furious fight with Baer. The film, ironically, was made just the year before Carnera fought Baer for real, in a bout that was as wild as the film version, but ended with a KO loss for Carnera.
Carnera had a non-speaking bit part in the 1949 movie Mighty Joe Young. He played himself in the tug-of-war scene with the giant gorilla. After being pulled by the ape into a pool of water, Carnera throws a couple of futile punches to Joe's chin.
He also played a bully boy wrestler in Carol Reed's film A Kid for Two Farthings (1955) based around London's Petticoat Lane Market where he has a match against a local bodybuilder who is getting married to Diana Dors.
Moreover Primo appeared in at least 10 Italian films between 1939 and 1943, as well as several in the 1950s, like Prince Valiant, in the role of Sligon. His last screen role was as the giant Antaeus alongside Steve Reeves in Hercules Unchained (USA Title, filmed in Italy, 1959, original title Ercole e la regina di Lidia).
In 1945 he returned temporarily to boxing and won two fights. But the next year, after three losses against Luigi Musina his talent for wrestling was discovered. In 1946, he became a professional wrestler and was immediately a huge success at the box office. For several years, he was one of the top draws in wrestling. Carnera continued to be an attraction into the 1960s. Max Baer attended at least one of Carnera's wrestling matches.
Carnera wrestled from 1946 to 1962. He won his debut on August 22, 1946, when he defeated Tommy O'Toole in California. On October 23, 1946, Carnera won his 41st consecutive wrestling match by defeating Jules Strongbow. On November 19, 1946, Carnera beat Harry Kruskamp to remain undefeated at 65-0-0.
Primo Carnera won 120 straight wrestling matches (119-0-1) before suffering his first defeat to Yvon Robert in Montreal, Canada, on August 20, 1947. Carnera's greatest victory took place on December 7, 1947 when he defeated former world heavyweight champion Ed "Strangler" Lewis.
In May 1948, Carnera took a 143-1-1 record against world heavyweight champion Lou Thesz. Thesz defeated Carnera in a world title defense.
Carnera's wrestling career came to an end in October 1962. On October 17, he lost to Jess Ortega in Los Angeles, and on October 25 Carnera lost to The Destroyer. Consequently Carnera retired from professional sports.
According to boxing historian Herbert Goldman, Carnera was "very much mob controlled." Carnera met his first serious heavyweight contender, Young Stribling, in 1929, and won when Stribling fouled him. In a rematch, he fouled Stribling. His 1930 fight against California club fighter Bombo Chevalier in Emeryville was considered fixed, and Carnera was banned from fighting in California. His 1930 match against George Godfrey was controversial, as Godfrey was disqualified in the sixth round when he was clearly getting the better of Carnera.
"Since his arrival in the U. S., backed by a group of prosperous but shady entrepreneurs, Carnera's career has been less glorious than fantastic. His first opponents—Big Boy Peterson, Elzear Rioux, Cowboy Owens—were known to be incompetent but their feeble opposition to Carnera suggested that they had been bribed to lose. Suspicion concerning the Monster's abilities became almost universal when another adversary, Bombo Chevalier, stated that one of his own seconds had threatened to kill him unless he lost to Carnera. Against the huge, lazy, amiable Negro George Godfrey (249 lb.), he won on a foul. But only one of 33 U. S. opponents has defeated Monster Carnera—fat, slovenly Jimmy Maloney, whom Sharkey beat five years ago. In a return fight, at Miami last March, Carnera managed to outpoint Maloney."
Depictions in popular culture
Requiem for a Heavyweight, Rod Serling's 1956 Emmy Award-winning teleplay for Playhouse 90 directed by Ralph Nelson (who also won an Emmy), focused on down-and-out former heavyweight boxer Harlan "Mountain" McClintock. The travails of McClintock, who was played by Jack Palance (Sean Connery played the part on British television and Anthony Quinn essayed the role in the 1962 film), was thought by many boxing fans to resemble Carnera's life.
In his 1933 collection of short stories entitled "Mulliner Nights," P.G. Wodehouse wrote "He was built on large lines, and seemed to fill the room to overflowing. In physique he was not unlike what Primo Carnera would have been if Carnera hadn't stunted his growth by smoking cigarettes when a boy." 
In 1947, fighting aficionado Budd Schulberg wrote his novel, The Harder They Fall, a story about a boxer whose fights are fixed. In 1956 a movie with the same name, and based on the novel, was released by Columbia Pictures. In response, Carnera unsuccessfully sued the movie company.
In 2013, Emporio Elaborazioni Meccaniche named a motorbike, the 1983 BMW R80RT Carnera, in honor of Primo.
The Yeasayer song, "Ambling Alp," from their 2010 album Odd Blood references Carnera by his nickname in the title and second verse. Both Carnera and German boxer Max Schmeling are referenced for their bouts with American Joe Louis.
The googolplex is said to have been defined as a one followed by a very large but very specific number of zeros in order to ensure that Carnera would not be considered a better mathematician that Albert Einstein, Implying that Carnera would defeat Einstein in an endurance contest.
Professional boxing record
|Loss||88–14||23x15px Musina, LuigiLuigi Musina||UD||8||May 12, 1946||Gorizia, Italy|
|Loss||88–13||23x15px Musina, LuigiLuigi Musina||PTS||8||March 19, 1946||Trieste, Italy|
|Loss||88–12||23x15px Musina, LuigiLuigi Musina||TKO||7||November 21, 1945||Milan, Italy|
|Win||88–11||Sam Gardner||KO||1||September 25, 1945||Trieste, Italy|
|Win||87–11||Michel Blevens||KO||3||July 22, 1945||Udine, Italy|
|Win||86–11||23x15px Joseph Zupan||KO||2 (10)||December 4, 1937||Zirkus, Budapest, Hungary|
|Loss||85–11||23x15px Albert di Meglio||PTS||10||November 18, 1937||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Loss||85–10||23x15px Leroy Haynes||TKO||3 (10)||May 27, 1936||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA|
|Loss||85–9||23x15px Leroy Haynes||TKO||3 (10)||March 16, 1936||Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Win||85–8||23x15px Isidoro Gastanaga||TKO||5 (10)||March 6, 1936||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||84–8||23x15px Big Boy Brackey||TKO||4 (10)||1:06||December 9, 1935||Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, USA|
|Win||83–8||23x15px Ford Smith||UD||10||November 25, 1935||Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Win||82–8||23x15px Walter Neusel||TKO||4 (15)||November 1, 1935||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Loss||81–8||23x15px Louis, JoeJoe Louis||TKO||6 (15)||2:32||June 25, 1935||Yankee Stadium, The Bronx, New York, USA|
|Win||81–7||23x15px Erwin Klausner||KO||6 (12)||January 22, 1935||Estádio Manuel Schwartz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil|
|Win||80–7||23x15px Harris, SealSeal Harris||KO||7 (10)||January 13, 1935||Estádio da Floresta, São Paulo, Brazil|
|Win||79–7||23x15px Victorio Campolo||PTS||12||December 1, 1934||Club Atlético Independiente, Buenos Aires, Argentina|
|Loss||78–7||23x15px Max Baer||TKO||11 (15)||2:16||June 14, 1934||Madison Square Garden Bowl, Long Island City, New York, USA||Lost NBA and NYSAC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||78–6||23x15px Loughran, TommyTommy Loughran||UD||15||March 1, 1934||Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, Florida, USA||Retained NBA and NYSAC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||77–6||23x15px Uzcudun, PaulinoPaulino Uzcudun||UD||15||October 22, 1933||Piazza di Siena, Rome, Italy||Won IBU Heavyweight title.|
|Win||76–6||23x15px Sharkey, JackJack Sharkey||KO||6 (15)||2:27||June 29, 1933||Madison Square Garden Bowl, Long Island City, New York, USA||Won NBA and NYSAC World Heavyweight titles.|
|Win||75–6||23x15px Schaaf, ErnieErnie Schaaf||KO||13 (15)||February 10, 1933||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||74–6||23x15px Young Spence||KO||1 (10)||December 30, 1932||Fair Park Arena, Dallas, Texas, USA|
|Win||73–6||23x15px James Merriott||KO||1 (10)||December 20, 1932||City Auditorium, Galveston, Texas, USA|
|Win||72–6||23x15px Joe Rice||KO||2 (10)||December 19, 1932||Fort Worth, Texas, USA|
|Win||71–6||23x15px KO Christner||KO||4 (10)||December 15, 1932||City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, USA|
|Win||70–6||23x15px Big Boy Peterson||TKO||2 (10)||December 13, 1932||Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA|
|Win||69–6||23x15px Levinsky, KingKing Levinsky||PTS||10||December 9, 1932||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Win||68–6||23x15px John Schwake||KO||7 (10)||2:16||December 2, 1932||Coliseum, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Win||67–6||23x15px Jose Santa||TKO||6 (10)||November 18, 1932||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||66–6||23x15px Les Kennedy||KO||3 (10)||November 4, 1932||Arena, Boston, Massachusetts, USA|
|Win||65–6||23x15px Jack Taylor||KO||2 (10)||October 17, 1932||Jefferson County Armory, Louisville, Kentucky, USA|
|Win||64–6||23x15px Gene Stanton||KO||6 (10)||October 13, 1932||114th Infantry Armory, Camden, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||63–6||23x15px Ted Sandwina||KO||4 (10)||October 7, 1932||Benjamin Field Arena, Tampa, Florida, USA|
|Win||62–6||23x15px Art Lasky||NWS||10||September 1, 1932||Auditorium, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA|
|Win||61–6||23x15px Jack Gagnon||KO||1 (10)||1:35||August 19, 1932||Tiverton, Rhode Island, USA|
|Loss||60–6||23x15px Poreda, StanleyStanley Poreda||PTS||10||August 16, 1932||Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||60–5||23x15px Hans Birkie||PTS||10||August 2, 1932||Queensboro Stadium, Long Island City, New York, USA|
|Win||59–5||23x15px Jerry Pavelec||TKO||5 (10)||0:51||July 28, 1932||Playground Arena, West New York, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||58–5||23x15px Jack Gross||TKO||7 (10)||2:50||July 20, 1932||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA|
|Loss||57–5||23x15px Larry Gains||PTS||10||May 30, 1932||White City Stadium, London, England, UK|
|Win||57–4||23x15px Hans Schoenrath||TKO||3 (10)||May 15, 1932||San Siro, Milan, Italy|
|Win||56–4||23x15px Maurice Griselle||TKO||10 (10)||April 29, 1932||Palais des Sports, Paris, France|
|Win||55–4||23x15px Don McCorkindale||PTS||10||April 7, 1932||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||54–4||23x15px George Cook||KO||4 (10)||March 23, 1932||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||53–4||23x15px Pierre Charles||PTS||10||February 29, 1932||Palais des Sports, Paris, France|
|Win||52–4||23x15px Ernst Gühring||TKO||5 (10)||February 5, 1932||Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany|
|Win||51–4||23x15px Moise Bouquillon||TKO||2 (10)||January 25, 1932||Palais des Sports, Paris, France|
|Win||50–4||23x15px Victorio Campolo||KO||2 (15)||1:27||November 27, 1931||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||49–4||23x15px Levinsky, KingKing Levinsky||PTS||10||November 19, 1931||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Loss||48–4||23x15px Sharkey, JackJack Sharkey||UD||15||October 12, 1931||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA||This match was billed as being for the American Heavyweight title.|
|Win||48–3||23x15px Armando de Carolis||KO||2 (10)||1:08||August 6, 1931||Shellpot Park, Brandywine Hundred, Delaware, USA|
|Win||47–3||23x15px Roberto Roberti||TKO||3 (10)||2:25||August 4, 1931||Dreamland Park, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||46–3||23x15px Knute Hansen||KO||1 (10)||2:10||July 24, 1931||Edgerton Park Arena, Rochester, New York, USA|
|Win||45–3||23x15px Bud Gorman||KO||2 (10)||2:35||June 30, 1931||Mutual Street Arena, Toronto, Ontario, Canada|
|Win||44–3||23x15px Umberto Torriani||KO||2 (10)||0:43||June 26, 1931||Broadway Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, USA|
|Win||43–3||23x15px Pat Redmond||KO||1 (10)||2:24||June 15, 1931||Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York, USA|
|Win||42–3||23x15px Jim Maloney||PTS||10||March 5, 1931||Madison Square Garden Stadium, Miami, Florida, USA|
|Win||41–3||23x15px Reggie Meen||TKO||2 (6)||December 18, 1930||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||40–3||23x15px Uzcudun, PaulinoPaulino Uzcudun||SD||10||November 30, 1930||Estadio Montjuïc, Barcelona, Spain|
|Loss||39–3||23x15px Jim Maloney||PTS||10||October 7, 1930||Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, USA|
|Win||39–2||23x15px Jack Gross||KO||4 (10)||September 17, 1930||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Win||38–2||23x15px Pat McCarthy||KO||2 (10)||1:16||September 8, 1930||Velodrome, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||37–2||23x15px Riccardo Bertazzolo||TKO||3 (15)||August 30, 1930||Auditorium, Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||36–2||23x15px George Cook||KO||2 (10)||July 29, 1930||Taylor Bowl, Cleveland, Ohio, USA|
|Win||35–2||23x15px Bearcat Wright||KO||4 (10)||July 17, 1930||Omaha, Nebraska, USA|
|Win||34–2||23x15px George Godfrey||DQ||5 (10)||1:13||June 23, 1930||Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Win||33–2||23x15px KO Christner||KO||4 (10)||1:20||June 5, 1930||Fairgrounds Coliseum, Detroit, Michigan, USA|
|Win||32–2||23x15px Sam Baker||KO||1 (10)||April 22, 1930||Ice Coliseum, Portland, Oregon, USA|
|Win||31–2||23x15px Leon Chevalier||TKO||6 (10)||April 14, 1930||Oaks Park, Emeryville, California, USA|
|Win||30–2||23x15px Neal Clisby||KO||2 (10)||0:40||April 8, 1930||Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, USA|
|Win||29–2||23x15px Jack McAuliffe II||KO||1 (10)||2:18||March 28, 1930||Stockyards Stadium, Denver, Colorado, USA|
|Win||28–2||23x15px George Trafton||KO||1 (10)||0:54||March 26, 1930||Memphis, Tennessee, USA|
|Win||27–2||23x15px Frank Zaveta||KO||1 (10)||1:51||March 20, 1930||Jacksonville, Florida, USA|
|Win||26–2||23x15px Chuck Wiggins||KO||2 (10)||March 17, 1930||Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Win||25–2||23x15px Sully Montgomery||KO||2 (10)||1:15||March 11, 1930||Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA|
|Win||24–2||23x15px Roy Ace Clark||KO||6 (10)||2:38||March 3, 1930||Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Win||23–2||23x15px Farmer Lodge||KO||2 (10)||1:22||February 24, 1930||Heinemann Park, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA|
|Win||22–2||23x15px Johnny Erickson||KO||2 (10)||1:45||February 17, 1930||Coliseum, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA|
|Win||21–2||23x15px Jim Sigman||KO||1 (8)||1:35||February 14, 1930||Memphis, Tennessee, USA|
|Win||20–2||23x15px Buster Martin||KO||2 (10)||0:56||February 11, 1930||Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, USA|
|Win||19–2||23x15px Billy Owens||KO||2 (10)||2:22||February 6, 1930||Armory, Newark, New Jersey, USA|
|Win||18–2||23x15px Elzear Rioux||KO||1 (10)||0:47||January 31, 1930||Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, USA|
|Win||17–2||23x15px Big Boy Peterson||KO||1 (10)||1:10||January 24, 1930||Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, USA|
|Win||16–2||23x15px Franz Diener||TKO||6 (15)||December 17, 1929||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Loss||15–2||23x15px Stribling, YoungYoung Stribling||DQ||7 (10)||December 7, 1929||Vélodrome d'hiver, Paris, France|
|Win||15–1||23x15px Stribling, YoungYoung Stribling||DQ||4 (15)||November 18, 1929||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||14–1||23x15px Jack Stanley||TKO||1 (8)||1:45||October 17, 1929||Royal Albert Hall, London, England, UK|
|Win||13–1||23x15px Hermann Jaspers||KO||3 (10)||September 18, 1929||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Win||12–1||23x15px Feodor Nikolaeff||KO||1||August 30, 1929||Dieppe, Seine-Maritime, France|
|Win||11–1||23x15px Joe Thomas||TKO||4||August 25, 1929||Arènes du Prado, Marseille, France|
|Win||10–1||23x15px José Leté||UD||10||August 14, 1929||Atocha, San Sebastián, Spain|
|Win||9–1||23x15px Jack Humbeeck||TKO||6 (10)||June 26, 1929||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Win||8–1||23x15px Marcel Nilles||TKO||3 (10)||May 30, 1929||Cirque de Paris, Paris, France|
|Win||7–1||23x15px Moise Bouquillon||PTS||10||May 22, 1929||Salle Wagram, Paris, France|
|Loss||6–1||23x15px Franz Diener||DQ||1 (10)||April 28, 1929||Leipzig, Germany|
|Win||6–0||23x15px Ernst Roesemann||TKO||5 (8)||January 18, 1929||Sportpalast, Berlin, Germany|
|Win||5–0||23x15px Constant Barrick||KO||3||December 1, 1928||Vélodrome d'hiver, Paris, France|
|Win||4–0||23x15px Epifanio Islas||UD||10||November 25, 1928||Palazzo Dello Sport, Milan, Italy|
|Win||3–0||23x15px Salvatore Ruggirello||TKO||4 (10)||October 30, 1928||Cirque de Paris, Paris, France|
|Win||2–0||23x15px Joe Thomas||KO||3||September 25, 1928||Cirque de Paris, Paris, France|
|Win||1–0||23x15px Leon Sebilo||TKO||2||September 12, 1928||Salle Wagram, Paris, France||Carnera's professional debut.|
Championships and accomplishments
- International Boxing Union
- IBU Heavyweight Championship (October 22, 1933 – June 21, 1935; vacated)
- National Boxing Association
- NBA World Heavyweight Championship (June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934)
- New York State Athletic Commission
- NYSAC World Heavyweight Championship (June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934)
- NWA Hollywood Wrestling
- NWA San Francisco
- "Primo Carnera - Boxrec Boxing Encyclopaedia". Boxrec.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- better weight
- Steckel, Richard H. "A History of the Standard of Living in the United States". Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- Cinderella Man: James J. Braddock, Max Baer, and the Greatest Upset in ... - Jeremy Schaap - Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- The Strange Case of Carnera, By Jack Sher, Sport, February 1948
- "Primo Carnera". www.wrestlingdata.com. Retrieved 2014-10-03.
- Bodner, Alan (1997). When Boxing Was a Jewish Sport. Praeger Publishers. p. 133. ISBN 978-0275953539.
- Johnston, Chuck. "Famous 'fixes' in boxing history....". BoxRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Primo Carnera vs. George Godfrey". BoxingRec. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Sherrin, Ned (Ed.), The Oxford Dictionary of Humorous Quotations, Oxford University Press, 2012.
- "Primo Carnera". Retrieved 27 October 2014.
Auch als Comicheld hatte Carnera "Karriere" gemacht: Von 1953 bis 1954 erschien im Walter Lehning Verlag, Hannover, mit insgesamt 46 Heften die (ursprünglich aus Italien stammende) Piccolo-Serie "CARNERA"
- "Primo Carnera". Retrieved 27 October 2014.
Die Carnera-Beilage in der "Sprechblase"
- Edward Kasner & James R. Newman (1940) Mathematics and the Imagination, page 23, NY: Simon & Schuster
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Primo Carnera.|
- Carnera: The Walking Mountain at the Internet Movie Database
- Primo Carnera Photos
- Professional boxing record for Primo Carnera from BoxRec
- Primo Carnera at Find a Grave
|World Heavyweight Champion
June 29, 1933 – June 14, 1934
| Succeeded by|
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