's oration Pro Ligario
is the published literary form of his defense of Quintus Ligarius
before Julius Caesar
in 46 BC.
In this speech Cicero defends Ligarius, who is accused of crimes in Africa. Ligarius' accuser is Tubero, who has himself committed crimes in Africa. Cicero attempts to use Tubero's behavior to mitigate the charges Ligarius faces. Cicero also uses captatio benevolentiae, a rhetorical technique which flatters the audience (Caesar, in this case). Pro Ligario differs from Cicero's other speeches in that the refutatio and peroratio are very short.