Open Access Articles- Top Results for Protestantism


Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation,[a] a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.[1] It is one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.[2][3] Anglicanism is sometimes considered to be independent from Protestantism.[b] The term refers to the letter of protestation from Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical.[4]

With its origins in Germany, the modern movement is popularly considered to have begun in 1517 when Luther published The Ninety-Five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.[5] Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church — notably by Peter Waldo, Arnold of Brescia,[6] John Wycliffe, and Jan Hus — only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider, lasting movement.[7]

All the many Protestant denominations reject the notion of papal supremacy over the Church universal and generally deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but they disagree among themselves regarding Christ's presence in the Eucharist.[8] The various denominations generally emphasize the priesthood of all believers, the doctrine of justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by or with good works, and a belief in the Bible alone (rather than with Catholic tradition) as the sole authority in matters of faith and morals (sola scriptura).[9] The "Five solae" summarize the reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day.[10]

Protestantism diffused on the European continent during the 16th century. Lutheranism spread from Germany into its surrounding areas,[c] Denmark,[d] Norway,[e] Sweden,[f] Prussia,[g] Latvia,[h] and Estonia,[i] as well as other smaller territories.[11] Reformed churches were founded primarily in Germany and its adjacent regions,[j] Hungary,[k] the Netherlands,[l] Scotland,[m] Switzerland,[n] and France[o] by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Knox.[12] Arminianism gained supporters in the Netherlands and parts of Germany. In 1534, King Henry VIII put an end to all papal jurisdiction in England[p] after the Pope failed to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon;[13] this opened the door to reformational ideas, notably during the following reign of Edward VI, through Thomas Cranmer, Richard Hooker, and other theologians.[14][15] There were also reformational efforts throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation — a response to perceived corruption in both the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Reformation led by Luther and various other reformers — which gave rise to Anabaptist, Moravian, and other Pietistic movements.[16] In later centuries, Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, and other fields.[17]

Collectively encompassing more than 800 million adherents, or nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide, Protestantism is present on all populated continents.[3][18] The movement is more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either Eastern Orthodoxy or Roman Catholicism,[19] lacking both structural unity and central human authority.[19] Some Protestant churches do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership (notably, the Anglican Communion), while others are confined to a single country, or even are solitary church bodies or congregations (such as the former Prussian Union of churches).[19] Nondenominational, evangelical, independent and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity.[20]

An exact number of Protestant denominations is difficult to calculate and depends on definition.[q] Nevertheless, most Protestants are members of just a handful of denominational families: Adventism, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches,[r] Lutheranism, Methodism, and Pentecostalism.[3]


Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest or dissent against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first to be called Protestants.[23] The edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of the Holy Roman Emperor three years earlier. The etymology of the word protestant is derived from Latin, pro ("for") and testari ("witness") and/or protestatio ("declare").[24]

During the Reformation, the term was hardly used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical (German: evangelisch), which refers to the gospel, was much more widely used for those involved in the religious movement.[25]

Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian faiths, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy.

Initially, the word Protestant became a general term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.

French and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed (French: réformé), regardless of one's affiliation with the Lutheran or the Reformed branch of Protestantism. It later acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church outside the Roman communion, which subscribed to the main Protestant principles.[23]


Fundamental principles

Not to be confused with Fundamentalism
Key figures of the Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther and John Calvin depicted on a church pulpit. These reformers emphasised preaching and made it a centerpiece of worship
The Bible translated into vernacular by Martin Luther. The supreme authority of scripture is a fundamental principle of Protestantism

Three fundamental principles of traditional Protestantism are the following:[26]

Scripture alone
The belief in the Bible as the only source of authority for the church. The early churches of the Reformation believed in a critical, yet serious, reading of scripture and holding the Bible as a source of authority higher than that of church tradition. The many abuses that had occurred in the Western Church prior to the Protestant Reformation led the Reformers to reject much of the Tradition of the Western Church, though some would maintain Tradition has been maintained and reorganized in the liturgy and in the confessions of the Protestant Churches of the Reformation. In the early 20th century there developed a less critical reading of the Bible in the United States that has led to a "fundamentalist" reading of Scripture. Christian Fundamentalists read the Bible as the "inerrant, infallible" Word of God, as do the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches, to name a few, but interpret it in a literalist fashion without using the historical critical method.
Justification by faith alone
The belief that believers are justified, or pardoned for sin, solely on condition of faith in Christ rather than a combination of faith and good works. For Protestants, good works are a necessary consequence rather than cause of justification.[27]
Universal priesthood of believers
The universal priesthood of believers implies the right and duty of the Christian laity not only to read the Bible in the vernacular, but also to take part in the government and all the public affairs of the Church. It is opposed to the hierarchical system which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people.[27]


Protestants who adhere to the Nicene Creed believe in three Persons (God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit) as one God. Others, beginning with the Polish Brethren and sustained by the Unitarians in Transylvania, England and the United States, reject the Trinity.

Five solae

Main article: Five solae

Template:Five solae

The Five solae are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the reformers' basic differences in theological beliefs in opposition to the teaching of the Catholic Church of the day. The Latin word sola means "alone", "only", or "single".

The use of the phrases as summaries of teaching emerged over time during the Reformation, based on the overarching principle of sola scriptura (by scripture alone). This idea contains the four main doctrines on the Bible: that its teaching is needed for salvation (necessity); that all the doctrine necessary for salvation comes from the Bible alone (sufficiency); that everything taught in the Bible is correct (inerrancy); and that, by the Holy Spirit overcoming sin, believers may read and understand truth from the Bible itself, though understanding is difficult, so the means used to guide individual believers to the true teaching is often mutual discussion within the church (clarity).

The necessity and inerrancy were well-established ideas, garnering little criticism, though they later came under debate from outside during the Enlightenment. The most contentious idea at the time though was the notion that anyone could simply pick up the Bible and learn enough to gain salvation. Though the reformers were concerned with ecclesiology (the doctrine of how the church as a body works), they had a different understanding of the process in which truths in scripture were applied to life of believers, compared to the Catholics' idea that certain people within the church, or ideas that were old enough, had a special status in giving understanding of the text.

The second main principle, sola fide (by faith alone), states that faith in Christ is sufficient alone for eternal salvation. Though argued from scripture, and hence logically consequent to sola scriptura, this is the guiding principle of the work of Luther and the later reformers. Because sola scriptura placed the Bible as the only source of teaching, sola fide epitomises the main thrust of the teaching the reformers wanted to get back to, namely the direct, close, personal connection between Christ and the believer, hence the reformers' contention that their work was Christocentric.

The other solas, as statements, emerged later, but the thinking they represent was also part of the early Reformation.

The Protestants characterize the dogma concerning the Pope as Christ's representative head of the Church on earth, the concept of works made meritorious by Christ, and the Catholic idea of a treasury of the merits of Christ and his saints, as a denial that Christ is the only mediator between God and man. Catholics, on the other hand, maintained the traditional understanding of Judaism on these questions, and appealed to the universal consensus of Christian tradition.[28]
Protestants perceived Roman Catholic salvation to be dependent upon the grace of God and the merits of one's own works. The reformers posited that salvation is a gift of God (i.e., God's act of free grace), dispensed by the Holy Spirit owing to the redemptive work of Jesus Christ alone. Consequently, they argued that a sinner is not accepted by God on account of the change wrought in the believer by God's grace, and that the believer is accepted without regard for the merit of his works, for no one deserves salvation.[Matt. 7:21]
All glory is due to God alone since salvation is accomplished solely through his will and action — not only the gift of the all-sufficient atonement of Jesus on the cross but also the gift of faith in that atonement, created in the heart of the believer by the Holy Spirit. The reformers believed that human beings — even saints canonized by the Catholic Church, the popes, and the ecclesiastical hierarchy — are not worthy of the glory.

Christ's presence in the Eucharist

Main article: Eucharistic theology
A Lutheran depiction of the Last Supper, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1547

The Protestant movement began to diverge into several distinct branches in the mid-to-late 16th century. One of the central points of divergence was controversy over the Eucharist. Early Protestants rejected the Roman Catholic dogma of transubstantiation, which teaches that the bread and wine used in the sacrificial rite of the Mass lose their natural substance by being transformed into the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Christ. They disagreed with one another concerning the presence of Christ and his body and blood in Holy Communion.

  • Lutherans hold that within the Lord's Supper the consecrated elements of bread and wine are the true body and blood of Christ "in, with, and under the form" of bread and wine for all those who eat and drink it,[1Cor 10:16] [11:20,27] [29] a doctrine that the Formula of Concord calls the Sacramental union.[30] God earnestly offers to all who receive the sacrament,[Lk 22:19-20][31] forgiveness of sins,[Mt 26:28][32] and eternal salvation.[33]
  • The Reformed churches emphasize the real spiritual presence, or sacramental presence, of Christ, saying that the sacrament is a means of saving grace through which only the elect believer actually partakes of Christ, but merely with the bread and wine rather than in the elements. Calvinists deny the Lutheran assertion that all communicants, both believers and unbelievers, orally receive Christ's body and blood in the elements of the sacrament but instead affirm that Christ is united to the believer through faith — toward which the supper is an outward and visible aid. This is often referred to as dynamic presence.
  • A Protestant holding a popular simplification of the Zwinglian view, without concern for theological intricacies as hinted at above, may see the Lord's Supper merely as a symbol of the shared faith of the participants, a commemoration of the facts of the crucifixion, and a reminder of their standing together as the body of Christ (a view referred to somewhat derisively as memorialism).



In the late 1130s, Arnold of Brescia, an Italian canon regular became one of the first theologians to attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church. After his death, his teachings on apostolic poverty gained currency among Arnoldists, and later more widely among Waldensians and the Spiritual Franciscans, though no written word of his has survived the official condemnation. In the early 1170s, Peter Waldo founded the Waldensians. He advocated an interpretation of the Gospel that led to conflicts with the Roman Catholic Church. By 1215, the Waldensians were declared heretical and subject to persecution. Despite that, the movement continues to exist to this day in Italy, as a part of the wider Reformed tradition.

In the 1370s, John Wycliffe — later dubbed the "Morning Star of Reformation" — started his activity as an English reformer. He rejected papal authority over secular power, translated the Bible into vernacular English, and preached anticlerical and biblically-centred reforms.

Beginning in the early 1400s, Jan Hus — a Roman Catholic priest, Czech reformist and professor — influenced by John Wycliffe's writings, founded the Hussite movement. He strongly advocated his reformist Bohemian religious denomination. He was excommunicated and burned at the stake in Constance, Bishopric of Constance in 1415 by secular authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. After his execution, a revolt erupted. Hussites defeated five continuous crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope.

Later on, theological disputes caused a split within the Hussite movement. Utraquists maintained that both the bread and the wine should be administered to the people during the Eucharist. Another major faction were the Taborites, who opposed the Utraquists in the Battle of Lipany during the Hussite Wars. There were two separate parties among the Hussites: moderate and radical movements. Other smaller regional Hussite branches in Bohemia included Adamites, Orebites, Orphans and Praguers.

The Hussite Wars concluded with the victory of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund, his Catholic allies and moderate Hussites and the defeat of the radical Hussites. After the war, Hussitism was increasingly persecuted by the Catholics.

Starting in 1475, an Italian Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola was calling for a Christian renewal. Later on, Martin Luther himself read some of the friar's writings and praised him as a martyr and forerunner whose ideas on faith and grace anticipated Luther's own doctrine of justification by faith alone.

Some of Hus' followers founded the Unitas Fratrum — "Unity of the Brethren" — which was renewed under the leadership of Count Nicolaus von Zinzendorf in Herrnhut, Saxony in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the Thirty Years' War and the Counter-Reformation. Today, it is usually referred to in English as the Moravian Church and in German as the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeinde.

Reformation proper

Distribution of Protestantism (red) and Catholicism (blue) in Central Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years' War
Approximate spread of Protestantism during the Reformation and after the Counter Reformation in Europe

The Protestant Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church.

On 31 October 1517, Martin Luther supposedly nailed his 95 theses against the selling of indulgences at the door of the All Saints', the Castle Church in Wittenberg. The theses debated and criticised the Church and the papacy, but concentrated upon the selling of indulgences and doctrinal policies about purgatory, particular judgment, and the authority of the pope. He would later in the period 1517–1521 write works on the Catholic devotion to Virgin Mary, the intercession of and devotion to the saints, the sacraments, mandatory clerical celibacy, monasticism, further on the authority of the pope, the ecclesiastical law, censure and excommunication, the role of secular rulers in religious matters, the relationship between Christianity and the law, good works, and the sacraments.[34]

The Reformation was a triumph of literacy and the new printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg.[35][s] Luther's translation of the Bible into German was a decisive moment in the spread of literacy, and stimulated as well the printing and distribution of religious books and pamphlets. From 1517 onward, religious pamphlets flooded Germany and much of Europe.[37][t]

Following the excommunication of Luther and condemnation of the Reformation by the Pope, the work and writings of John Calvin were influential in establishing a loose consensus among various groups in Switzerland, Scotland, Hungary, Germany and elsewhere. After the expulsion of its Bishop in 1526, and the unsuccessful attempts of the Bern reformer William Farel, Calvin was asked to use the organisational skill he had gathered as a student of law to discipline the "fallen city" of Geneva. His Ordinances of 1541 involved a collaboration of Church affairs with the City council and consistory to bring morality to all areas of life. After the establishment of the Geneva academy in 1559, Geneva became the unofficial capital of the Protestant movement, providing refuge for Protestant exiles from all over Europe and educating them as Calvinist missionaries. The faith continued to spread after Calvin's death in 1563 and reached as far as Constantinople by the start of the 17th century.

Protestantism also spread from the German lands into France, where the Protestants were nicknamed Huguenots. Calvin continued to take an interest in the religious affairs of his native land and, from his base in Geneva, beyond the reach of the French kings, regularly trained pastors to lead congregations in France. Despite heavy persecution, the Reformed Tradition made steady progress across large sections of the nation, in the urban bourgeoisie and parts of the aristocracy, appealing to people alienated by the obduracy and the complacency of the Catholic establishment. French Protestantism, though its appeal increased under persecution, came to acquire a distinctly political character, made all the more obvious by the conversions of nobles during the 1550s. This established the preconditions for a series of intermittent conflicts, known as the French Wars of Religion. The civil wars gained impetus with the sudden death of Henry II of France in 1559, which began a prolonged period of weakness for the French crown. Atrocity and outrage became the defining characteristics of the time, illustrated at their most intense in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of August 1572, when the Roman Catholic party annihilated between 30,000 and 100,000 Huguenots across France. The wars only concluded when Henry IV of France, himself a former Huguenot, issued the Edict of Nantes, promising official toleration of the Protestant minority, but under highly restricted conditions. Roman Catholicism remained the official state religion, and the fortunes of French Protestants gradually declined over the next century, culminating in Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau which revoked the Edict of Nantes and made Roman Catholicism the sole legal religion. In response to the Edict of Fontainebleau, Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg declared the Edict of Potsdam, giving free passage to Huguenot refugees, and tax-free status to them for ten years. In the late 17th century many Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, Prussia, Switzerland, and the English and Dutch overseas colonies. A significant community in France remained in the Cévennes region.

Parallel to events in Germany, a movement began in Switzerland under the leadership of Huldrych Zwingli. Zwingli was a scholar and preacher who in 1518 moved to Zurich – the then-leading city-state in Switzerland. Although the two movements agreed on many issues of theology, as the recently introduced printing press spread ideas rapidly, some unresolved differences kept them separate. A long-standing resentment between the German states and the Swiss Confederation led to heated debate over how much Zwingli owed his ideas to Lutheranism. The German Prince Philip of Hesse saw potential in creating an alliance between Zwingli and Luther, seeing strength in a united Protestant front. A meeting was held in his castle in 1529, now known as the Colloquy of Marburg, which has become infamous for its complete failure. The two men could not come to any agreement due to their disputation over one key doctrine.

File:1491 Henry VIII.jpg
Henry VIII of England is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church

The political separation of the Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII, beginning in 1529 and completed in 1536, brought England alongside this broad Reformation movement. Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for centuries, between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing into a tradition considered a middle way (via media) between the Roman Catholic and Protestant traditions. The English Reformation followed a different course from the Reformation in continental Europe. The different character of the English Reformation came primarily from the fact that it was driven initially by the political necessities of Henry VIII. King Henry decided to remove the Church of England from the authority of Rome. In 1534, the Act of Supremacy recognized Henry as the only Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England. Between 1535 and 1540, under Thomas Cromwell, the policy known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries was put into effect. Following a brief Roman Catholic restoration during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots, a loose consensus developed during the reign of Elizabeth I, though this point is one of considerable debate among historians. It is this the Elizabethan Religious Settlement which largely formed Anglicanism into a distinctive church tradition. The compromise was uneasy and was capable of veering between extreme Calvinism on the one hand and Roman Catholicism on the other, but compared to the bloody and chaotic state of affairs in contemporary France, it was relatively successful until the Puritan Revolution or English Civil War in the 17th century.

The success of the Counter-Reformation on the Continent and the growth of a Puritan party dedicated to further Protestant reform polarised the Elizabethan Age, although it was not until the 1640s that England underwent religious strife comparable to what its neighbours had suffered some generations before. The early Puritan movement was a movement for reform in the Church of England. Its origins lay in the discontent with the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. The desire was for the Church of England to resemble more closely the Protestant churches of Europe, especially Geneva. The later Puritan movement, often referred to as dissenters and nonconformists, eventually led to the formation of various Reformed denominations.

The Scottish Reformation of 1560 decisively shaped the Church of Scotland.[39] The Reformation in Scotland's case culminated ecclesiastically in the establishment of a church along Reformed lines, and politically in the triumph of English influence over that of France. John Knox is regarded as the leader of the Scottish Reformation. The Scottish Reformation Parliament of 1560 repudiated the pope's authority by the Papal Jurisdiction Act 1560, forbade the celebration of the Mass and approved a Protestant Confession of Faith. It was made possible by a revolution against French hegemony under the regime of the regent Mary of Guise, who had governed Scotland in the name of her absent daughter Mary, Queen of Scots (then also the Queen of France).

Some of the most important activists of the Protestant Reformation included Jacobus Arminius, Theodore Beza, Martin Bucer, Andreas von Carlstadt, Heinrich Bullinger, Balthasar Hubmaier, Thomas Cranmer, William Farel, Thomas Müntzer, Laurentius Petri, Olaus Petri, Philipp Melanchthon, Menno Simons, Louis de Berquin, Primož Trubar and John Smyth.

In the course of this religious upheaval, the German Peasants' War of 1524–25 swept through the Bavarian, Thuringian and Swabian principalities. After the Eighty Years' War in the Low Countries and the French Wars of Religion, the confessional division of the states of the Holy Roman Empire eventually erupted in the Thirty Years' War between 1618 and 1648. It devastated much of Germany, killing between 25 and 40% of its population.[40] The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War, were:

  • All parties would now recognise the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, by which each prince would have the right to determine the religion of his own state, the options being Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and now Calvinism. (the principle of cuius regio, eius religio)
  • Christians living in principalities where their denomination was not the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in public during allotted hours and in private at their will.

The treaty also effectively ended the papacy's pan-European political power. Pope Innocent X declared the treaty "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all times" in his bull Zelo Domus Dei. European sovereigns, Roman Catholic and Protestant alike, ignored his verdict.[41]


The Great Awakenings were periods of rapid and dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history.

The First Great Awakening was an evangelical and revitalization movement that swept Protestant Europe and British America, especially the American colonies in the 1730s and 1740s, leaving a permanent impact on American Protestantism. It resulted from powerful preaching that gave listeners a sense of deep personal revelation of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ. Pulling away from ritual, ceremony, sacramentalism and hierarchy, the Great Awakening made Christianity intensely personal to the average person by fostering a deep sense of spiritual conviction and redemption, and by encouraging introspection and a commitment to a new standard of personal morality.[42]

1839 Methodist camp meeting during the Second Great Awakening in the United States

The Second Great Awakening began around 1790. It gained momentum by 1800. After 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations, whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the late 1840s. It has been described as a reaction against skepticism, deism, and rationalism, although why those forces became pressing enough at the time to spark revivals is not fully understood.[43] It enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations.

The Third Great Awakening refers to a hypothetical historical period proposed by William G. McLoughlin that was marked by religious activism in American history and spans the late 1850s to the early 20th century.[44] It affected pietistic Protestant denominations and had a strong element of social activism.[45] It gathered strength from the postmillennial belief that the Second Coming of Christ would occur after mankind had reformed the entire earth. It was affiliated with the Social Gospel Movement, which applied Christianity to social issues and gained its force from the Awakening, as did the worldwide missionary movement. New groupings emerged, such as the Holiness, Nazarene, and Christian Science movements.[46]

The Fourth Great Awakening was a Christian religious awakening that some scholars — most notably, Robert Fogel — say took place in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s, while others look at the era following World War II. The terminology is controversial, with many historians believing the religious changes that took place in America during these years were not equivalent to those of the first three great awakenings. Thus, the idea of a Fourth Great Awakening itself has not been generally accepted.[47]

A noteworthy development in 20th-century Protestant Christianity was the rise of the modern Pentecostal movement. Sprung from Methodist and Wesleyan roots, it arose out of meetings at an urban mission on Azusa Street in Los Angeles. From there it spread around the world, carried by those who experienced what they believed to be miraculous moves of God there. These Pentecost-like manifestations have steadily been in evidence throughout the history of Christianity, such as seen in the two Great Awakenings that started in the United States. Pentecostalism, which in turn birthed the Charismatic movement within already established denominations, continues to be an important force in Western Christianity.

In the United States and elsewhere in the world, there has been a marked rise in the evangelical wing of Protestant denominations, especially those that are more exclusively evangelical, and a corresponding decline in the mainstream liberal churches. In the post–World War I era, Liberal Christianity was on the rise, and a considerable number of seminaries held and taught from a liberal perspective as well. In the post–World War II era, the trend began to swing back towards the conservative camp in America's seminaries and church structures.

In Europe, there has been a general move away from religious observance and belief in Christian teachings and a move towards secularism. The secularization of society, attributed to the time of the Enlightenment and its following years, is largely responsible for the spread of secularism. In North America, South America and Australia, the other three continents where Christianity is the dominant professed religion, religious observance is much higher than in Europe. United States remains quite religious in comparison to secularised Europe. South America, historically Catholic, has experienced a large Evangelical and Pentecostal infusion in the 20th century.

Radical Reformation

Main article: Radical Reformation
File:Täuferdisputation 1525.jpg
Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted Swiss Brethren to part ways with Huldrych Zwingli

Unlike mainstream Lutheran, Calvinist and Zwinglian movements, the Radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church visible" as distinct from the "Church invisible". It was a rational extension of the state-approved Protestant dissent, which took the value of independence from constituted authority a step further, arguing the same for the civic realm. The Radical Reformation was non-mainstream.

Protestant ecclesial leaders such as Hubmaier and Hofmann preached the invalidity of infant baptism, advocating baptism as following conversion ("believer's baptism") instead. This was not a doctrine new to the reformers, but was taught by earlier groups, such as the Albigenses in 1147.

In the view of many associated with the Radical Reformation, the Magisterial Reformation had not gone far enough. Radical Reformer, Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt, for example, referred to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the "new papists".[48] Since the term "magister" also means "teacher", the Magisterial Reformation is also characterized by an emphasis on the authority of a teacher. This is made evident in the prominence of Luther, Calvin, and Zwingli as leaders of the reform movements in their respective areas of ministry. Because of their authority, they were often criticized by Radical Reformers as being too much like the Roman Popes. A more political side of the Radical Reformation can be seen in the thought and practice of Hans Hut, although typically Anabaptism has been associated with pacifism.


File:Map of state religions.svg
  Protestantism as state religion

Protestants refer to specific groupings of churches that share in common foundational doctrines and the name of their groups as denominations.[49] Protestants reject the Roman Catholic Church's doctrine that it is the one true church, believing in the "invisible church," which consists of all who profess faith in Jesus Christ.[50] Some Protestant denominations are less accepting of other denominations, and the basic orthodoxy of some is questioned by most of the others. Individual denominations also have formed over very subtle theological differences. Other denominations are simply regional or ethnic expressions of the same beliefs. Because the five solas are the main tenets of the Protestant faith, non-denominational groups and organizations are also considered Protestant.

Various ecumenical movements have attempted cooperation or reorganization of the various divided Protestant denominations, according to various models of union, but divisions continue to outpace unions, as there is no overarching authority to which any of the churches owe allegiance, which can authoritatively define the faith. Most denominations share common beliefs in the major aspects of the Christian faith while differing in many secondary doctrines, although what is major and what is secondary is a matter of idiosyncratic belief.

Protestants can be differentiated according to how they have been influenced by important movements since the Magisterial Reformation, Radical Reformation and the Puritan Reformation. Some of these movements have a common lineage, sometimes directly spawning individual denominations within denominational families. These are only the largest denominational families (due to the earlier stated multitude of denominations) in alphabetical order: Adventist, Anglican, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Pentecostal, Reformed.

Several countries have established their national churches, linking the ecclesiastical structure with the state. Jurisdictions where a Protestant denomination has been established as a state religion include several Nordic countries; Denmark (including Greenland),[51] the Faroe Islands (its church being independent since 2007),[52] Iceland[53] and Norway[54][55][56] have established Evangelical Lutheran churches. Tuvalu has the only established church in Reformed tradition in the world.[57] The Church of England is the officially established religious institution in England,[58][59][60] and also the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

In 1869, Finland was the first Nordic country to disestablish its Evangelical Lutheran church by introducing the Church Act.[u] Although the church still maintains a special relationship with the state, it is not described as a state religion in the Finnish Constitution or other laws passed by the Finnish Parliament.[61] In 2000, Sweden was the second Nordic country to do so.[62]

Historical chart

Spread and demographics

Protestant majority countries
Countries by percentage of Protestants

There are more than 800 million Protestants worldwide,[3][18][19][63][64][65][66][v] among approximately 2.4 billion Christians.[68][69][70][71][w] These include 300 million in Sub-Saharan Africa, 260 million in the Americas, 140 million in Asia-Pacific region, 100 million in Europe and 2 million in Middle East-North Africa.[3] Protestants account for nearly forty percent of Christians worldwide and more than one tenth of the total human population.[3] Various estimates put the percentage of Protestants in relation to the total number of world's Christians at 33%,[63] 36%,[72] 36.7%,[3] and 40%,[19] while in relation to the world's population at 11.6%[3] and 13%.[66]

In European countries which were most profoundly influenced by the Reformation, Protestantism still remains the most practiced religion.[63] These include the Nordic countries and the United Kingdom.[63][73] In other historical Protestant strongholds such as Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Latvia, Estonia and Hungary, it remains one of the most popular religions.[74] Although Czech Republic was the site of one of the most significant pre-reformation movements,[75] there are only few Protestant adherents;[76][77] mainly due to historical reasons like persecution of Protestants by the Catholic Habsburgs,[78] restrictions during the Communist rule, and also the ongoing secularization.[75] Over the last several decades, religious practice has been declining as secularization has increased.[63][79] According to a 2012 study about Religiosity in the European Union in 2012 by Eurobarometer, Protestants made up 12% of the EU population.[80] According to Pew Research Center, Protestants constituted nearly one fifth (or 17.8%) of the continent's Christian population in 2010.[3] Clarke and Beyer estimate that Protestants constituted 15% of all Europeans in 2009, while Noll claims that less than 12% of them lived in Europe in 2010.[63][65]

Changes in worldwide Protestantism over the last century have been significant.[19][65][81] Since 1900, Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Latin America.[26][66][81] That caused Protestantism to be called a primarily non-Western religion.[65][81] Much of the growth has occurred after World War II, when decolonization of Africa and abolition of various restrictions against Protestants in Latin American countries occurred.[66] According to one source, Protestants constituted respectively 2.5%, 2%, 0.5% of Latin Americans, Africans and Asians.[66] In 2000, percentage of Protestants on mentioned continents was 17%, more than 27% and 5.5%, respectively.[66] According to Mark A. Noll, 79% of Anglicans lived in the United Kingdom in 1910, while most of the remainder was found in the United States and across the British Commonwealth.[65] By 2010, 59% of Anglicans were found in Africa.[65] In 2010, more Protestants lived in India than in the United Kingdom or Germany, while Protestants in Brazil accounted for as many people as Protestants in the United Kingdom and Germany combined.[65] Almost as many lived in each of Nigeria and China as in all of Europe.[65] China is home to world's largest Protestant minority.[3][x]

Protestantism is growing in Africa,[26][82][83] Asia,[26][83][84] Latin America,[83][85] and Oceania,[26][81] while remaining stable or declining in Anglo America[81] and Europe,[63][86] with some exceptions such as France,[87] where it was eradicated after the abolition of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau and the following persecution of Huguenots, but now is claimed to be stable in number or even growing slightly.[87] According to some, Russia is another country to see a Protestant revival.[88][89][90]

In 2010, the largest Protestant denominational families were historically Pentecostal denominations (10.8%), Anglican (10.6%), Lutheran (9.7%), Baptist (9%), United and uniting churches (unions of different denominations) (7.2%), Presbyterian or Reformed (7%), Methodist (3.4%), Adventist (2.7%), Congregationalist (0.5%), Brethren (0.5%), The Salvation Army (0.3%) and Moravian (0.1%). Other denominations accounted for 38.2% of Protestants.[3]

United States is home to approximately 20% of Protestants.[3] According to a 2012 study, Protestant share of U.S. population dropped to 48%, thus ending its status as religion of the majority for the first time.[91][92][93] The decline is attributed mainly to the dropping membership of the Mainline Protestant churches,[91][94] while Evangelical Protestant and Black churches are stable or continue to grow.[91]

By 2050, Protestantism is projected to rise to a proportion of around half of the world's total Christian population.[95][y] According to other experts such as Hans J. Hillerbrand, Protestants will be as numerous as Catholics.[96]

Catholic and Eastern Orthodox responses

Passional Christi und Antichristi, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, from Luther's 1521 Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist. The Pope as the Antichrist, signing and selling indulgences
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of French Protestants, 1572

The view of the Roman Catholic Church is that Protestant denominations cannot be considered churches but rather that they are ecclesial communities or specific faith-believing communities because their ordinances and doctrines are not historically the same as the Catholic sacraments and dogmas, and the Protestant communities have no sacramental ministerial priesthood and therefore lack true apostolic succession.[97][98] According to Bishop Hilarion (Alfeyev) the Eastern Orthodox Church shares the same view on the subject.[99]

Contrary to how the Protestant Reformers were often characterized, the concept of a catholic or universal Church was not brushed aside during the Protestant Reformation. On the contrary, the visible unity of the catholic or universal church was seen by the Protestant reformers as an important and essential doctrine of the Reformation. The Magisterial reformers, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, believed that they were reforming the Roman Catholic Church, which they viewed as having become corrupted. Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the Roman Catholic Church that had left them.[100] In order to justify their departure from the Roman Catholic Church, Protestants often posited a new argument, saying that there was no real visible Church with divine authority, only a spiritual, invisible, and hidden church — this notion began in the early days of the Protestant Reformation.

Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national Protestant church envisioned to be a part of the whole invisible church, but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the Papacy and central authority of the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformed churches thus believed in some form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible ecclesiastical organization based on the 14th and 15th century Conciliar movement, rejecting the papacy and papal infallibility in favor of ecumenical councils, but rejecting the latest ecumenical council, the Council of Trent. Religious unity therefore became not one of doctrine and identity but one of invisible character, wherein the unity was one of faith in Jesus Christ, not common identity, doctrine, belief, and collaborative action.

Today there is a growing movement of Protestants, especially of the Reformed tradition, that either reject or down-play the designation Protestant because of the negative idea that the word invokes in addition to its primary meaning, preferring the designation Reformed, Evangelical or even Reformed Catholic expressive of what they call a Reformed Catholicity and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant confessions.[101]



Main article: Anglicanism
St Columb's Cathedral is the first Anglican cathedral to be built after the Reformation in the British Isles and the first non-Roman Catholic cathedral to be built in Western Europe

The original separation of the Church of England (then including Wales) and the Church of Ireland from Rome under King Henry VIII was largely political and its religious dimension smaller than some historians have assumed.[102] Apart from the introduction of the vernacular "Great Bible" in 1539 and a few minor changes, official stances on Christian faith and practice remained virtually unchanged until Henry's death.[103] A "programme of coherent Protestant reform" was implemented after his death by the Privy Council, its chief component being Cranmer's two Books of Common Prayer of 1549 and 1552.[103] This reform was reversed by Mary I (1553-8) but restored in a slightly more conservative shape by Elizabeth I in 1559, who resisted all attempts to move the Church of England towards a more extreme form of Protestantism.[103]

In the 19th century some of the Tractarians argued that the Church of England and the other Anglican churches were not Protestant but a "reformed Catholic" or middle path (via media) between Rome and Protestantism. This assertion was attacked by, among others, the Church Association.[104] Today, the Anglican Communion continues to be composed of theologically diverse traditions, from reformed Sydney Anglicanism to Anglo-Catholicism, but the general understanding of its position is now that it contains both "Catholic" and "Protestant" elements of doctrine and practice.[105]

Pietism and Methodism

Main articles: Pietism and Methodism

The German Pietist movement, together with the influence of the Puritan Reformation in England in the 17th century, were important influences upon John Wesley and Methodism, as well as new groups such as the Religious Society of Friends ("Quakers") and the Moravian Brethren from Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany.

The practice of a spiritual life, typically combined with social engagement, predominates in classical Pietism, which was a protest against the doctrine-centered "Protestant orthodoxy" of the times, in favor of depth of religious experience. Many of the more conservative Methodists went on to form the Holiness movement, which emphasized a rigorous experience of holiness in practical, daily life.


Main article: Evangelicalism
File:Gateway Church 114 Campus.jpg
An event at Gateway Church's 114 Southlake Campus

Beginning at the end of the 18th century, several international revivals of Pietism (such as the Great Awakening and the Second Great Awakening) took place across denominational lines, largely in the English-speaking world. Their teachings and successor groupings are referred to generally as the Evangelical movement. The chief emphases of this movement were individual conversion, personal piety and Bible study, public morality often including temperance and abolitionism, de-emphasis of formalism in worship and in doctrine, a broadened role for laity in worship, evangelism and teaching, and cooperation in evangelism across denominational lines. Some of the major figures in this movement include Billy Graham, Harold John Ockenga, John Stott, and Martyn Lloyd-Jones.

During the 20th century evangelicals reacted to perceived excesses of Christian fundamentalism, adding to concern for biblical authority, an emphasis on liberal arts, cooperation among churches, Christian apologetics, and non-denominational evangelization.


Main article: Adventism

Adventism is a Christian movement which began in the 19th century, in the context of the Second Great Awakening in the United States. The name refers to belief in the imminent Second Coming (or "Second Advent") of Jesus Christ. It was started by Baptist minister William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. Today, the largest church within the movement is the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

The Adventist family of churches is regarded today as conservative.[106] Although these churches hold much in common, their theology differs on whether the intermediate state is unconscious sleep or consciousness, whether the ultimate punishment of the wicked is annihilation or eternal torment, the nature of immortality, whether or not the wicked are resurrected after the millennium, and whether the sanctuary of Daniel 8 refers to the one in heaven or one on earth.[106] The movement has encouraged examination of the New Testament, leading it to observe the Sabbath.

Modernism and Liberalism

Main article: Liberal Christianity

Modernism and liberalism do not constitute rigorous and well-defined schools of theology, but are rather an inclination by some writers and teachers to integrate Christian thought into the spirit of the Age of Enlightenment. New understandings of history and the natural sciences of the day led directly to new approaches to theology.


Main article: Pentecostalism
A modern Protestant worship band leading a contemporary worship session

Pentecostalism, as a movement, began in the United States early in the 20th century, starting especially within the Holiness movement. Seeking a return to the operation of New Testament gifts of the Holy Spirit, speaking in tongues as evidence of the "baptism of the Holy Ghost" or to make the unbeliever believe became the leading feature. Divine healing and miracles were also emphasized. Pentecostalism swept through much of the Holiness movement, and eventually spawned hundreds of new denominations in the United States. A later "charismatic" movement also stressed the gifts of the Spirit, but often operated within existing denominations, rather than by coming out of them.


In reaction to liberal Bible critique, fundamentalism arose in the 20th century, primarily in the United States, among those denominations most affected by Evangelicalism. Fundamentalist theology tends to stress Biblical inerrancy and Biblical literalism.

Toward the end of the 20th century, some have tended to confuse evangelicalism and fundamentalism, however the labels represent very distinct differences of approach that both groups are diligent to maintain, although because of fundamentalism's dramatically smaller size it often gets classified simply as an ultra-conservative branch of evangelicalism.

Neo-orthodoxy and Paleo-orthodoxy

Main articles: Neo-orthodoxy and Paleo-orthodoxy

A non-fundamentalist rejection of liberal Christianity, associated primarily with Karl Barth and Jürgen Moltmann, neo-orthodoxy sought to counter-act the tendency of liberal theology to make theological accommodations to modern scientific perspectives. Sometimes called "Crisis theology", according to the influence of philosophical existentialism on some important segments of the movement; also, somewhat confusingly, sometimes called neo-evangelicalism.

Paleo-orthodoxy is a movement similar in some respects to neo-evangelicalism but emphasizing the ancient Christian consensus of the undivided church of the first millennium AD, including in particular the early creeds and church councils as a means of properly understanding the scriptures. This movement is cross-denominational and the most notable exponent in the movement is United Methodist theologian Thomas Oden.

Protestant culture

Main article: Protestant culture

Although the Reformation was a religious movement, it also had a strong impact on all other aspects of life: marriage and family, education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy, and the arts.[17] Protestant churches reject the idea of a celibate priesthood and thus allow their clergy to marry.[26] Many of their families contributed to the development of intellectual elites in their countries.[107] Since about 1950, women have entered the ministry, and some have assumed leading positions (e.g. bishops), in most Protestant churches.

As the reformers wanted all members of the church to be able to read the Bible, education on all levels got a strong boost. For example, the Puritans who established Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1628 founded Harvard College only eight years later. About a dozen other colleges followed in the 18th century, including Yale (1701). Pennsylvania also became a centre of learning.[108][109]

Members of mainline Protestant denominations have played leadership roles in many aspects of American life, including politics, business, science, the arts, and education. They founded most of the country's leading institutes of higher education.[110]

Thought and work ethic

The Protestant concept of God and man allows believers to use all their God-given faculties, including the power of reason. That means that they are allowed to explore God's creation and, according to Genesis 2:15, make use of it in a responsible and sustainable way. Thus a cultural climate was created that greatly enhanced the development of the humanities and the sciences.[111] Another consequence of the Protestant understanding of man is that the believers, in gratitude for their election and redemption in Christ, are to follow God's commandments. Industry, frugality, calling, discipline, and a strong sense of responsibility are at the heart of their moral code.[112][113] In particular, Calvin rejected luxury. Therefore craftsmen, industrialists, and other businessmen were able to reinvest the greater part of their profits in the most efficient machinery and the most modern production methods that were based on progress in the sciences and technology. As a result, productivity grew, which led to increased profits and enabled employers to pay higher wages. In this way, the economy, the sciences, and technology reinforced each other. The chance to participate in the economic success of technological inventions was a strong incentive to both inventors and investors.[114][115][116][117] The Protestant work ethic was an important force behind the unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced the development of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution. This idea is also known as the "Protestant ethic thesis."[118]

In a factor analysis of the latest wave of World Values Survey data, Arno Tausch (Corvinus University of Budapest) found that Protestantism emerges to be very close to combining religion and the traditions of liberalism. The Global Value Development Index, calculated by Tausch, relies on the World Values Survey dimensions such as trust in the state of law, no support for shadow economy, postmaterial activism, support for democracy, a non-acceptance of violence, xenophobia and racism, trust in transnational capital and Universities, confidence in the market economy, supporting gender justice, and engaging in environmental activism, etc. [119]

Episcopalians and Presbyterians tend to be considerably wealthier[120] and better educated (having graduate and post-graduate degrees per capita) than most other religious groups in Americans,[121] and are disproportionately represented in the upper reaches of American business,[122] law and politics, especially the Republican Party.[123] Numbers of the most wealthy and affluent American families as the Vanderbilts and Astors, Rockefeller, Du Pont, Roosevelt, Forbes, Whitneys, the Morgans and Harrimans are Mainline Protestant families.[120]


Protestantism has had an important influence on science. According to the Merton Thesis, there was a positive correlation between the rise of English Puritanism and German Pietism on the one hand and early experimental science on the other.[124] The Merton Thesis has two separate parts: Firstly, it presents a theory that science changes due to an accumulation of observations and improvement in experimental technique and methodology; secondly, it puts forward the argument that the popularity of science in 17th-century England and the religious demography of the Royal Society (English scientists of that time were predominantly Puritans or other Protestants) can be explained by a correlation between Protestantism and the scientific values.[125] Merton focused on English Puritanism and German Pietism as having been responsible for the development of the scientific revolution of the 17th and 18th centuries. He explained that the connection between religious affiliation and interest in science was the result of a significant synergy between the ascetic Protestant values and those of modern science.[126] Protestant values encouraged scientific research by allowing science to identify God's influence on the world - his creation - and thus providing a religious justification for scientific research.[124]


In the Middle Ages, the Church and the worldly authorities were closely related. Martin Luther separated the religious and the worldly realms in principle (doctrine of the two kingdoms).[127] The believers were obliged to use reason to govern the worldly sphere in an orderly and peaceful way. Luther's doctrine of the priesthood of all believers upgraded the role of laymen in the church considerably. The members of a congregation had the right to elect a minister and, if necessary, to vote for his dismissal (Treatise On the right and authority of a Christian assembly or congregation to judge all doctrines and to call, install and dismiss teachers, as testified in Scripture; 1523).[128] Calvin strengthened this basically democratic approach by including elected laymen (church elders, presbyters) in his representative church government.[129] The Huguenots added regional synods and a national synod, whose members were elected by the congregations, to Calvin's system of church self-government. This system was taken over by the other reformed churches.[130]

Politically, Calvin favoured a mixture of aristocracy and democracy. He appreciated the advantages of democracy: "It is an invaluable gift, if God allows a people to freely elect its own authorities and overlords."[131] Calvin also thought that earthly rulers lose their divine right and must be put down when they rise up against God. To further protect the rights of ordinary people, Calvin suggested separating political powers in a system of checks and balances (separation of powers). Thus he and his followers resisted political absolutism and paved the way for the rise of modern democracy.[132] Besides England, the Netherlands were, under Calvinist leadership, the freest country in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It granted asylum to philosophers like Baruch Spinoza and Pierre Bayle. Hugo Grotius was able to teach his natural-law theory and a relatively liberal interpretation of the Bible.[133]

Consistent with Calvin's political ideas, Protestants created both the English and the American democracies. In seventeenth-century England, the most important persons and events in this process were the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, John Milton, John Locke, the Glorious Revolution, the English Bill of Rights, and the Act of Settlement.[134] Later, the British took their democratic ideals to their colonies, e.g. Australia, New Zealand, and India. In North America, Plymouth Colony (Pilgrim Fathers; 1620) and Massachusetts Bay Colony (1628) practised democratic self-rule and separation of powers.[135][136][137][138] These Congregationalists were convinced that the democratic form of government was the will of God.[139] The Mayflower Compact was a social contract.[140][141]

Rights and liberty

Set of pictures for a number of famous Protestants from various fields
The Protestant and Enlightenment philosopher John Locke argued for individual conscience, free from state control

Protestants also took the initiative in creating religious freedom, the starting-point of human rights. Freedom of conscience had had high priority on the theological, philosophical, and political agendas since Luther refused to recant his beliefs before the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire at Worms (1521). In his view, faith was a free work of the Holy Spirit and could therefore not be forced on a person.[142] The persecuted Anabaptists and Huguenots demanded freedom of conscience, and they practised separation of church and state.[143] In the early seventeenth century, Baptists like John Smyth and Thomas Helwys published tracts in defence of religious freedom.[144] Their thinking influenced John Milton and John Locke's stance on tolerance.[145][146] Under the leadership of Baptist Roger Williams, Congregationalist Thomas Hooker, and Quaker William Penn, respectively, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania combined democratic constitutions with freedom of religion. These colonies became safe havens for persecuted religious minorities, including Jews.[147][148][149] The United States Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the American Bill of Rights with its fundamental human rights made this tradition permanent by giving it a legal and political framework.[150] The great majority of American Protestants, both clergy and laity, strongly supported the independence movement. All major Protestant churches were represented in the First and Second Continental Congresses.[151] In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the American democracy became a model for numerous other countries and regions throughout the world (e.g., Latin America, Japan, and Germany). The strongest link between the American and French Revolutions was Marquis de Lafayette, an ardent supporter of the American constitutional principles. The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen was mainly based on Lafayette's draft of this document.[152] The United Nations Declaration and Universal Declaration of Human Rights also echo the American constitutional tradition.[153][154][155]

Democracy, social-contract theory, separation of powers, religious freedom, separation of church and state – these achievements of the Reformation and early Protestantism were elaborated on and popularized by Enlightenment thinkers. The philosophers of the English, Scottish, German, and Swiss Enlightenment - Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, John Toland, David Hume, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Christian Wolff, Immanuel Kant, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau - had a Protestant background.[156] For example, John Locke, whose political thought was based on "a set of Protestant Christian assumptions",[157] derived the equality of all humans, including the equality of the genders ("Adam and Eve"), from Genesis 1, 26-28. As all persons were created equally free, all governments needed the consent of the governed.[158] These Lockean ideas were fundamental to the United States Declaration of Independence, which also deduced human rights from the biblical belief in creation: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness." These rights were theonomous ideas (theonomy).[159]

Also, other human rights were initiated by Protestants. For example, torture was abolished in Prussia in 1740, slavery in Britain in 1834 and in the United States in 1865 (William Wilberforce, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Abraham Lincoln).[160][161] Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf were among the first thinkers who made significant contributions to international law.[162][163] The Geneva Convention, an important part of humanitarian international law, was largely the work of Henry Dunant, a reformed pietist. He also founded the Red Cross.[164]

Social teaching

Protestants have founded hospitals, homes for disabled or elderly people, educational institutions, organizations that give aid to developing countries, and other social welfare agencies.[165][166][167] In the nineteenth century, throughout the Anglo-American world, numerous dedicated members of all Protestant denominations were active in social reform movements such as the abolition of slavery, prison reforms, and woman suffrage.[168][169][170] As an answer to the "social question" of the nineteenth century, Germany under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck introduced insurance programs that led the way to the welfare state (health insurance, accident insurance, disability insurance, old-age pensions). To Bismarck this was "practical Christianity".[171][172] These programs, too, were copied by many other nations, particularly in the Western world.


The arts have been strongly inspired by Protestant beliefs. Martin Luther, Paul Gerhardt, George Wither, Isaac Watts, Charles Wesley, William Cowper, and many other authors and composers created well-known church hymns. Musicians like Heinrich Schütz, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Henry Purcell, Johannes Brahms, and Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy composed great works of music. Prominent painters with Protestant background were, for example, Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Lucas Cranach, Rembrandt, and Vincent van Gogh. World literature was enriched by the works of Edmund Spenser, John Milton, John Bunyan, John Donne, John Dryden, Daniel Defoe, William Wordsworth, Jonathan Swift, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Edgar Allan Poe, Matthew Arnold, Conrad Ferdinand Meyer, Theodor Fontane, Washington Irving, Robert Browning, Emily Dickinson, Emily Brontë, Charles Dickens, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Thomas Stearns Eliot, John Galsworthy, Thomas Mann, William Faulkner, John Updike, and many others.


Main article: Christian ecumenism
File:The 1910 World Missionary Conference,the Edinburgh Missionary Conference.jpg
The Edinburgh Missionary Conference is considered the symbolic starting point of the contemporary ecumenical movement.[173]

The ecumenical movement has had an influence on mainline churches, beginning at least in 1910 with the Edinburgh Missionary Conference. Its origins lay in the recognition of the need for cooperation on the mission field in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Since 1948, the World Council of Churches has been influential, but ineffective in creating a united church. There are also ecumenical bodies at regional, national and local levels across the globe; but schisms still far outnumber unifications. One, but not the only expression of the ecumenical movement, has been the move to form united churches, such as the Church of South India, the Church of North India, the US-based United Church of Christ, the United Church of Canada, the Uniting Church in Australia and the United Church of Christ in the Philippines which have rapidly declining memberships. There has been a strong engagement of Orthodox churches in the ecumenical movement, though the reaction of individual Orthodox theologians has ranged from tentative approval of the aim of Christian unity to outright condemnation of the perceived effect of watering down Orthodox doctrine.[174]

A Protestant baptism is held to be valid by the Catholic Church if given with the trinitarian formula and with the intent to baptize. However, as the ordination of Protestant ministers is not recognized due to the lack of apostolic succession and the disunity from Catholic Church, all other sacraments (except marriage) performed by Protestant denominations and ministers are not recognized as valid. Therefore, Protestants desiring full communion with the Catholic Church are not re-baptized (although they are confirmed) and Protestant ministers who become Catholics may be ordained to the priesthood after a period of study.

In 1999, the representatives of Lutheran World Federation and Catholic Church signed the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, apparently resolving the conflict over the nature of justification which was at the root of the Protestant Reformation, although Confessional Lutherans reject this statement.[175] This is understandable, since there is no compelling authority within them. On July 18, 2006, delegates to the World Methodist Conference voted unanimously to adopt the Joint Declaration.[176][177]

See also


  1. ^ Some movements such as the Hussites or the Lollards are also considered Protestant today, although their origins date back to years before the launch of the Reformation. Others, such as the Waldensians, were later incorporated into another branch of Protestantism; in this case, the Reformed branch.
  2. ^ Further information: English Reformation. In this article, Anglicanism is considered a branch of Protestantism. While today the Church of England often considers itself to be a via media between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, until the rise of the Oxford Movement in the 1830s the Church considered itself to be Protestant. (Neill, Stephen. Anglicanism Pelican 1960, pp.170; 259-60)
  3. ^ At the time Germany and the surrounding region was fragmented into numerous states of the Holy Roman Empire. Areas which turned Protestant were primarily located in northern, central, and eastern areas of the Reich.
  4. ^ Denmark–Norway at the time.
  5. ^ Denmark–Norway at the time.
  6. ^ Further details: Kingdom of Sweden during Reformation.
  7. ^ Duchy of Prussia at the time. This area covers present-day Russian Kaliningrad Oblast, parts of Poland and Lithuania.
  8. ^ Duchy of Courland and Livonia at the time.
  9. ^ Livonia at the time.
  10. ^ Several states of the Holy Roman Empire adopted Calvinism, including the County Palatine of the Rhine.
  11. ^ Kingdom of Hungary at the time.
  12. ^ Habsburg Netherlands at the time.
  13. ^ Kingdom of Scotland at the time
  14. ^ Old Swiss Confederacy at the time.
  15. ^ Kingdom of France at the time.
  16. ^ Kingdom of England at the time.
  17. ^ It has to be noted that a group that fits the generally accepted definition of Protestant might not officially use the term.
  18. ^ This branch was first called Calvinism by Lutherans who opposed it, but many find the word Reformed to be more descriptive.[21][22] It includes Presbyterianism, Congregationalism, many of United and uniting churches, as well as historic Reformed churches in France, Switzerland, Germany, and Hungary.
  19. ^ In the end, while the Reformation emphasis on Protestants reading the Scriptures was one factor in the development of literacy, the impact of printing itself, the wider availability of printed works at a cheaper price, and the increasing focus on education and learning as key factors in obtaining a lucrative post, were also significant contributory factors.[36]
  20. ^ In the first decade of the Reformation, Luther's message became a movement, and the output of religious pamphlets in Germany was at its height.[38]
  21. ^ Finland's State Church was the Church of Sweden until 1809. As an autonomous Grand Duchy under Russia 1809–1917, Finland retained the Lutheran State Church system, and a state church separate from Sweden, later named the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, was established. It was detached from the state as a separate judicial entity when the new church law came to force in 1869. After Finland had gained independence in 1917, religious freedom was declared in the constitution of 1919 and a separate law on religious freedom in 1922. Through this arrangement, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland lost its position as a state church but gained a constitutional status as a national church alongside with the Finnish Orthodox Church, whose position however is not codified in the constitution.
  22. ^ Estimates vary considerably, from 400 up to more than a billion. One of the reasons is the lack of a common agreement among scholars which denominations constitute Protestantism. Nevertheless, 800 million is the most accepted figure among various authors and scholars, and thus is used in this article. For example, author Hans Hillerbrand estimated a total 2004 Protestant population of 833,457,000.[67]
  23. ^ Current sources are in general agreement that Christians make up about 33% of the world's population—slightly over 2.4 billion adherents in mid-2015.
  24. ^ Estimates for China vary in dozens of millions. Nevertheless, in comparison to the other countries, there is no disagreement that China has the most numerous Protestant minority.
  25. ^ Protestant, Independent and Anglican parties are understood as Protestant as stated previously in the article.


  1. ^ Oxford Dictionary
  2. ^ "Divisions of womens weave Christianity". North Virginia College. Retrieved 2007-12-31. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Pewforum: Christianity (2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  4. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1974) art. "Speyer (Spires), Diets of"
  5. ^ Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania 1517 - 1740, p.15
  6. ^ Williston Walker: History of the Christian Church
  7. ^ James Watson: Religious Thoughts
  8. ^ Protestants: A History from Wittenberg to Pennsylvania 1517 - 1740, p.32 and p.50
  9. ^ Mothering the Fatherland: A Protestant Sisterhood Repents for the Holocaust by George Faithful, p.159
  10. ^ Philip Voerding: The Trouble with Christianity: A Concise Outline of Christian History
  11. ^ Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism by Günther Gassmann, Duane H. Larson and Mark W. Oldenburg, p.9
  12. ^ Calvinism by Abraham Kuyper
  13. ^ William P. Haugaard "The History of Anglicanism I" in The Study of Anglicanism Stephen Sykes and John Booty (eds) (SPCK 1987) pp.6-7
  14. ^ William P. Haugaard "The History of Anglicanism I" in The Study of Anglicanism Stephen Sykes and John Booty (eds) (SPCK 1987) p.7.
  15. ^ William J. Torrance Kirby A Companion to Richard Hooker
  16. ^ The Radical Reformation, 3rd edition by George Huntston Williams
  17. ^ a b Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage (1956), Tübingen (Germany), pp. 317-319, 325-326
  18. ^ a b "CCC - Global Statistics". Retrieved 2015-04-14. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f Hans J. Hillerbrand: Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set
  20. ^ World Council of Churches: Evangelical churches: "Evangelical churches have grown exponentially in the second half of the 20th century and continue to show great vitality, especially in the global South. This resurgence may in part be explained by the phenomenal growth of Pentecostalism and the emergence of the charismatic movement, which are closely associated with evangelicalism. However, there can be no doubt that the evangelical tradition "per se" has become one of the major components of world Christianity. Evangelicals also constitute sizable minorities in the traditional Protestant and Anglican churches. In regions like Africa and Latin America, the boundaries between "evangelical" and "mainline" are rapidly changing and giving way to new ecclesial realities."
  21. ^ Hägglund, Bengt (2007). Teologins Historia [History of Theology] (in German). Translated by Gene J. Lund (Fourth Revised ed.). Saint Louis: Concordia Publishing House. 
  22. ^ Muller 2004, p. 130.
  23. ^ a b Protestant - Online Etymology Dictionary
  24. ^ What Is A Protestant
  25. ^ MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). The Reformation: A History. New York: Penguin. p. xx. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f Encyclopedia of Protestantism
  27. ^ a b Johann Jakob Herzog, Philip Schaff, Albert. The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. 1911, page 419.
  28. ^ Matt. 16:18, 1 Cor. 3:11, Eph. 2:20, 1 Pet. 2:5–6, Rev. 21:14
  29. ^ Engelder, T.E.W., Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. p. 95, Part XXIV. "The Lord's Supper", paragraph 131.
  30. ^ "The Solid Declaration of the Formula of Concord, Article 8, The Holy Supper". Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  31. ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 162. [dead link]
  32. ^ Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. [dead link]
  33. ^ Luther's Small Catechism, Part IV, The Sacrament of the Altar, "What is the benefit of such eating and drinking? That is shown us in these words: Given, and shed for you, for the remission of sins; namely, that in the Sacrament forgiveness of sins, life, and salvation are given us through these words. For where there is forgiveness of sins, there is also life and salvation." Graebner, Augustus Lawrence (1910). Outlines Of Doctrinal Theology. Saint Louis, MO: Concordia Publishing House. p. 163. [dead link]
  34. ^ Schofield Martin Luther p. 122
  35. ^ Cameron European Reformation[page needed]
  36. ^ Pettegree Reformation World p. 543
  37. ^ Edwards Printing, Propaganda, and Martin Luther[page needed]
  38. ^ Pettegree and Hall "Reformation and the Book Historical Journal p. 786
  39. ^ Article 1, of the Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland 1921 states 'The Church of Scotland adheres to the Scottish Reformation'.
  40. ^ "History of Europe – Demographics". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  41. ^ Cross, (ed.) "Westphalia, Peace of" Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church
  42. ^ Thomas S. Kidd, The Great Awakening: The Roots of Evangelical Christianity in Colonial America (2009)
  43. ^ Nancy Cott, “Young Women in the Great Awakening in New England,” Feminist Studies 3, no. 1/2 (Autumn 1975): 15.
  44. ^ William G. McLoughlin, Revivals Awakenings and Reform (1980)
  45. ^ Mark A. Noll, A History of Christianity in the United States and Canada (1992) pp 286-310
  46. ^ Robert William Fogel, The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism (2000)
  47. ^ Robert William Fogel (2000), The Fourth Great Awakening & the Future of Egalitarianism; see the review by Randall Balmer, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 2002 33(2): 322-325
  48. ^ The Magisterial Reformation.
  49. ^ DIANE Publishing Company: Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1996-1997
  50. ^ Fr. John Morris: An Orthodox Response to the Recent Roman Catholic Declaration on the Nature of the Church
  51. ^ Denmark – Constitution: Section 4 State Church, International Constitutional Law.
  52. ^ Fólkakirkjan's official website (in Faroese)
  53. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Iceland: Article 62, Government of Iceland.
  54. ^ Løsere bånd, men fortsatt statskirke, ABC Nyheter
  55. ^ Staten skal ikke lenger ansette biskoper, NRK
  56. ^ Slik blir den nye statskirkeordningen
  57. ^ Te Ekalesia Kelisiano Tuvalu
  58. ^ Eberle, Edward J. (2011). Church and State in Western Society. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-4094-0792-8. Retrieved 9 November 2012. The Church of England later became the official state church, with the monarch supervising church functions. 
  59. ^ Fox, Jonathan (2008). A World Survey of Religion and the State. Cambridge University Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-521-88131-9. Retrieved 9 November 2012. The Church of England (Anglican) and the Church of Scotland (Presbyterian) are the official religions of the UK. 
  60. ^ Ferrante, Joan (2010). Sociology: A Global Perspective. Cengage Learning. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-8400-3204-1. Retrieved 9 November 2012. the Church of England [Anglican], which remains the official state church 
  61. ^ Finland – Constitution, Section 76 The Church Act,
  62. ^ MAARIT JÄNTERÄ-JAREBORG: Religion and the Secular State in Sweden
  63. ^ a b c d e f g Peter B. Clarke, Peter Beyer: "The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations"
  64. ^ Stephen F. Brown: "Protestantism"
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h Mark A. Noll: "Protestantism: A Very Short Introduction"
  66. ^ a b c d e f Jay Diamond, Larry. Plattner, Marc F. and Costopoulos, Philip J. World Religions and Democracy. 2005, page 119. link (saying "Not only do Protestants presently constitute 13 percent of the world's population—about 800 million people—but since 1900 Protestantism has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.')
  67. ^ "Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set" by Hans J. Hillerbrand, p. 344
  68. ^ 33.39% of ~7.2 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World". CIA world facts. 
  69. ^ "Christianity 2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). January 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  70. ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  71. ^ ANALYSIS (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  72. ^ Protestant Demographics and Fragmentations
  73. ^ "Religious Populations in England". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved April 8, 2011. 
  74. ^ Edgar Thorpe: "The Pearson General Knowledge Manual 2012"
  75. ^ a b Protestantism in Bohemia and Moravia (Czech Republic)
  76. ^ "Tab 7.1 Population by religious belief and by municipality size groups" (PDF) (in čeština). Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  77. ^ "Tab 7.2 Population by religious belief and by regions" (PDF) (in čeština). Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  78. ^ Hana Mastrini: "Frommer's Prague & the Best of the Czech Republic"
  79. ^ Lilla, Mark (31 March 2006). "Europe and the legend of secularization". The New York Times. 
  80. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383 (European Union: European Commission), 2012: 233, retrieved 14 August 2013 
  81. ^ a b c d e John Witte, Frank S. Alexander: "The Teachings of Modern Protestantism on Law, Politics, and Human Nature"
  82. ^ Study: Christianity grows exponentially in Africa
  83. ^ a b c The Battle for Latin America's Soul
  84. ^ In China, Protestantism's Simplicity Yields More Converts Than Catholicism
  85. ^ Evangelicals rise in Latin America
  86. ^ Loek Halman, Ole Riis: "Religion in a Secularizing Society: The Europeans' Religion at the End of the 20th Century"
  87. ^ a b Religious Newcomers and the Nation State: Political Culture and Organized Religion in France and the Netherlands
  88. ^ Moscow Church Spearheads Russia Revival
  89. ^ Protestantism in Postsoviet Russia: An Unacknowledged Triumph
  90. ^ "Growing Protestants, Catholics Draw Ire"
  91. ^ a b c "Nones" on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation
  92. ^ US Protestants no longer a majority - study
  93. ^ For the first time ever, Protestants are not the majority in U.S. - due to rising number of Americans with 'no religion'
  94. ^ Benton Johnson, Dean R. Hoge & Donald A. Luidens "Mainline Churches: The Real Reason for Decline"
  95. ^ "The Future of the Global Church: History, Trends and Possiblities" by Patrick Johnstone, p. 100
  96. ^ "Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set" by Hans J. Hillerbrand, p. 349
  97. ^ Responses to Some Questions Regarding Certain Aspects of the Doctrine on the Church, June 29, 2007, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
  98. ^ Stuard-will, Kelly; Emissary (2007). Karitas Publishing, ed. A Faraway Ancient Country. United States: Gardners Books. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-615-15801-3. 
  99. ^ "Bishop Hilarion of Vienna and Austria: The Vatican Document Brings Nothing New". Retrieved 2014-05-14. 
  100. ^ The Protestant Reformers formed a new and radically different theological opinion on ecclesiology, that the visible Church is "catholic" (lower-case "c") rather than "Catholic" (upper-case "C"). Accordingly, there is not an indefinite number of parochial, congregational or national churches, constituting, as it were, so many ecclesiastical individualities, but one great spiritual republic of which these various organizations form a part, although they each have very different opinions. This was markedly far-removed from the traditional and historic Roman Catholic understanding that the Roman Catholic Church was the one true Church of Christ. Yet in the Protestant understanding, the visible church is not a genus, so to speak, with so many species under it. It is thus you may think of the State, but the visible church is a totum integrale, it is an empire, with an ethereal emperor, rather than a visible one. The churches of the various nationalities constitute the provinces of this empire; and though they are so far independent of each other, yet they are so one, that membership in one is membership in all, and separation from one is separation from all.... This conception of the church, of which, in at least some aspects, we have practically so much lost sight, had a firm hold of the Scottish theologians of the seventeenth century. James Walker in The Theology of Theologians of Scotland. (Edinburgh: Rpt. Knox Press, 1982) Lecture iv. pp.95-6.
  101. ^ The Canadian Reformed Magazine, 18 (September 20–27, October 4–11, 18, November 1, 8, 1969)
  102. ^ Keith Randell. Henry VIII and the Reformation in England, Hodder & Stoughton (1998) p. 88.
  103. ^ a b c William P. Haugaard. "The History of Anglicanism I", The Study of Anglicanism, Stephen Sykes and John Booty (eds) SPCK 1988, p.7; pp.7-8; pp.8-9 (respectively)
  104. ^ "Church Association Tract 049" (PDF). Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  105. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1974), art. "Anglicanism", New International Dictionary of the Christian Church, Paternoster Press, Exeter (1974), art. "England, Church of".
  106. ^ a b "Adventist and Sabbatarian (Hebraic) Churches" section (p. 256–276) in Frank S. Mead, Samuel S. Hill and Craig D. Atwood, Handbook of Denominations in the United States, 12th edn. Nashville: Abingdon Press
  107. ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, p. 319
  108. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead (1960), History of Religion in the United States, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., pp. 69-80, 88-89, 114-117, 186-188
  109. ^ M. Schmidt, Kongregationalismus, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band III (1959), Tübingen (Germany), col. 1770
  110. ^ McKinney, William. "Mainline Protestantism 2000." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 558, Americans and Religions in the Twenty-First Century (July, 1998), pp. 57-66.
  111. ^ Gerhard Lenski (1963), The Religious Factor: A Sociological Study of Religion's Impact on Politics, Economics, and Family Life, Revised Edition, A Doubleday Anchor Book, Garden City, N.Y., pp.348-351
  112. ^ Cf. Robert Middlekauff (2005), The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, Revised and Expanded Edition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-516247-9, p. 52
  113. ^ Jan Weerda, Soziallehre des Calvinismus, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, 3. Auflage (1958), Stuttgart (Germany), col. 934
  114. ^ Eduard Heimann, Kapitalismus, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band III (1959), Tübingen (Germany), col. 1136-1141
  115. ^ Hans Fritz Schwenkhagen, Technik, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, 3. Auflage, col. 1029-1033
  116. ^ Georg Süßmann, Naturwissenschaft und Christentum, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band IV, col. 1377-1382
  117. ^ C. Graf von Klinckowstroem, Technik. Geschichtlich, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band VI, col. 664-667
  118. ^ Kim, Sung Ho (Fall 2008). "Max Weber". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, CSLI, Stanford University. Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  119. ^ Tausch A. (2015) Towards new maps of global human values, based on World Values Survey (6) data. Corvinus University of Budapest
  120. ^ a b B.DRUMMOND AYRES Jr. (2011-12-19). "THE EPISCOPALIANS: AN AMERICAN ELITE WITH ROOTS GOING BACK TO JAMESTOWN". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-08-17. 
  121. ^ Irving Lewis Allen, "WASP—From Sociological Concept to Epithet," Ethnicity, 1975 154+
  122. ^ Hacker, Andrew (1957). "Liberal Democracy and Social Control". American Political Science Review 51 (4): 1009–1026 [p. 1011]. JSTOR 1952449. 
  123. ^ Baltzell (1964). The Protestant Establishment. p. 9. 
  124. ^ a b Sztompka, 2003
  125. ^ Gregory, 1998
  126. ^ Becker, 1992
  127. ^ Heinrich Bornkamm, Toleranz. In der Geschichte des Christentums in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band VI (1962), col. 937
  128. ^ Original German title: Dass eine christliche Versammlung oder Gemeine Recht und Macht habe, alle Lehre zu beurteilen und Lehrer zu berufen, ein- und abzusetzen: Grund und Ursach aus der Schrift
  129. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 4-10
  130. ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage, p. 325
  131. ^ Quoted in Jan Weerda, Calvin, in Evangelisches Soziallexikon, 3. Auflage (1958), Stuttgart (Germany), col. 210
  132. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, p. 10
  133. ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, S. 396-397
  134. ^ Cf. M. Schmidt, England. Kirchengeschichte, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band II (1959), Tübingen (Germany), col. 476-478
  135. ^ Nathaniel Philbrick (2006), Mayflower: A Story of Courage, Community, and War, Penguin Group, New York, N.Y., ISBN 0-670-03760-5
  136. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 65-76
  137. ^ Christopher Fennell (1998), Plymouth Colony Legal Structure
  138. ^ Hanover Historical Texts Project <>
  139. ^ M. Schmidt, Pilgerväter, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V (1961), col. 384
  140. ^ Christopher Fennell, Plymouth Colony Legal Structure
  141. ^ Allen Weinstein and David Rubel (2002), The Story of America: Freedom and Crisis from Settlement to Superpower, DK Publishing, Inc., New York, N.Y., ISBN 0-7894-8903-1, p. 61
  142. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, p. 5
  143. ^ Heinrich Bornkamm, Toleranz. In der Geschichte des Christentums, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band VI (1962), col. 937-938
  144. ^ H. Stahl, Baptisten, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band I, col. 863
  145. ^ G. Müller-Schwefe, Milton, John, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band IV, col. 955
  146. ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, p. 398
  147. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 99-106, 111-117, 124
  148. ^ Edwin S. Gaustad (1999), Liberty of Conscience: Roger Williams in America, Judson Press, Valley Forge, p. 28
  149. ^ Hans Fantel (1974), William Penn: Apostle of Dissent, William Morrow & Co., New York, N.Y., pp. 150-153
  150. ^ Robert Middlekauff (2005), The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763-1789, Revised and Expanded Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y., ISBN 978-0-19-516247-9, pp. 4-6, 49-52, 622-685
  151. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 192-209
  152. ^ Cf. R. Voeltzel, Frankreich. Kirchengeschichte, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band II (1958), col. 1039
  153. ^ Douglas K. Stevenson (1987), American Life and Institutions, Ernst Klett Verlag, Stuttgart (Germany), p. 34
  154. ^ G. Jasper, Vereinte Nationen, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band VI, col. 1328-1329
  155. ^ Cf. G. Schwarzenberger, Völkerrecht, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band VI, col. 1420-1422
  156. ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage, pp. 396-399, 401-403, 417-419
  157. ^ Jeremy Waldron (2002), God, Locke, and Equality: Christian Foundations in Locke's Political Thought, Cambridge University Press, New York, N.Y., ISBN 978-0521-89057-1, p. 13
  158. ^ Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke, and Equality, pp. 21-43, 120
  159. ^ W. Wertenbruch, Menschenrechte, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band IV, col. 869
  160. ^ Allen Weinstein and David Rubel, The Story of America, pp. 189-309
  161. ^ Karl Heussi, Kompendium der Kirchengeschichte, 11. Auflage, pp. 403, 425
  162. ^ M. Elze,Grotius, Hugo, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band II, col. 1885-1886
  163. ^ H. Hohlwein, Pufendorf, Samuel, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V, col. 721
  164. ^ R. Pfister, Schweiz. Seit der Reformation, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band V (1961), col. 1614-1615
  165. ^ Clifton E. Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 484-494
  166. ^ H. Wagner, Diakonie, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band I, col. 164-167
  167. ^ J.R.H. Moorman, Anglikanische Kirche, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band I, col. 380-381
  168. ^ Clifton E.Olmstead, History of Religion in the United States, pp. 461-465
  169. ^ Allen Weinstein and David Rubel, The Story of America, pp. 274-275
  170. ^ M. Schmidt, Kongregationalismus, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band III, col. 1770
  171. ^ K. Kupisch, Bismarck, Otto von, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3. Auflage, Band I, col. 1312-1315
  172. ^ P. Quante, Sozialversicherung, in Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, Band VI, col. 205-206
  173. ^ History - World Council of Churches
  174. ^ "Orthodox Church: text - IntraText CT". Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  175. ^ "Justification". WELS Topical Q&A. Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Archived from the original on 28 Sep 2009. Retrieved 29 Jan 2015. A document which is aimed at settling differences needs to address those differences unambiguously. The Joint Declaration does not do this. At best, it sends confusing mixed signals and should be repudiated by all Lutherans. 
  176. ^ "News Archives". Retrieved 19 November 2010. 
  177. ^ "CNS STORY: Methodists adopt Catholic-Lutheran declaration on justification". Retrieved 19 November 2010. 

Further reading

External links

Template:Navbox with collapsible sections

Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).