Protozoa - Related Links


In some biological taxonomy schemes, Protozoa are a diverse group of mostly motile unicellular eukaryotic organisms.[1] In classifications proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and his collaborators, the group is ranked as a kingdom comprising seven phyla.[2]

Historically, protozoa were defined as unicellular protists with animal-like behaviour, such as movement. The group was regarded as the zoological counterpart to the Protophyta, which have plant-like behaviour, e.g. photosynthesis.

Formal use of the term protozoan has been discouraged by some researchers, because modern ultrastructural, biochemical, and genetic techniques have shown that the group does not form a clade, as required by phylogenetic systems of classification. In 2005, the members of the Society of Protozoologists voted to change the name of that organization to the International Society of Protistologists.[3]

While use of the term protozoa has declined in the professional literature, the term is still used informally for single-celled and heterotrophic eukaryotes, such as ciliates and flagellate parasites (highly motile, non-photosynthetic organisms which, traditionally, have been regarded as "animal-like").

Most protozoa are restricted to moist environments, such as soils, mosses and aquatic habitats, although many form resting cysts which enable them to survive drying. Many protozoan species are symbionts, some are parasites, and some are predators of faeces bacteria and algae. There are an estimated 30,000 protozoan species.[4]


Following the Greek root of the name, the singular form is protozoon /prtəˈz.ɒn/(protos=first, zoon=animal). Its use has, however, partially been replaced by the word protozoan, which was originally only used as an adjective. In the same manner the plural form protozoans is sometimes used instead of protozoa.

In general, protozoa are referred to as animal-like protists because of movement (motility). However, both protozoa and protists are paraphyletic groups (not including all genetic descendants of the group). For example, Entamoeba is more closely related to humans than it is to Euglena.[5]

While there is no exact definition for the term protozoa, it is often referred to as a unicellular heterotrophic protist, such as the amoeba and ciliates. The term algae is used for microorganisms that photosynthesize. However, distinction between protozoa and algae is often vague. For example, the alga Dinobryon has chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but it can also feed on organic matter and is motile.


Protozoa commonly range in length between 10 to 52 micrometers, but can grow much larger. Most are easily seen with a microscope. The largest protozoa are the deep-sea dwelling xenophyophores, which can grow up to 20 cm in diameter.[citation needed]

Motility and Feeding

Protozoa are abundant in aqueous environments and soil, occupying a range of trophic levels. The group includes flagellates (which move with the help of whip-like structures called flagella), ciliates (which move by using hair-like structures called cilia) and amoebae (which move by the use of foot-like structures called pseudopodia). Some protozoa are sessile, and do not move at all.

Protozoa may take in food by osmotrophy, absorbing nutrients through their cell membranes; or they may feed by phagocytosis, either by engulfing particles of food with pseudopodia (as amoebae do), or taking in food through a mouth-like aperture called a cytostome. All protozoa digest their food in stomach-like compartments called vacuoles.[6]


The pellicle is a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in various protozoa such as ciliates, protecting them and allowing them to retain their shape, especially during locomotion, allowing the organism to be more hydrodynamic. They vary from flexible and elastic to rigid. Although somewhat stiff, the pellicle is also flexible and allows the protist to fit into tighter spaces. In ciliates and Apicomplexa, it is formed from closely packed vesicles called alveoli. In euglenids, it is formed from protein strips arranged spirally along the length of the body. Examples of protists with a pellicle are the euglenoids and the paramecium, a ciliate. In some protozoa, the pellicle consists of many bacteria that adhere to the surface by their fimbriae or "attachment pili".[7] Thus, attachment pili allow the organisms to remain in the broth, from which they take nutrients, while they congregate near air, where the oxygen concentration is greatest.

Ecological role

As components of the micro- and meiofauna, protozoa are an important food source for microinvertebrates. Thus, the ecological role of protozoa in the transfer of bacterial and algal production to successive trophic levels is important. As predators, they prey upon unicellular or filamentous algae, bacteria, and microfungi. Protozoa are both herbivores and consumers in the decomposer link of the food chain. They also control bacteria populations and biomass to some extent. On average, Protozoa eat ~ 100 to 1,000 bacteria per hour. Protozoa such as the malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.), trypanosomes and leishmania, are also important disease causing agents in humans. Protozoa can stimulate OM decomposition, digest cellulose in rumen of cows and termite guts, and play a role in nutrient mobilization.

Life cycle

Some protozoa have life stages alternating between proliferative stages (e.g., trophozoites) and dormant cysts. As cysts, protozoa can survive harsh conditions, such as exposure to extreme temperatures or harmful chemicals, or long periods without access to nutrients, water, or oxygen for a period of time. Being a cyst enables parasitic species to survive outside of a host, and allows their transmission from one host to another. When protozoa are in the form of trophozoites (Greek, tropho = to nourish), they actively feed. The conversion of a trophozoite to cyst form is known as encystation, while the process of transforming back into a trophozoite is known as excystation. Protozoa can reproduce by binary fission or multiple fission. Some protozoa reproduce sexually, some asexually, while some use a combination, (e.g., Coccidia). An individual protozoan is hermaphroditic.


Further information: wikispecies:Protozoa

Protozoa were previously often grouped in the kingdom of Protista, together with the plant-like algae and fungus-like slime molds. As a result of 21st-century systematics, protozoa, along with ciliates, mastigophorans, and apicomplexans, are arranged as animal-like protists. Protozoa are unicellular organisms and are often called the animal-like protists because they subsist entirely on other organisms for food. Most protozoa can move about on their own. Amoebas, paramecia, and trypanosomes are all examples of animal-like protists.


The classification of protozoa has been and remains a problematic area of taxonomy. Where they are available, DNA sequences are used as the basis for classification but for the majority of described protozoa such material is not available. They have been and still are mostly on the basis of their morphology and for the parasitic species their hosts. Protozoa have been divided traditionally[citation needed] on the basis of their means of locomotion.

As a phylum the Protozoa had been divided into four subphyla[8] reflecting the means of locomotion:

These systems are no longer considered to be valid. For an example of a system of classification of protozoa, see Kudo system.

Human disease

Main article: Protozoan infection

Some protozoa are human parasites, causing diseases. Examples of human diseases caused by protozoa:

Animal disease

The protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha is a parasite of butterflies. It infects the butterfly entering the larval stage. The spores are found on the body of infected butterflies. These spores are passed, from female to caterpillar. Severely infected individuals are weak, unable to expand their wings, or unable to eclose, and have shortened lifespans, but parasite levels vary in populations. This is not the case in laboratory or commercial rearing, where after a few generations, all individuals can be infected.[9]Infection with this parasite creates an effect known as culling whereby infected migrating animals are less likely to complete the migration. This results in populations with lower parasite loads at the end of the migration.[10]

See also


  1. ^ I. Edward Alcamo; Jennifer M. Warner (28 August 2009). Schaum's Outline of Microbiology. McGraw Hill Professional. pp. 144–. ISBN 978-0-07-162326-1. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  2. ^ Ruggiero, Michael A.; Gordon, Dennis P.; Orrell, Thomas M.; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C.; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D.; Kirk, Paul M. (April 29, 2015). "A High Power (over 9000) Level Classification of All Living Organisms". PLoS ONE 10 (4): e0119248. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0119248. Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  3. ^ "New President's Address". Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  4. ^ Nyle C. Brady & Ray R. Weil (2009). Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils (3rd Edition). Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780135014332. 
  5. ^ Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair G. B.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matthew W.; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah (Sep 2012). "The revised classification of eukaryotes". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493. ISSN 1550-7408. PMC 3483872. PMID 23020233. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2012.00644.x. Retrieved 2015-05-01. 
  6. ^ "Protozoa". MicrobeWorld. American Society for Chemistry. 2006. Archived from the original on 19 May 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2008. 
  7. ^
  8. ^ Honigberg, B. M.; W. Balamuth; E. C. Bovee; J. O. Corliss; M. Gojdics; R. P. Hall; R. R. Kudo; N. D. Levine; A. R. Lobblich; J. Weiser (1964). "A Revised Classification of the Phylum Protozoa". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 11 (1): 7–20. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1964.tb01715.x. 
  9. ^ Leong, K. L. H.; M. A. Yoshimura; H. K. Kaya; H. Williams (1997). "Instar Susceptibility of the Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) to the Neogregarine Parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 69 (1): 79–83. PMID 9028932. doi:10.1006/jipa.1996.4634. Lay summary. 
  10. ^ Bartel, Rebecca; Oberhauser, Karen; De Roode, Jacob; Atizer, Sonya (February 2011). "Monarch butterfly migration and parasite trasmission in eastern North America". Ecology 92 (2): page. 



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  • Sleigh, M., E. Arnold. The Biology of Protozoa. London, 1981.


  • Levandowski, M., S.H. Hutner (eds). Biochemistry and physiology of protozoa. Volumes 1, 2, and 3. Academic Press: New York, NY, 1979; 2nd ed.
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