Open Access Articles- Top Results for Pyongyang


This article is about the capital of North Korea. For other uses, see Pyongyang (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Pyonggang or Pyeongchang County.
Directly governed city
Pyongyang Directly Governed City
 • Chosŏn'gŭl
 • Hancha 直轄市
 • McCune-Reischauer P'yŏngyang Chikhalsi
 • Revised Romanization Pyeongyang Jikhalsi
From top left: Pyongyang's Skyline, Juche Tower, Kumsusan Palace of the Sun, Arch of Triumph, Arch of Reunification, Tomb of King Dongmyeong & Puhŭng Station, Pyongyang Metro
From top left: Pyongyang's Skyline, Juche Tower, Kumsusan Palace of the Sun, Arch of Triumph, Arch of Reunification, Tomb of King Dongmyeong & Puhŭng Station, Pyongyang Metro
Nickname(s): "Jerusalem of the East" (archaic)[1][2]
Map of North Korea with Pyongyang highlighted
Map of North Korea with Pyongyang highlighted

Coordinates: 39°1′10″N 125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806Coordinates: 39°1′10″N 125°44′17″E / 39.01944°N 125.73806°E / 39.01944; 125.73806{{#coordinates:39|1|10|N|125|44|17|E|type:city_region:KP |primary |name=

Country North Korea
Region P'yŏngan
Founded 1122 BC
 • Chairman of Pyongyang People's Committee Ryang Man-kil[3]
 • Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea Pyongyang City Committee Kim Su-gil[4][5]
 • Total 1,100 km2 (400 sq mi)
Elevation 38 m (125 ft)
Population (2013)
 • Total 2,514,692[6]
 • Dialect P'yŏngan

Pyongyang (/ˈpjɒŋˈjæŋ/; (Chosŏn'gŭl: 평양; hancha: 平壤), Template:IPA-ko, literally: "Flat Land" or "Peaceful Land", approved: P’yŏngyang;[7] several variants[8]) is the capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea) and the largest city in the country. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River and, according to preliminary results from the 2008 population census, has a population of 3,255,388.[9] The city was split from the South P'yŏngan province in 1946. It is administered as a directly governed city (chikhalsi, 직할시) on the same level as provincial governments, not a special city (teukbyeolsi, 특별시) as Seoul in South Korea.


"Pyongyang" literally means "Flat Land" in Korean. One of Pyongyang's many historic names is Ryugyong (류경; 柳京), or "capital of willows", as willow trees have always been numerous throughout the city's history; this served as an inspiration for many poems. Even today, the city has numerous willow trees, with many buildings and places having "Ryugyŏng" in their names. The most notable of these is the incomplete Ryugyong Hotel. The city's other historic names include Kisong, Hwangsong, Rakrang, Sŏgyong, Sodo, Hogyong and Changan.[citation needed] During the early 20th century, Pyongyang came to be known among missionaries as being the "Jerusalem of the East", due to its historical status as a stronghold of Christianity, namely Protestantism.[1][2]

After Kim Il-sung's death in 1994, some members of Kim Jong-il's faction proposed changing the name of Pyongyang to "Kim Il-sung City" (김일성시), but others suggested that North Korea should begin calling Seoul as "Kim Il-sung City" instead and grant Pyongyang the moniker "Kim Jong-il City", and in the end neither proposal was implemented.[10]


In 1955, archaeologists excavated evidence of prehistoric occupation in a large ancient village in the Pyongyang area, called Kŭmtan-ni, dating to the Chŭlmun and Mumun pottery periods.[11] North Koreans associate Pyongyang with "Asadal" (아사달), or Wanggomsŏng (왕검성; 王儉城), the first second millennium BC capital of the Gojoseon kingdom according to Korean history books, notably Samguk Yusa. Many South Korean historians[who?] deny this claim because other Korean history books[which?] place Asadal around the Liao River located in western Manchuria. The connection between the two therefore may have been asserted by North Korea for the use of propaganda. Nevertheless, Pyongyang became a major city under Gojoseon.


Pyongyang was founded in 1122 BC on the site of Tangun Dynasty's capital, according to legends.[12] It is likely that the area of Pyongyang belonged to Wiman Joseon, the longest-lasting part of Gojoseon, which fell in the Gojoseon–Han War in 108 BC. Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty ordered four commanderies be set up, with Lelang Commandery in the center and its capital established as 平壤 (Old Chinese: *breŋ*naŋʔ,[13] modern Mandarin: píngrǎng, Korean: pyongyang). Several archaeological findings from the later, Eastern Han (25–220 AD) period in the Pyongyang area seems to suggest that Han forces later launched brief incursions around these parts.

The area around the city was called Nanglang during the early Three Kingdoms period. As the capital of Nanglang kingdom (낙랑국),[a] Pyongyang remained an important commercial and cultural outpost after Lelang Commandery was destroyed by an expanding Goguryeo in 313.

Goguryeo moved its capital there in 427. According to Christopher Beckwith, Pyongyang is the Sino-Korean reading of the name they gave it in their language: Piarna, or "level land".[14]

In 668, Pyongyang became the capital of the Protectorate General to Pacify the East established by the Tang dynasty of China. However, by 676, it was taken by Silla, but left on the border between Silla and Balhae (Bohai). This lasted until the time of the Goryeo dynasty, when the city was revived as Sŏgyŏng (Hangul: 서경; hanja: 西京; "Western Capital") although it was never actually a capital of the kingdom. It was the provincial capital of the Pyeongan Province during the Joseon dynasty.

Chinese troops attacking the walls of Japanese-held Pyongyang in 1593

During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Pyongyang was captured by the Japanese.[12] Later in the 17th century, it came under Manchu control during the Second Manchu invasion of Korea. While the invasions made Koreans suspicious of foreigners, the influence of Christianity began to grow after the country opened itself up to foreigners in the 16th century. Pyongyang became the base of Christian expansion in Korea, and by 1880 it had more than 100 churches and more Protestant missionaries than any other Asian city.[12]

In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants.[15] It was the site of an important battle during the First Sino-Japanese War, which led to the destruction and depopulation of much of the city. However, it was the provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province from 1896. Under colonial rule, the city became an industrial center, called Heijō in Japanese.

File:Anti-China riot in Heijo.JPG
The aftermath of the Wanpaoshan Incident

In July 1931 the city experienced Anti-Chinese riots as a result of the Wanpaoshan Incident and the sensationalized media reports of the incident which appeared in Japanese and Korean newspapers.[16]

By 1938, Pyongyang had a population of 235,000.[15]

After 1945

On 25 August 1945, the 25th army of the Soviet Army entered Pyongyang, and it became the temporary capital of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea. It became the de facto capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea at its establishment in 1948. At that time, the Pyongyang government aimed to recapture Korea's official capital at that time, Seoul. Pyongyang was again severely damaged in the Korean War, during which it was briefly occupied by South Korean forces between 19 October 1950 and 6 December 1950. In 1952, it was the target of the largest aerial raid of the entire war, involving 1,400 UN aircraft.

After the war, the city was quickly rebuilt with Soviet aid, with many buildings built in the style of Socialist Classicism. The plans for the modern city of Pyongyang were first displayed for public viewing in a theatre building. On 27 July 1953 – the day the armistice between North Korea and South Korea was signed – The Pyongyang Review wrote: "While streets were in flames, an exhibition showing the general plan of restoration of Pyongyang was held at the Moranbong Underground Theater", the air raid shelter of the government under Moran hill. "On the way of victory... fireworks which streamed high into the night sky of the capital in a gun salute briefly illuminated the construction plan of the city which would rise soon with a new look".[17]

In 2001 the authorities began a long-term modernization program. The Ministry of Capital City Construction Development was included in the cabinet in that year. In 2006, Kim Jong-il’s brother-in-law Jang Song-thaek took charge of the ministry.

Geography and climate

Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO

Pyongyang is in the west-central part of North Korea; the city lies on a flat plain about Script error: No such module "convert". east of the Korea Bay, an arm of the Yellow Sea. The Taedong River flows southwestward through the city toward the Korea Bay. The Pyongyang plain, where the city is situated, is one of the two large plains on the Western coast of the Korean peninsula, the other being the Chaeryong plain. Both have an area of approximately 500 square kilometers.[18]

Pyongyang has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa). Cold, dry winds can blow from Siberia in winter, making conditions very cold; the low temperature is usually below freezing between November and early March, although the average daytime high is at least a few degrees above freezing in every month except January. The winter is generally much drier than summer, with snow falling for 37 days on average.

The transition from the cold, dry winter to the warm, wet summer occurs rather quickly between April and early May, and there is a similar abrupt return to winter conditions in late October and November. Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until August; these are also the hottest months, with average temperatures of Script error: No such module "convert"., and daytime highs often above Script error: No such module "convert"..

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This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Pyongyang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

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File:Mansudae Assembly Hall.jpg
Mansudae Assembly Hall, seat of the North Korean parliament

Major government and other public offices are located in Pyongyang, which is constitutionally designated as the country's capital.[21] The seat of the Workers' Party Central Committee is located in Haenbangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. Pyongyang People's Committee is located in Haebangsan-dong, Chung-guyok. The Cabinet of North Korea is located in Jongro-dong, Chung-guyok.

Pyongyang is also the seat of all major North Korean security institutions. The largest of them, the Ministry of People's Security, has 130,000 employees working in 12 bureaus. These oversee activities as diverse as police services, security of party officials, classified documents, census, civil registrations, large-scale public construction, traffic control, fire safety, civil defense, public health and customs.[22] Another major structure based in the city is the State Security Department, whose 30,000 personnel manage intelligence, political prison systems, military industrial security and entry and exit management.[23]

The politics and management of the city is dominated by the Workers' Party of Korea, as they are in the national level. The city is managed by the Pyongyang Party Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea. The supreme standing legislative body is the Pyongyang People's Committee.

Administrative status and divisions

P'yŏngyang is divided into 19 wards (ku- or guyŏk) (the city proper) and 2 counties (kun or gun).[24]

Foreign media reports in 2010 stated that Kangnam-gun, Chunghwa-gun, Sangwŏn-gun, and Sŭngho-guyŏk had been transferred to the administration of neighboring North Hwanghae province.[25]


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Panorama of Pyongyang, as seen from the Juche Tower in April 2012.
File:Victorious Fatherland Liberation War Museum and Ryugyong Hotel (11342673725).jpg
Ryugyong Hotel and part of the Monument to the Victorious Fatherland Liberation War
File:Flat in Pyongyang 2.jpg
Apartment buildings with green areas

Pyongyang was reduced to rubble during the Korean War and has been entirely rebuilt according to a design reflecting Kim Il-Sung's vision.[26] His dream was to create a capital that would boost the morale and ego of Koreans in the post-war years.[27] The result was a city with wide, tree-lined boulevards and monumental public buildings with terraced landscaping, mosaics and decorated ceilings.[26] Foreign visitors have described Pyongyang as one of the most beautiful cities they have seen; its Russian-style architecture makes it reminiscent of a Siberian city during winter snowfall, although edifices of traditional Korean design somewhat soften this perception. In summer, it is notable for its rivers, willow trees, flowers and parkland.[26]

The streets are laid out in a north-south, east-west grid, giving the city an orderly appearance.[26] North Korean designers applied the Swedish experience of self-sufficient urban neighbourhoods throughout the entire country, and Pyongyang is no exception. Its inhabitants are mostly divided into administrative units of 5,000 to 6,000 people (dong). These units all have similar sets of amenities including a food store, a barber shop, a tailor, a public bathhouse, a post office, a clinic, a library and others. Many residents occupy high-rise apartment buildings.[28] One of Kim Il-Sung's priorities while designing Pyongyang was to limit the population. Authorities maintain a restrictive regime of movement into the city, making it atypical of East Asia as it is silent, uncrowded and spacious.[29]

Structures in Pyongyang are divided into three major architectural categories: monuments, buildings with traditional Korean motifs and high-rises.[30] Some of North Korea's most recognisable landmarks are monuments, like the Juche Tower, the Arch of Triumph and the Mansu Hill Grand Monument. The first of them is a 170-meter granite spire symbolizing the Juche ideology. It was completed in 1982 and contains 25,550 granite blocks, one for each day of Kim Il-Sung's life up to that point.[30] By far the most prominent building on Pyongyang's skyline is Ryugyong Hotel,[30] the 7th highest building in the world terms of floor count and one of the tallest hotels in the world which remains unfinished.[31][32]

High-rise apartment buildings dominate the cityscape. The government launched a mass construction campaign aiming to build 100,000 new homes in 2011. The Changjon Street Apartment Complex was part of this effort. Construction of the complex began after late leader Kim Jong-il reportedly described the area as "pitiful".[33] Other housing complexes are being upgraded as well, but most are still poorly insulated while elevators and central heating in them remain rare.[34]



The capital has been completely redesigned since the Korean War (1950–53). It is designed with wide avenues, imposing monuments and monolithic buildings. The tallest structure in the city is the uncompleted Script error: No such module "convert". Ryugyong Hotel. This hotel has 105 floors and encloses Script error: No such module "convert". of floor space. The original plan called for crowning it with seven revolving restaurants.

Notable landmarks in the city include:

Pyongyang TV Tower is a minor landmark. Other visitor attractions include the Korea Central Zoo. The Arch of Reunification has a map of a united Korea supported by two concrete Korean women dressed in traditional dress straddling the Reunification Highway, which stretches from Pyongyang to the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).


File:Korean cuisine-Naengmyeon-02.jpg
Pyongyang raengmyeon (평양랭면), cold buckwheat noodle soup originating in Pyongyang

Pyongyang served as the provincial capital of Pyeongan province until 1946,[35] and Pyongyang cuisine shares the general culinary tradition of the Pyeongan province. The most famous local food is Pyongyang naengmyeon, or also called mul naengmyeon or just simply naengmyeon. Naengmyeon literally means "cold noodles", while the affix mul refers to "water" because the dish is served in a cold broth. Naengmyeon consists of thin and chewy buckwheat noodles in a cold meat-broth with dongchimi (watery kimchi) and topped with a slice of sweet Korean pear. Pyongyang naengmyeon was originally eaten in homes built with ondol (traditional underfloor heating) during the cold winter, so it is also humorously called "Pyongyang deoldeori" (shivering in Pyongyang). Pyongyang locals sometimes enjoyed it as a haejangguk, which is any type of food eaten as a hangover-cure, usually a warm soup.[36]

Another representative Pyongyang dish, Taedonggang sungeoguk, translates as "trout soup from the Taedong River". The soup features trout (abundant in the Taedong River) along with black peppercorns and salt.[37] It is served[by whom?] as a courtesy to important guests visiting Pyongyang. Therefore, the question "How good was the trout soup?" is commonly used to greet people returning from Pyongyang. Another local specialty, Pyongyang onban (literally "warm rice of Pyongyang"), comprises freshly cooked rice topped with sliced mushrooms, chicken, and a couple of bindaetteok (pancakes made from ground mung beans and vegetables).[36]

Famous restaurants in the city include Okryugwan and Ch'ongryugwan.[38]


Pyongyang has a number of sports clubs, including the April 25 Sports Club and the Pyongyang City Sports Club.[citation needed] The most popular sport in Pyongyang is football.[citation needed]


File:Laika ac Pyongyang (7975203722).jpg
Central Pyongyang with the Changjon Apartment Complex, Okryu Bridge and Ryugyong Hotel in the background

Pyongyang is North Korea's industrial center.[12] Thanks to the abundance of natural resources like coal, iron and limestone, as well as good land and water transport systems, it was the first industrial city to emerge in North Korea after the Korean War. Light and heavy industries are both present and have developed in parallel. Heavy manufactures include cement, industrial ceramics, munitions and weapons, but mechanical engineering remains the core industry. Light industries in Pyongyang and its vicinity include textiles, footwear and food, among others. Special emphasis is put on the production and supply of fresh produce and subsidiary crops in farms on the city's outskirts. Other crops include rice, corn and soybeans. Pyongyang aims to achieve self-sufficiency in meat production. High-density facilities raise pigs, chicken and other livestock.[12]

The city still experiences a shortage of electricity.[39] To solve this problem, two power stations - Huichon Power Stations 1 and 2 - were built in Chagang Province and supply the city through direct transmission lines. A second phase of the power expansion project was launched in January 2013, consisting of a series of small dams along the Chongchon River. The first two power stations have a maximum generating capacity of 300 megawatts (MW), while the 10 dams to be built under second phase are expected to generate about 120 MW.[39] In addition, the city has several existing or planned thermal power stations. These include Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 500 MW, East Pyongyang TPS with a capacity of 50 MW, and Kangdong TPS which is under construction.[40]


Pyongyang is home to several large department stores including: Pyongyang Department Store No. 1, Pyongyang Department Store No. 2, Kwangbok Department Store, Ragwon Department Store, Pyongyang Station Department Store and the Pyongyang Children’s Department Store.[41]

The city also has Hwanggumbol Shop, a chain of state-owned convenience stores supplying goods at prices cheaper than those in janmadang markets. Hwanggumbol Shops are specifically designed to control North Korea's expanding markets by attracting consumers and guaranteeing the circulation of money in government-operated stores.[42]


Pyongyang is also the main transport hub of the country: it has a dense network of roads, railways and air routes which link it to both foreign and domestic destinations. It is the starting point of inter-regional highways reaching Nampo, Wonsan and Kaesong.[12] Pyongyang railway station serves the main railway lines, including the Pyongui Line and the Pyongbu Line. Regular international rail services to Beijing and Moscow are also available. A journey to Beijing takes about 25 hours and 25 minutes (K27 from Beijing/K28 from Pyongyang, on Mondays, Wednesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays); a journey to Moscow takes 6 days. The city also connects to the Eurasian Land Bridge via the Trans-Siberian Railway. A high-speed rail link to Wonsan is planned.[43]

The Metro, tram and trolleybus systems are used mainly by commuters as a primary means of urban transportation.[12] There are few cars in the city, cars being a symbol of status in the country due to their scarcity as a result of restrictions on import because of international sanctions and domestic regulations.[44] Some roads are also reported be in a poor condition.[45]

State-owned Air Koryo (고려항공, Koryo Hang-Gong) has scheduled flights from Pyongyang Sunan International Airport to Beijing (PEK), Shenyang (SHE), Vladivostok (VVO), Moscow (SVO), Bangkok (BKK), Khabarovsk (KHV), Kuala Lumpur (KUL), and Shanghai (PVG). The only domestic destinations are Hamhung, Wonsan, Chongjin, Hyesan and Samjiyon. In April 2008, Air China launched a regular service between Beijing and Pyongyang.

Education and science

North Korea's oldest university - Kim Il-Sung University - was established in 1946 in the city.[12] It has seven colleges, 14 faculties and 16 other institutes, graduate schools and university units.[46] These include the primary medical education and health personnel training unit, the Medical College; a Physics Faculty which covers a range of studies including theoretical physics, optical science, geophysics and astrophysics;[47] an Atomic Energy Institute and a Human Evolution Research Office which studies human evolution through a Juche point of view. Kim Il-Sung University also has its own publishing house, sports club (Ryongnamsan Sports Team),[48] Revolutionary museum, Nature museum, libraries, a gym, indoor swimming pool and educator apartment houses. Its two main buildings were completed in 1965 (Building 1) and 1972 (Building 2). A third building on campus has been planned as well.[49]

File:Pyongyang University of Music and Dance.jpg
The University of Music and Dance

Other higher education establishments include Kim Chaek University of Technology, Pyongyang University of Music and Dance and Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies. Pyongyang University of Science and Technology is the country's first private university where most of the lecturers are American and courses are carried out in English.[50][51] A "Science and Technology Hall" is under construction on Ssuk Islet. Its stated purpose is to contribute to the "informatization of educational resources" by centralizing teaching materials, compulsory literature and experimental data for state-level use in a digital format.[52]

Sosong-guyok hosts a 20 MeV cyclotron called MGC-20. The initial project was approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1983 and funded by the IAEA, the United States and the North Korean government. The cyclotron was ordered from the Soviet Union in 1985 and constructed between 1987 and 1990. It is used for student training, production of medical isotopes for nuclear medicine as well as studies in biology, chemistry and physics.[53]


Medical center includes the Red Cross Hospital, the First People's Hospital which is located near Moran Hill and was the first people's hospital to be built in the North of Korea after the liberation of Korea in 1945,[54] the Second People’s Hospital, Ponghwa Recuperative Center (also known as Ponghwa Clinic or Presidential Clinic) located in Sokam-dong, Potonggang-guyok, 1.5 km northwest of Kim Il-sung Square,[55] Pyongyang Medical School Hospital, Namsan Treatment Center which is adjacent[56] Pyongyang's Maternity Hospital, Taesongsan General Hospital,[57] Kim Man-yoo Hospital, Staff Treatment Center and Okryu Children's Hospital.


Historical photos from Pyongyang
Pyongyang Station during the 1920s. 
Pyongyang City Hall during the 1920s. 
Pyongyang Tram during the 1920s. 
Sŏsŏng ward during the 1920s. 
View of Pyongyang during the 1920s. 
View of Moran Hill in Spring during the 1920s. 
View of Moran Hill during the 1920s. 
Monuments and sights of Pyongyang
Juche Tower Monument to the philosophy of Juche (self-reliance). 
Arch of Reunification, a monument to the goal of a reunified Korea. 
Monument to Party Founding. 

Twin towns – Sister cities

Pyongyang is twinned with:

See also


  1. ^ Nanglang-state is different from Lelang Commandery.


  1. ^ a b Lankov, Andrei (16 March 2005). "North Korea's missionary position". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 25 January 2013. By the early 1940s Pyongyang was by far the most Protestant of all major cities of Korea, with some 25–30% of its adult population being church-going Christians. In missionary circles this earned the city the nickname "Jerusalem of the East". 
  2. ^ a b Caryl, Christian (15 September 2007). "Prayer In Pyongyang". The Daily Beast. The Newsweek/Daily Beast Co. Retrieved 25 January 2013. It's hard to say how many covert Christians the North has; estimates range from the low tens of thousands to 100,000. Christianity came to the peninsula in the late 19th century. Pyongyang, in fact, was once known as the 'Jerusalem of the East.' 
  3. ^ Organizational chart of North Korean Leadership, April 2012, Ministry of Unification
  4. ^ The Secretarial Pool, NK Leadership Watch, 6 May 2014
  5. ^ NK Media Reports Pyongyang Apartment Collapse
  6. ^ City population by sex, city and city type, UN, 11 February 2013, retrieved 12 July 2013 .
  7. ^ "P’yŏngyang: North Korea". Geographical Names. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  8. ^ For example: Heijō ("Heijō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Heijō-fu ("Heijō-fu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Heizyō ("Heizyō: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Heizyō Hu ("Heizyō Hu: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Hpyeng-yang ("Hpyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), P-hjöng-jang ("P-hjöng-jang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Phyeng-yang ("Phyeng-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Phyong-yang ("Phyong-yang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Pienyang ("Pienyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Pingyang ("Pingyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. ), Pyengyang ("Pyengyang: North Korea". Retrieved 26 June 2013. )
  9. ^ United Nations Statistics Division; Preliminary results of the 2008 Census of Population of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea conducted on 1–15 October 2008 (pdf-file) Retrieved on 2009-03-01.
  10. ^ "Pyongyang was to become 'Kim Il Sung City'; The followers of Kim Jong Il suggested the idea". Daily NK. 2005-02-21. Retrieved 2014-10-04. 
  11. ^ National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage. 2001. Geumtan-ri. Hanguk Gogohak Sajeon [Dictionary of Korean Archaeology], pp. 148–149. NRICH, Seoul. ISBN 89-5508-025-5
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Pyongyang". Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Retrieved 19 April 2015. 
  13. ^ "Baxter‐Sagart old Chinese reconstruction", Wiktionary .
  14. ^ Beckwith, Christopher I. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present. Princeton University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2. 
  15. ^ a b Lahmeyer, Jan, "North Korea – Urban Population", Populstat, University of Utrecht .
  16. ^ Memorandum (Institute of Pacific Relations, American Council), Vol. 2, No. 5 (Mar. 16, 1933), pp. 1-3
  17. ^ Schinz, Alfred; Eckart, Dege (1990), "Pyongyang-Ancient and Modern – the Capital of North Korea", GeoJournal 22 (1): 25 .
  18. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 63.
  19. ^ "Pyongyang- averages". Station, District and regional averages. MSN Weather. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  20. ^ "World Weather Information Service - Pyongyang". July 2011. 
  21. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 196.
  22. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 276-277.
  23. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 277.
  24. ^ "행정구역현황 (Haengjeong Guyeok Hyeonhwang)". NK Chosun. Retrieved 10 January 2006.  Also Administrative divisions of North Korea (used as reference for hanja)
  25. ^ "Pyongyang now more than one-third smaller; food shortage issues suspected", Asahi Shinbun, 17 July 2010, retrieved 19 July 2010 
  26. ^ a b c d Country Study 2009, p. 91.
  27. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 93-94.
  28. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 97.
  29. ^ Country Study 2009, p. 91-92.
  30. ^ a b c "Architecture and City Planning". Library of Congress. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  31. ^ Staff (15 October 2009). "Will 'Hotel of Doom' ever be finished?". BBC News (BBC). Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  32. ^ Yoon, Sangwon (1 November 2012). "Kempinski to Operate World’s Tallest Hotel in North Korea". Bloomberg. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  33. ^ Lee, Seok Young (25 August 2011). ""Pitiful" Changjeon Street the Top Priority". Daily NK. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  34. ^ "Pyongyang glitters but most of NKorea still dark". Yahoo News. 29 April 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2015. 
  35. ^ 평양시 平壤市 [Pyongyang] (in Korean). Nate/Encyclopedia of Korean Culture. 
  36. ^ a b 닮은 듯 색다른 매력을 간직한 북한의 음식 문화 (in Korean). Korea Knowledge Portal. 19 June 2009. 
  37. ^ Ju, Wan-jung (주완중) (12 June 2000). '오마니의 맛' 관심 [Attention to "Mother's taste"] (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. 
  38. ^ Lankov, Andrei (2007), North of the DMZ: Essays on daily life in North Korea, McFarland, pp. 90–91, ISBN 978-0-7864-2839-7 
  39. ^ a b "Ten Power Plants on Chongchon River under Construction to Increase Power Supply to Pyongyang". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 19 December 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  40. ^ "Pyongyang’s Perpetual Power Problems". 25 November 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
  41. ^ "Pyongyang Metro maps". Retrieved 17 March 2013. 
  42. ^ "Effort to Prevent Outflow of Capital into Markets". Institute for Far Eastern Studies. 20 March 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015. 
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Further reading

External links

Pyongyang at night

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