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Pyrrolidine

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Pyrrolidine

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This page is a soft redirect. Names

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IUPAC name
Pyrrolidine
Other names
Azolidine
Azacyclopentane
Tetrahydropyrrole
Prolamine
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This page is a soft redirect. Properties

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C4H9N Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1 Appearance Clear colorless liquid Density 0.866 g/cm3 Melting point Script error: No such module "convert". Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert". Miscible Acidity (pKa) 11.27 (pKa of conjugate acid in water),[1]

19.56 (pKa of conjugate acid in acetonitrile)[2]

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This page is a soft redirect.- SDS MSDS Main hazards highly flammable, harmful, corrosive, possible mutagen R-phrases R11-R20/21/22-R34[3] S-phrases S16-S26-S28-S36/37-S45 NFPA 704

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This page is a soft redirect. Related compounds

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Related Nitrogen heterocyclic compounds
Pyrrole (aromatic with two double bonds)
Pyrroline (one double bond)
Pyrrolizidine (two pentagonal rings)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Pyrrolidine, also known as tetrahydropyrrole, is an organic compound with the molecular formula (CH2)4NH. It is a cyclic secondary amine, also classified as a saturated heterocycle. It is a colourless liquid that is miscible with water and most organic solvents. It has a characteristic semen-like odor.[4] Compared to acyclic secondary amines, it is about 10 times more basic.

Synthesis and occurrence

Pyrrolidine is produced industrially by treatment of 1,4-butanediol with ammonia over an oxide catalyst.[5]

Pyrrolidine is found in the leaves of tobacco and carrot. The pyrrolidine ring structure is present in numerous natural alkaloids such as nicotine and hygrine. It is found in many pharmaceutical drugs such as procyclidine and bepridil. It also forms the basis for the racetam compounds (e.g. piracetam, aniracetam). The amino acids proline and hydroxyproline are, in a structural sense, derivatives of pyrrolidine.

File:Nicotine.svg
Nicotine contains an N-methylpyrrolidine ring linked to a pyridine ring.

Applications

Pyrrolidine is used as a building block in the synthesis of more complex compounds. In organic chemistry, pyrrolidine is used to activate ketones and aldehydes toward nucleophilic addition by formation of enamines:[6]

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References

  1. ^ Hall, H. K. (1957). "Correlation of the Base Strengths of Amines". Journal of the American Chemical Society 79 (20): 5441. doi:10.1021/ja01577a030.  edit
  2. ^ Kaljurand, I.; Kütt, A.; Sooväli, L.; Rodima, T.; Mäemets, V.; Leito, I.; Koppel, I. A. (2005). "Extension of the Self-Consistent Spectrophotometric Basicity Scale in Acetonitrile to a Full Span of 28 pKa Units:  Unification of Different Basicity Scales". The Journal of Organic Chemistry 70 (3): 1019–1028. PMID 15675863. doi:10.1021/jo048252w.  edit
  3. ^ MSDS
  4. ^ Journal of Chemical Ecology 1 (3): 299–310.  Missing or empty |title= (help);
  5. ^ Karsten Eller, Erhard Henkes, Roland Rossbacher, Hartmut Höke "Amines, Aliphatic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2005. doi:10.1002/14356007.a02_001
  6. ^ R. B. Woodward, I. J. Pachter, and M. L. Scheinbaum (1974). "2,2-(Trimethylenedithio)cyclohexanone". Org. Synth. 54: 39. ; Coll. Vol. 6, p. 1014