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For the language, see Qatabanian language.
File:Map of Aksum and South Arabia ca. 230 AD.jpg
Late Kingdom of Qataban (light blue) not long before its fall in the 2nd century CE.
File:Qataban lion bronze.jpg
Bronze lion with a rider made by the Qatabanians circa 75-50 BCE.

Qataban or Katabania (Arabic,مملكة قتبان) was one of the ancient Yemeni kingdoms. Its heartland was located in the Baihan valley. Like some other Southern Arabian kingdoms it gained great wealth from the trade of frankincense and myrrh incense which were burned at altars. The capital of Qataban was named Timna and was located on the trade route which passed through the other kingdoms of Hadramaut, Sheba and Ma'in. The chief deity of the Qatabanians was Amm, or "Uncle" and the people called themselves the "children of Amm".

It was the most prominent Yemeni kingdom in the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BCE, when its ruler held the title of the South Arabian hegemon, MKRB.