Open Access Articles- Top Results for Quartz
Journal of Clinical ToxicologyComparing Heat-treated Silica Particle with Silica Particles for the Ability to Induce Superoxide Release from Rat Alveolar Macrophages
Journal of Carcinogenesis & MutagenesisNAPPA-Based Nanobiosensors for the Detection of Proteins and of Protein-Protein Interactions Relevant to Cancer
BiosafetyFrom Nanobiotechnology to Organic and Biological Monitoring of Health and Environment for Biosafety
Journal of Bioanalysis & BiomedicineFrom Nanobiotechnology to Organic and Biological Monitoring of Health and Environment for Biosafety
Journal of Biosensors & BioelectronicsBlood Coagulation Thromboplastine Time Measurements on a Nanoparticle Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance Biosensor in Excellent Agreement with Stand
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|Crystal symmetry||Trigonal 32|
|Unit cell||a = 4.9133 Å, c = 5.4053 Å; Z=3|
|Color||Colorless through various colors to black|
|Crystal habit||6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical), drusy, fine-grained to microcrystalline, massive|
|Crystal system||α-quartz: trigonal trapezohedral class 3 2; β-quartz: hexagonal 622|
|Twinning||Common Dauphine law, Brazil law and Japan law|
|Mohs scale hardness||7 – lower in impure varieties (defining mineral)|
|Luster||Vitreous – waxy to dull when massive|
|Diaphaneity||Transparent to nearly opaque|
|Specific gravity||2.65; variable 2.59–2.63 in impure varieties|
|Optical properties||Uniaxial (+)|
nω = 1.543–1.545 |
nε = 1.552–1.554
|Birefringence||+0.009 (B-G interval)|
|Melting point||1670 °C (β tridymite) 1713 °C (β cristobalite)|
|Solubility||Insoluble at STP; 1 ppmmass at 400 °C and 500 lb/in2 to 2600 ppmmass at 500 °C and 1500 lb/in2|
|Other characteristics||Piezoelectric, may be triboluminescent, chiral (hence optically active if not racemic)|
Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2.
There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones. Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Crystal habit and structure
- 3 Varieties (according to color)
- 4 Varieties (according to microstructure)
- 5 Synthetic and artificial treatments
- 6 Occurrence
- 7 Related silica minerals
- 8 History
- 9 Piezoelectricity
- 10 Gallery of quartz mineral specimens
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "Quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc", which probably originated in Slavic (cf. Czech tvrdý ("hard"), Polish twardy ("hard"), Croatian tvrd ("hard").
Crystal habit and structure
Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape, or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void; usually the crystals are attached at the other end to a matrix and only one termination pyramid is present. However doubly-terminated crystals do occur where they develop freely without attachment, for instance within gypsum. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward.
α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system, space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β-quartz belongs to the hexagonal system, space group P6222 and P6422, respectively. These space groups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphous pairs). Both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO4 tetrahedra in the present case). The transformation between α- and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another, without change in the way they are linked.
Varieties (according to color)
Pure quartz, traditionally called rock crystal (sometimes called clear quartz), is colorless and transparent (clear) or translucent, and has often been used for hardstone carvings, such as the Lothair Crystal. Common colored varieties include citrine, rose quartz, amethyst, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others. Quartz goes by an array of different names. The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline (individual crystals visible to the unaided eye) and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties (aggregates of crystals visible only under high magnification). The cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz, and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz, or mixed rocks including quartz, often including contrasting bands or patterns of color, are agate, sard, onyx, carnelian, heliotrope, and jasper.
Citrine is a variety of quartz whose color ranges from a pale yellow to brown due to ferric impurities. Natural citrines are rare; most commercial citrines are heat-treated amethysts or smoky quartzes. However, a heat-treated amethyst will have small lines in the crystal, as opposed to a natural citrine's cloudy or smokey appearance. It is nearly impossible to tell cut citrine from yellow topaz visually, but they differ in hardness. Brazil is the leading producer of citrine, with much of its production coming from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The name is derived from Latin citrina which means "yellow" and is also the origin of the word "citron." Sometimes citrine and amethyst can be found together in the same crystal, which is then referred to as ametrine.
Rose quartz is a type of quartz which exhibits a pale pink to rose red hue. The color is usually considered as due to trace amounts of titanium, iron, or manganese, in the massive material. Some rose quartz contains microscopic rutile needles which produces an asterism in transmitted light. Recent X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the color is due to thin microscopic fibers of possibly dumortierite within the massive quartz.
Additionally, there is a rare type of pink quartz (also frequently called crystalline rose quartz) with color that is thought to be caused by trace amounts of phosphate or aluminium. The color in crystals is apparently photosensitive and subject to fading. The first crystals were found in a pegmatite found near Rumford, Maine, USA, but most crystals on the market come from Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Amethyst is a popular form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. The world's largest deposits of amethysts can be found in Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Russia, France, Namibia and Morocco. Sometimes amethyst and citrine are found growing in the same crystal. It is then referred to as ametrine. An amethyst is formed when there is iron in the area where it was formed.
Smoky quartz is a gray, translucent version of quartz. It ranges in clarity from almost complete transparency to a brownish-gray crystal that is almost opaque. Some can also be black.
Milk quartz or milky quartz may be the most common variety of crystalline quartz and can be found almost anywhere. The white color may be caused by minute fluid inclusions of gas, liquid, or both, trapped during the crystal formation. The cloudiness caused by the inclusions effectively bars its use in most optical and quality gemstone applications.
Varieties (according to microstructure)
Although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral, current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Color is a secondary identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals, although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. This does not always hold true.[clarification needed]
|Chalcedony||Cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite mixture. The term is generally only used for white or lightly colored material. Otherwise more specific names are used.|
|Agate||Multi-colored, banded chalcedony, semi-translucent to translucent|
|Onyx||Agate where the bands are straight, parallel and consistent in size.|
|Jasper||Opaque cryptocrystalline quartz, typically red to brown|
|Aventurine||Translucent chalcedony with small inclusions (usually mica) that shimmer.|
|Tiger's eye||Fibrous gold to red-brown colored quartz, exhibiting chatoyancy.|
|Rock crystal||Clear, colorless|
|Citrine||Yellow to reddish orange to brown, greenish yellow|
|Prasiolite||Mint green, transparent|
|Rose quartz||Pink, translucent, may display diasterism|
|Rutilated quartz||Contains acicular (needle-like) inclusions of rutile|
|Milky quartz||White, translucent to opaque, may display diasterism|
|Smoky quartz||Brown to gray, opaque|
|Carnelian||Reddish orange chalcedony, translucent|
|Dumortierite quartz||Contains large amounts of dumortierite crystals|
Synthetic and artificial treatments
Not all varieties of quartz are naturally occurring. Some clear quartz crystals can be treated using heat or gamma-irradiation to induce color where it would not otherwise have occurred naturally. Susceptibility to such treatments depends on the location from which the quartz was mined. Prasiolite, an olive colored material, is produced by heat treatment; natural prasiolite has also been observed in Lower Silesia in Poland. Although citrine occurs naturally, the majority is the result of heat-treated amethyst. Carnelian is widely heat-treated to deepen its color.
Because natural quartz is often twinned, synthetic quartz is produced for use in industry. Large, flawless, single crystals are synthesized in an autoclave via the hydrothermal process; emeralds are also synthesized in this fashion.
Quartz is an essential constituent of granite and other felsic igneous rocks. It is very common in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and shale and is also present in variable amounts as an accessory mineral in most carbonate rocks. It is also a common constituent of schist, gneiss, quartzite and other metamorphic rocks. Because of its resistance to weathering it is very common in stream sediments and in residual soils. Quartz, therefore, occupies the lowest potential to weather in the Goldich dissolution series.
While the majority of quartz crystallizes from molten magma, much quartz also chemically precipitates from hot hydrothermal veins as gangue, sometimes with ore minerals like gold, silver and copper. Large crystals of quartz are found in magmatic pegmatites. Well-formed crystals may reach several meters in length and weigh hundreds of kilograms.
Naturally occurring quartz crystals of extremely high purity, necessary for the crucibles and other equipment used for growing silicon wafers in the semiconductor industry, are expensive and rare. A major mining location for high purity quartz is the Spruce Pine Gem Mine in Spruce Pine, North Carolina, United States.
Related silica minerals
Tridymite and cristobalite are high-temperature polymorphs of SiO2 that occur in high-silica volcanic rocks. Coesite is a denser polymorph of quartz found in some meteorite impact sites and in metamorphic rocks formed at pressures greater than those typical of the Earth's crust. Stishovite is a yet denser and higher-pressure polymorph of quartz found in some meteorite impact sites. Lechatelierite is an amorphous silica glass SiO2 which is formed by lightning strikes in quartz sand.
The word "quartz" comes from the German About this sound Quarz (help·info), which is of Slavic origin (Czech miners called it křemen). Other sources attribute the word's origin to the Saxon word Querkluftertz, meaning cross-vein ore.
Quartz is the most common material identified as the mystical substance maban in Australian Aboriginal mythology. It is found regularly in passage tomb cemeteries in Europe in a burial context, such as Newgrange or Carrowmore in Ireland. The Irish word for quartz is grian cloch, which means 'stone of the sun'. Quartz was also used in Prehistoric Ireland, as well as many other countries, for stone tools; both vein quartz and rock crystal were knapped as part of the lithic technology of the prehistoric peoples.
While jade has been since earliest times the most prized semi-precious stone for carving in East Asia and Pre-Columbian America, in Europe and the Middle East the different varieties of quartz were the most commonly used for the various types of jewelry and hardstone carving, including engraved gems and cameo gems, rock crystal vases, and extravagant vessels. The tradition continued to produce objects that were very highly valued until the mid-19th century, when it largely fell from fashion except in jewelry. Cameo technique exploits the bands of color in onyx and other varieties.
Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder believed quartz to be water ice, permanently frozen after great lengths of time. (The word "crystal" comes from the Greek word κρύσταλλος, "ice".) He supported this idea by saying that quartz is found near glaciers in the Alps, but not on volcanic mountains, and that large quartz crystals were fashioned into spheres to cool the hands. He also knew of the ability of quartz to split light into a spectrum. This idea persisted until at least the 17th century.
In the 17th century, Nicolas Steno's study of quartz paved the way for modern crystallography. He discovered that regardless of a quartz crystal's size or shape, its long prism faces always joined at a perfect 60° angle.
Quartz's piezoelectric properties were discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880. The quartz oscillator or resonator was first developed by Walter Guyton Cady in 1921. George Washington Pierce designed and patented quartz crystal oscillators in 1923. Warren Marrison created the first quartz oscillator clock based on the work of Cady and Pierce in 1927.
Efforts to synthesize quartz began in the mid nineteenth century as scientists attempted to create minerals under laboratory conditions that mimicked the conditions in which the minerals formed in nature: German geologist Karl Emil von Schafhäutl (1803-1890) was the first person to synthesize quartz when in 1845 he created microscopic quartz crystals in a pressure cooker. However, the quality and size of the crystals that were produced by these early efforts were poor. By the 1930s, the electronics industry had become dependent on quartz crystals. The only source of suitable crystals was Brazil; however, World War II disrupted the supplies from Brazil, so nations attempted to synthesize quartz on a commercial scale. German mineralogist Richard Nacken (1884-1971) achieved some success during the 1930s and 1940s. After the war, many laboratories attempted to grow large quartz crystals. In the United States, the U.S. Army Signal Corps contracted with Bell Laboratories and with the Brush Development Company of Cleveland, Ohio to synthesize crystals following Nacken's lead. (Prior to World War II, Brush Development produced piezoelectric crystals for record players.) By 1948, Brush Development had grown crystals that were 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in diameter, the largest to date. By the 1950s, hydrothermal synthesis techniques were producing synthetic quartz crystals on an industrial scale, and today virtually all the quartz crystal used in the modern electronic industry is synthetic.
Quartz crystals have piezoelectric properties; they develop an electric potential upon the application of mechanical stress. An early use of this property of quartz crystals was in phonograph pickups. One of the most common piezoelectric uses of quartz today is as a crystal oscillator. The quartz clock is a familiar device using the mineral. The resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillator is changed by mechanically loading it, and this principle is used for very accurate measurements of very small mass changes in the quartz crystal microbalance and in thin-film thickness monitors.
Gallery of quartz mineral specimens
Locality: Slovakia. Size: 3×2.1×0.7 cm.
An unusual scepter, from Pennoyer Amethyst Mine, Red Feather Lakes, Colorado, USA. Size: 4.5×2.3×1.9 cm.
Citrine, Boekenhoutshoek area, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Size Size: 9.1×4.8×4.2 cm.
Cluster of citrine crystals from a geode
- Fausse citrine.jpg
"Citrine" made by heating amethyst
- Deer, W. A., R. A. Howie and J. Zussman, An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals, Logman, 1966, pp. 340–355 ISBN 0-582-44210-9
- Anthony, John W.; Bideaux, Richard A.; Bladh, Kenneth W. and Nichols, Monte C. (ed.). "Quartz". Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF). III (Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 0962209724.
- Quartz. Mindat.org. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Quartz. Webmineral.com. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis (1985). Manual of Mineralogy (20 ed.). ISBN 0-471-80580-7.
- Harper, Douglas. "quartz". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- Crystal Data, Determinative Tables, ACA Monograph No. 5, American Crystallographic Association, 1963
- Heaney, Peter J. (1994). "Structure and Chemistry of the low-pressure silica polymorphs". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 29 (1): 1–40.
- Citrine. Mindat.org (2013-03-01). Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Rose Quartz. Mindat.org (2013-02-18). Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Colored Varieties of Quartz, Caltech
- Milky quartz at Mineral Galleries. Galleries.com. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Liccini, Mark, Treating Quartz to Create Color, International Gem Society website. Retrieved 22 December 2014
- Nelson, Sue (2009-08-02). "Silicon Valley's secret recipe". BBC News.
- Rickwood, P. C. (1981). "The largest crystals" (PDF). American Mineralogist 66: 885–907 (903).
- German Loan Words in English. German.about.com (2012-04-10). Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Mineral Atlas, Queensland University of Technology. Mineralatlas.com. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Driscoll, Killian (2010). Understanding quartz technology in early prehistoric Ireland. PhD thesis. UCD School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Ireland. Scribd.com. Retrieved 2013-03-07.
- Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 37, Chapter 9. Available on-line at: Perseus.Tufts.edu.
- Nicolaus Steno (Latinized name of Niels Steensen) with John Garrett Winter, trans., The Prodromus of Nicolaus Steno's Dissertation Concerning a Solid Body Enclosed by Process of Nature Within a Solid (New York, New York: Macmillan Co., 1916). On page 272, Steno states his law of constancy of interfacial angles: "Figures 5 and 6 belong to the class of those which I could present in countless numbers to prove that in the plane of the axis both the number and the length of the sides are changed in various ways without changing the angles; … "
- Curie, Jacques; Curie, Pierre (1880). "Développement par compression de l’électricité polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées" [Development, via compression, of electric polarization in hemihedral crystals with inclined faces]. Bulletin de la Société minérologique de France 3: 90–93.. Reprinted in: Curie, Jacques; Curie, Pierre (1880). "Développement, par pression, de l’électricité polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées". Comptes rendus 91: 294–295.
- Curie, Jacques; Curie, Pierre (1880). "Sur l’électricité polaire dans les cristaux hémièdres à faces inclinées" [On electric polarization in hemihedral crystals with inclined faces]. Comptes rendus 91: 383–386.
- Cady, W. G. (1921). "The piezoelectric resonator". Physical Review 17: 531–533.
- "The Quartz Watch – Walter Guyton Cady". The Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution.
- Pierce, G. W. (1923). "Piezoelectric crystal resonators and crystal oscillators applied to the precision calibration of wavemeters". Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 59 (4): 81–106. JSTOR 20026061.
- Pierce, George W. "Electrical system," U.S. Patent 2,133,642, filed: February 25, 1924; issued: October 18, 1938.
- "The Quartz Watch – George Washington Pierce". The Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution.
- "The Quartz Watch – Warren Marrison". The Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution.
- For biographical information about Karl von Schafhäutl, see German Wikipedia's article: Karl Emil von Schafhäutl (in German).
- von Schafhäutl, Karl Emil (10 April 1845). "Die neuesten geologischen Hypothesen und ihr Verhältniß zur Naturwissenschaft überhaupt (Fortsetzung)" [The latest geological hypotheses and their relation to science in general (continuation)]. Gelehrte Anzeigen (München: im Verlage der königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, in Commission der Franz'schen Buchhandlung) 20 (72): 577–584. OCLC 1478717. From page 578: 5) Bildeten sich aus Wasser, in welchen ich im Papinianischen Topfe frisch gefällte Kieselsäure aufgelöst hatte, beym Verdampfen schon nach 8 Tagen Krystalle, die zwar mikroscopisch, aber sehr wohl erkenntlich aus sechseitigen Prismen mit derselben gewöhnlichen Pyramide bestanden. ( 5) There formed from water in which I had dissolved freshly precipitated silicic acid in a Papin pot [i.e., pressure cooker], after just 8 days of evaporating, crystals, which albeit were microscopic but consisted of very easily recognizable six-sided prisms with their usual pyramids.)
- Byrappa, K. and Yoshimura, Masahiro (2001) Handbook of Hydrothermal Technology. Norwich, New York: Noyes Publications. ISBN 008094681X. Chapter 2: History of Hydrothermal Technology.
- Nacken, R. (1950) "Hydrothermal Synthese als Grundlage für Züchtung von Quarz-Kristallen" (Hydrothermal synthesis as a basis for the production of quartz crystals), Chemiker Zeitung, 74 : 745–749.
- Hale, D. R. (1948). "The Laboratory Growing of Quartz". Science 107 (2781): 393. doi:10.1126/science.107.2781.393.
- Lombardi, M. (2011). "The evolution of time measurement, Part 2: Quartz clocks [Recalibration]" (PDF). IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine 14 (5): 41. doi:10.1109/MIM.2011.6041381.
- "Record crystal," Popular Science, 154 (2) : 148 (February 1949).
- Brush Development's team of scientists included: Danforth R. Hale, Andrew R. Sobek, and Charles Baldwin Sawyer (1895-1964). The company's U.S. patents included:
- Sobek, Andrew R. "Apparatus for growing sigle crystals of quartz," U.S. Patent 2,674,520; filed: April 11, 1950; issued: April 6, 1954.
- Sobek, Andrew R. and Hale, Danforth R. "Method and apparatus for growing single crystals of quartz," U.S. Patent 2,675,303; filed: April 11, 1950; issued: April 13, 1954.
- Sawyer, Charles B. "Production of artificial crystals," U.S. Patent 3,013,867; filed: March 27, 1959; issued: December 19, 1961. (This patent was assigned to Sawyer Research Products of Eastlake, Ohio.)
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Quartz.|
|40x40px||Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Quartz varieties, properties, crystal morphology. Photos and illustrations
- Arkansas quartz, Rockhounding Arkansas
- Gilbert Hart Nomenclature of Silica, American Mineralogist, Volume 12, pages 383–395, 1927
- PDF of Charles Sawyer's cultured quartz process description[dead link]
- "The Quartz Watch – Inventors". The Lemelson Center, National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution.
- Terminology used to describe the characteristics of Quartz Crystals when used as oscillators[dead link]
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