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Quran

The Quran (/kɔrˈɑːn/[n 1] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآنal-qur'ān [alqurˈʔaːn],[n 2] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Arabic: الله‎, Allah).[1] Its scriptural status among a world-spanning religious community, and its major place within world literature generally, have led to a great deal of secondary literature on the Quran.[2] Quranic chapters are called suras and verses are called ayahs.

File:IslamicGalleryBritishMuseum3.jpg
11th-century North African Quran in the British Museum.
File:Quran by Imam ali.JPG
Quran - in Mashhad, Iran - written by Ali.

Muslims believe the Quran was verbally revealed by God to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel (Jibril),[3][4] gradually over a period of approximately 23 years, beginning on 22 December 609 CE,[5] when Muhammad was 40, and concluding in 632, the year of his death.[1][6][7] Muslims regard the Quran as the most important miracle of Muhammad, a proof of his prophethood,[8] and the culmination of a series of divine messages that started with the messages revealed to Adam and ended with Muhammad. They consider the Quran to be the only revealed book that has been protected by God from distortion or corruption.[9]

According to the traditional narrative, several companions of Muhammad served as scribes and were responsible for writing down the revelations.[10] Shortly after Muhammad's death, the Quran was compiled by his companions who wrote down and memorized parts of it.[11] These codices had differences that motivated the Caliph Uthman to establish a standard version now known as Uthman's codex, which is generally considered the archetype of the Quran we have today. However, the existence of variant readings, with mostly minor and some significant variations, and the early unvocalized Arabic script mean the relationship between Uthman's codex to both the text of today's Quran and to the revelations of Muhammad's time is still unclear.[10]

The Quran assumes familiarity with major narratives recounted in the Jewish and Christian scriptures. It summarizes some, dwells at length on others and, in some cases, presents alternative accounts and interpretations of events.[12][13][14] The Quran describes itself as a book of guidance. It sometimes offers detailed accounts of specific historical events, and it often emphasizes the moral significance of an event over its narrative sequence.[15][16] The Quran is used along with the hadith to interpret sharia law.[17] During prayers, the Quran is recited only in Arabic.[18]

Someone who has memorized the entire Quran is called a hafiz. Some Muslims read Quranic ayahs (verses) with elocution, which is often called tajwid. During the month of Ramadan, Muslims typically complete the recitation of the whole Quran during tarawih prayers. In order to extrapolate the meaning of a particular Quranic verse, most Muslims rely on the tafsir.[19]

Etymology and meaning

The word qurʼān appears about 70 times in the Quran itself, assuming various meanings. It is a verbal noun (maṣdar) of the Arabic verb qaraʼa (قرأ), meaning "he read" or "he recited". The Syriac equivalent is (ܩܪܝܢܐ) qeryānā, which refers to "scripture reading" or "lesson".[20] While some Western scholars consider the word to be derived from the Syriac, the majority of Muslim authorities hold the origin of the word is qaraʼa itself.[1] Regardless, it had become an Arabic term by Muhammad's lifetime.[1] An important meaning of the word is the "act of reciting", as reflected in an early Quranic passage: "It is for Us to collect it and to recite it (qurʼānahu)."[21]

In other verses, the word refers to "an individual passage recited [by Muhammad]". Its liturgical context is seen in a number of passages, for example: "So when al-qurʼān is recited, listen to it and keep silent."[22] The word may also assume the meaning of a codified scripture when mentioned with other scriptures such as the Torah and Gospel.[23]

The term also has closely related synonyms that are employed throughout the Quran. Each synonym possesses its own distinct meaning, but its use may converge with that of qurʼān in certain contexts. Such terms include kitāb (book); āyah (sign); and sūrah (scripture). The latter two terms also denote units of revelation. In the large majority of contexts, usually with a definite article (al-), the word is referred to as the "revelation" (waḥy), that which has been "sent down" (tanzīl) at intervals.[24][25] Other related words are: dhikr (remembrance), used to refer to the Quran in the sense of a reminder and warning, and ḥikmah (wisdom), sometimes referring to the revelation or part of it.[1][26]

The Quran describes itself as "the discernment or the criterion between truth and falsehood" (al-furqān), "the mother book" (umm al-kitāb), "the guide" (huda), "the wisdom" (hikmah), "the remembrance" (dhikr) and "the revelation" (tanzīl; something sent down, signifying the descent of an object from a higher place to lower place).[27] Another term is al-kitāb (the book), though it is also used in the Arabic language for other scriptures, such as the Torah and the Gospels. The adjective of "Quran" has multiple transliterations including "quranic", "koranic", and "qur'anic", or capitalised as "Qur'anic", "Koranic", and "Quranic". The term mus'haf ('written work') is often used to refer to particular Quranic manuscripts but is also used in the Quran to identify earlier revealed books.[1] Other transliterations of "Quran" include "al-Coran", "Coran", "Kuran", and "al-Qurʼan".[28]

History

Prophetic era

See also: Wahy
File:Cave Hira.jpg
Cave of Hira, location of Muhammad's first revelation.

Islamic tradition relates that Muhammad received his first revelation in the Cave of Hira during one of his isolated retreats to the mountains. Thereafter, he received revelations over a period of 23 years. According to hadith and Muslim history, after Muhammad emigrated to Medina and formed an independent Muslim community, he ordered many of his companions to recite the Quran and to learn and teach the laws, which were revealed daily. It is related that some of the Quraysh who were taken prisoners at the battle of Badr regained their freedom after they had taught some of the Muslims the simple writing of the time. Thus a group of Muslims gradually became literate. As it was initially spoken, the Quran was recorded on tablets, bones, and the wide, flat ends of date palm fronds. Most suras were in use amongst early Muslims since they are mentioned in numerous sayings by both Sunni and Shia sources, relating Muhammad's use of the Quran as a call to Islam, the making of prayer and the manner of recitation. However, the Quran did not exist in book form at the time of Muhammad's death in 632.[29][30][31] There is agreement among scholars that Muhammad himself did not write down the revelation.[32]

File:Surat al-Fatiha inscribed upon the shoulder blade of a camel.jpg
Quranic verse calligraphy, inscribed on the shoulder blade of a camel with inks

Sahih al-Bukhari narrates Muhammad describing the revelations as, "Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell" and Aisha reported, "I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)."[33] Muhammad's first revelation, according to the Quran, was accompanied with a vision. The agent of revelation is mentioned as the "one mighty in power",[34] the one who "grew clear to view when he was on the uppermost horizon. Then he drew nigh and came down till he was (distant) two bows' length or even nearer."[30][35] The Islamic studies scholar Welch states in the Encyclopaedia of Islam that he believes the graphic descriptions of Muhammad's condition at these moments may be regarded as genuine, because he was severely disturbed after these revelations. According to Welch, these seizures would have been seen by those around him as convincing evidence for the superhuman origin of Muhammad's inspirations. However, Muhammad's critics accused him of being a possessed man, a soothsayer or a magician since his experiences were similar to those claimed by such figures well known in ancient Arabia. Welch additionally states that it remains uncertain whether these experiences occurred before or after Muhammad's initial claim of prophethood.[36]

File:Iqra.jpg
Part of Al-Alaq - 96th sura of the Quran - the first revelation received by Muhammad.

The Quran describes Muhammad as "ummi",[37] which is traditionally interpreted as "illiterate," but the meaning is rather more complex. Medieval commentators such as Al-Tabari maintained that the term induced two meanings: first, the inability to read or write in general; second, the inexperience or ignorance of the previous books or scriptures (but they gave priority to the first meaning). Besides, Muhammad's illiteracy was taken as a sign of the genuineness of his prophethood. For example, according to Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, if Muhammad had mastered writing and reading he possibly would have been suspected of having studied the books of the ancestors. Some scholars such as Watt prefer the second meaning.[30][38]

Compilation

Based on earlier transmitted reports, in the year 632, after Muhammad died and a number of his companions who knew the Quran by heart were killed in a battle by Musaylimah, the first caliph Abu Bakr (d. 634) decided to collect the book in one volume so that it could be preserved. Zayd ibn Thabit (d. 655) was the person to collect the Quran since "he used to write the Divine Inspiration for Allah's Apostle". Thus, a group of scribes, most importantly Zayd, collected the verses and produced a hand-written manuscript of the complete book. The manuscript according to Zayd remained with Abu Bakr until he died. Zayd's reaction to the task and the difficulties in collecting the Quranic material from parchments, palm-leaf stalks, thin stones and from men who knew it by heart is recorded in earlier narratives. After Abu Bakr, Hafsa bint Umar, Muhammad's widow, was entrusted with the manuscript. In about 650, the third Caliph Uthman ibn Affan (d. 656) began noticing slight differences in pronunciation of the Quran as Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula into Persia, the Levant, and North Africa. In order to preserve the sanctity of the text, he ordered a committee headed by Zayd to use Abu Bakr's copy and prepare a standard copy of the Quran.[29][39] Thus, within 20 years of Muhammad's death, the Quran was committed to written form. That text became the model from which copies were made and promulgated throughout the urban centers of the Muslim world, and other versions are believed to have been destroyed.[29][40][41][42] The present form of the Quran text is accepted by Muslim scholars to be the original version compiled by Abu Bakr.[30][31][43]

According to Shia and some Sunni scholars, Ali ibn Abi Talib (d. 661) compiled a complete version of the Quran shortly after Muhammad's death. The order of this text differed from that gathered later during Uthman's era in that this version had been collected in chronological order. Despite this, he made no objection against the standardized Quran and accepted the Quran in circulation. Other personal copies of the Quran might have existed including Ibn Mas'ud's and Ubay ibn Ka'b's codex, none of which exist today.[1][29][44]

The Quran most likely existed in scattered written form during Muhammad's lifetime. Several sources indicate that during Muhammad's lifetime a large number of his companions had memorized the revelations. Early commentaries and Islamic historical sources support the above-mentioned understanding of the Quran's early development.[11] The Quran in its present form is generally considered by academic scholars to record the words spoken by Muhammad because the search for variants has not yielded any differences of great significance.[45] Although most variant readings of the text of the Quran have ceased to be transmitted, some still are. There has been no critical text produced on which a scholarly reconstruction of the Quranic text could be based.[46] Historically, controversy over the Quran's content has rarely become an issue, although debates continue on the subject.[47][48]

In 1972, in a mosque in the city of Sana'a, Yemen, manuscripts were discovered that were later proved to be the most ancient Quranic text known to exist. The Sana'a manuscripts contain palimpsests, a manuscript page from which the text has been washed off to make the parchment reusable again—a practice which was common in ancient times due to scarcity of writing material. However, the faint washed-off underlying text (scriptio inferior) is still barely visible and believed to be "pre-Uthmanic" Quranic content, while the text written on top (scriptio superior) is believed to belong to Uthmanic time.[49] Studies using radiocarbon dating indicate that the parchments are dated to the period before 671 AD with a 99 percent probability.[50][51]

The written Quran does not begin with the surah which is believed to be the first revealed, "Iqra be ismekallazi". The Iqra be ismi kallazi surah falls at number 96 instead.[citation needed]

Significance in Islam

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[clarification needed]

The Quran speaks well[citation needed] of the relationship it has with former books (the Torah and the Gospels) and attributes their similarities to their unique origin and saying all of them have been revealed by the one God.[127]

According to Sahih al-Bukhari, the Quran was recited among Levantines and Iraqis, and discussed by Christians and Jews, before it was standardized.[128] Its language was similar to the Syriac language.[citation needed] The Quran recounts stories of many of the people and events recounted in Jewish and Christian sacred books (Tanakh, Bible) and devotional literature (Apocrypha, Midrash), although it differs in many details. Adam, Enoch, Noah, Eber, Shelah, Abraham, Lot, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Jethro, David, Solomon, Elijah, Elisha, Jonah, Aaron, Moses, Zechariah, John the Baptist and Jesus are mentioned in the Quran as prophets of God (see Prophets of Islam). In fact, Moses is mentioned more in the Quran than any other individual.[129] Jesus is mentioned more often in the Quran than Muhammad, while Mary is mentioned in the Quran more than the New Testament.[130] Muslims believe the common elements or resemblances between the Bible and other Jewish and Christian writings and Islamic dispensations is due to their common divine source,[citation needed] and that the original Christian or Jewish texts were authentic divine revelations given to prophets.

Relationships

Some non-Muslim groups such as Baha'is and Druze view the Quran as holy. Unitarian Universalists may also seek inspiration from the Quran. The Quran has been noted to have certain narratives similarities to the Diatessaron, Protoevangelium of James, Infancy Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew and the Arabic Infancy Gospel.[131][132][133] One scholar has suggested that the Diatessaron, as a gospel harmony, may have led to the conception that the Christian Gospel is one text.[134]

Arab writing

File:Large Koran.jpg
Page from a Quran ('Umar-i Aqta'). Iran, Afghanistan, Timurid dynasty, circa 1400. Opaque watercolor, ink and gold on paper Muqaqqaq script. 170 × 109 cm (66 1516 × 42 1516 in). Historical region: Uzbekistan.

After the Quran, and the general rise of Islam, the Arabic alphabet developed rapidly into an art form.[44]

Wadad Kadi, Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations at University of Chicago, and Mustansir Mir, Professor of Islamic studies at Youngstown State University, state:[135]

Although Arabic, as a language and a literary tradition, was quite well developed by the time of Muhammad's prophetic activity, it was only after the emergence of Islam, with its founding scripture in Arabic, that the language reached its utmost capacity of expression, and the literature its highest point of complexity and sophistication. Indeed, it probably is no exaggeration to say that the Quran was one of the most conspicuous forces in the making of classical and post-classical Arabic literature.

The main areas in which the Quran exerted noticeable influence on Arabic literature are diction and themes; other areas are related to the literary aspects of the Quran particularly oaths (q.v.), metaphors, motifs and symbols. As far as diction is concerned, one could say that Quranic words, idioms and expressions, especially "loaded" and formulaic phrases, appear in practically all genres of literature and in such abundance that it is simply impossible to compile a full record of them. For not only did the Quran create an entirely new linguistic corpus to express its message, it also endowed old, pre-Islamic words with new meanings and it is these meanings that took root in the language and subsequently in the literature...

See also

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Notes

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2007). "Qurʼān". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  2. ^ McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (2001). "Preface". Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān 1. Leiden: Brill. p. x. ISBN 978-90-04-11465-4. 
  3. ^ Lambert, Gray (2013). The Leaders Are Coming!. WestBow Press. p. 287. ISBN 9781449760137. 
  4. ^ Roy H. Williams; Michael R. Drew (2012). Pendulum: How Past Generations Shape Our Present and Predict Our Future. Vanguard Press. p. 143. ISBN 9781593157067. 
  5. ^
    • Chronology of Prophetic Events, Fazlur Rehman Shaikh (2001) p. 50 Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
    • Quran 17:105
  6. ^ a b Living Religions: An Encyclopaedia of the World's Faiths, Mary Pat Fisher, 1997, page 338, I.B. Tauris Publishers.
  7. ^ Quran 17:106
  8. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). The Words and Will of God. Princeton University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-691-11461-7. 
  9. ^ Understanding the Qurán - Page xii, Ahmad Hussein Sakr - 2000
  10. ^ a b Donner, Fred, "The historical context" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 31–33.
  11. ^ a b c Campo, Juan E. (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Facts On File. pp. 570–74. ISBN 0-8160-5454-1. 
  12. ^ Nigosian, S.A. (2004). Islam : its history, teaching and practices ([New ed.]. ed.). Indiana Univ. Press. pp. 65–80. ISBN 0-253-21627-3. 
  13. ^ Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Prophets in the Quran: an introduction to the Quran and Muslim exegesis. Continuum. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8264-4956-6. 
  14. ^ Quran 3:84
  15. ^ Nasr (2003), p. 42[full citation needed]
  16. ^ Quran 2:67–76
  17. ^ Handbook of Islamic Marketing, Page 38, G. Rice - 2011
  18. ^ Literacy and Development: Ethnographic Perspectives - Page 193, Brian V Street - 2001
  19. ^ Apocalypse And/or Metamorphosis - Page 81, Norman Oliver Brown - 1991
  20. ^ "qryn". Retrieved 31 August 2013. 
  21. ^ Quran 75:17
  22. ^ Quran 7:204
  23. ^ See "Ķur'an, al-," Encyclopedia of Islam Online and [Quran 9:111]
  24. ^ Quran 20:2 cf.
  25. ^ Quran 25:32 cf.
  26. ^ According to Welch in the Encyclopedia of Islam, the verses pertaining to the usage of the word hikma should probably be interpreted in the light of IV, 105, where it is said that "Muhammad is to judge (tahkum) mankind on the basis of the Book sent down to him."
  27. ^ Abbas Jaffer, Masuma Jaffer (2009). Quranic Sciences. ICAS press. pp. 11–15. ISBN 1-904063-30-6. 
  28. ^ "Quran", "Koran". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
  29. ^ a b c d Tabatabai, Sayyid M. H. (1987). The Qur'an in Islam : its impact and influence on the life of muslims. Zahra Publ. ISBN 0710302665. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Richard Bell (Revised and Enlarged by W. Montgomery Watt) (1970). Bell's introduction to the Qur'an. Univ. Press. pp. 31–51. ISBN 0852241712. 
  31. ^ a b P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton and Bernard Lewis (1970). The Cambridge history of Islam (Reprint. ed.). Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780521291354. 
  32. ^ Denffer, Ahmad von (1985). Ulum al-Qur'an : an introduction to the sciences of the Qur an (Repr. ed.). Islamic Foundation. p. 37. ISBN 0860371328. 
  33. ^ Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 1. Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. "God's Apostle replied, 'Sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired. Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me and I grasp whatever he says.' ʻAisha added: Verily I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the Sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)."
  34. ^ Quran 53:5
  35. ^ Quran 53:6–9
  36. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam online, Muhammad article
  37. ^ Quran 7:157
  38. ^ Günther, Sebastian (2002). "Muhammad, the Illiterate Prophet: An Islamic Creed in the Quran and Quranic Exegesis". Journal of Quranic Studies 4 (1): 1–26. doi:10.3366/jqs.2002.4.1.1. 
  39. ^ al-Bukhari, Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari, volume 6, book 61, narrations number 509 and 510". 810-870 CE. http://www.sahih-bukhari.com. Retrieved Aug 2013. 
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h Rippin, Andrew et al. (2006). The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an ([2a reimpr.] ed.). Blackwell. ISBN 978140511752-4. 
    • see section Poetry and Language by Navid Kermani, p.107-120.
    • For eschatology, see Discovering (final destination) by Christopher Buck, p.30.
    • For writing and printing, see section Written Transmission by François Déroche, p.172-187.
    • For literary structure, see section Language by Mustansir Mir, p.93.
    • For the history of compilation see Introduction by Tamara Sonn p.5-6
    • For recitation, see Recitation by Anna M. Gade p.481-493
  41. ^ Mohamad K. Yusuff, Zayd ibn Thabit and the Glorious Qur'an
  42. ^ The Koran; A Very Short Introduction, Michael Cook. Oxford University Press, pp. 117–124
  43. ^ F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: "Few have failed to be convinced that … the Quran is … the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation."
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Qur'an: an Encyclopedia. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32639-7. 
    • For God in the Quran (Allah), see Allah by Zeki Saritoprak, p. 33-40.
    • For eschatology, see Eschatology by Zeki Saritoprak, p. 194-199.
    • For searching the Arabic text on the internet and writing, see Cyberspace and the Qur'an by Andrew Rippin, p.159-163.
    • For calligraphy, see by Calligraphy and the Qur'an by Oliver Leaman, p 130-135.
    • For translation, see Translation and the Qur'an by Afnan Fatani, p.657-669.
    • For recitation, see Art and the Qur'an by Tamara Sonn, p.71-81 and Reading by Stefan Wild, p.532-535.
  45. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=hbEEuTMUuX0C&pg=PA283&lpg=PA283&dq=Edwin+E.+Hitti&source=bl&ots=cm5NgZBAR1&sig=qm_F2npxKB_KKouWU5xgX-fQ5Gg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=2gYOU9z-F4Pr2AXdl4CQAg&ved=0CEYQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Edwin%20E.%20Hitti&f=false
  46. ^ For both the claim that variant readings are still transmitted and the claim that no such critical edition has been produced, see Gilliot, C., "Creation of a fixed text" in McAuliffe, J. D. (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'ān (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 52.
  47. ^ Arthur Jeffery and St. Clair-Tisdal et al, Edited by Ibn Warraq, Summarised by Sharon Morad, Leeds. "The Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam's Holy Book". Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
  48. ^ F. E. Peters (1991), pp.3–5: "Few have failed to be convinced that the Quran is the words of Muhammad, perhaps even dictated by him after their recitation."
  49. ^ "'The Qur'an: Text, Interpretation and Translation' Third Biannual SOAS Conference, October 16–17, 2003". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 6 (1): 143–145. April 2004. doi:10.3366/jqs.2004.6.1.143. 
  50. ^ Bergmann, Uwe; Sadeghi, Behnam (September 2010). "The Codex of a Companion of the Prophet and the Qurān of the Prophet". Arabica 57 (4): 343–436. doi:10.1163/157005810X504518. 
  51. ^ Sadeghi, Behnam; Goudarzi, Mohsen (March 2012). "Ṣan'ā' 1 and the Origins of the Qur'ān". Der Islam 87 (1-2): 1–129. doi:10.1515/islam-2011-0025. 
  52. ^ Watton, Victor, (1993), A student's approach to world religions:Islam, Hodder & Stoughton, pg 1. ISBN 978-0-340-58795-9
  53. ^ See:
  54. ^ Jenssen, H., "Arabic Language" in McAuliffe et al. (eds.), Encyclopaedia of the Qur'ān, vol. 1 (Brill, 2001), pp. 127-135.
  55. ^ a b c Sonn, Tamara (2010). Islam : a brief history (Second ed. ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-8093-1. 
  56. ^ Quran 85:22
  57. ^ Corbin (1993), p.10
  58. ^ Mir Sajjad Ali, Zainab Rahman (2010). Islam and Indian Muslims. Kalpaz Publications. p. 21. ISBN 8178358050. 
  59. ^ Quran 1:1–7
  60. ^ Afghan Quran-burning protests: What's the right way to dispose of a Quran? - Slate Magazine
  61. ^ Sengers -, Erik (2005). Dutch and Their Gods. p. 129. 
  62. ^ Quran 17:88
  63. ^ Vasalou, Sophia (2002). "The Miraculous Eloquence of the Qur'an: General Trajectories and Individual Approaches". Journal of Qur'anic Studies 4 (2): 23–53. doi:10.3366/jqs.2002.4.2.23. 
  64. ^ See:
    • "Kur`an, al-," Encyclopaedia of Islam Online
    • Allen (2000) p. 53
  65. ^ Dukes, Kais. "RE: Number of Unique Words in the Quran". www.mail-archive.com. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  66. ^ a b Saeed, Abdullah (2008). The Qurʼan : an introduction. London: Routledge. p. 62. ISBN 9780415421249. 
  67. ^ Quran 67:3
  68. ^ Haleem, Muhammad Abdel (2005). Understanding the Qur'an : themes and style. I.B. Tauris. p. 82. ISBN 9781860646508. 
  69. ^ a b c Martin, Richard C. (2003). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). Macmillan Reference USA. pp. 568–62 (By Farid Esack). ISBN 0028656032. 
  70. ^ Quran 41:43
  71. ^ Izutsu, Toshihiko (2007). Ethico-religious concepts in the Qur'an (Repr. 2007 ed.). McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 184. ISBN 0773524274. 
  72. ^ Quran 2:274
  73. ^ Quran 9:103
  74. ^ Issa Boullata, "Literary Structure of Quran", Encyclopedia of the Qurʾān, vol.3 p.192, 204
  75. ^ Jewishencyclopedia.com – Körner, Moses B. Eliezer
  76. ^ "The final process of collection and codification of the Quran text was guided by one over-arching principle: God's words must not in any way be distorted or sullied by human intervention. For this reason, no serious attempt, apparently, was made to edit the numerous revelations, organize them into thematic units, or present them in chronological order.... This has given rise in the past to a great deal of criticism by European and American scholars of Islam, who find the Quran disorganized, repetitive and very difficult to read." Approaches to the Asian Classics, Irene Blomm, William Theodore De Bary, Columbia University Press, 1990, p. 65
  77. ^ Samuel Pepys: "One feels it difficult to see how any mortal ever could consider this Quran as a Book written in Heaven, too good for the Earth; as a well-written book, or indeed as a book at all; and not a bewildered rhapsody; written, so far as writing goes, as badly as almost any book ever was!" http://maxwellinstitute.byu.edu/display.php?table=review&id=21
  78. ^ Michael Sells, Approaching the Qur'ān (White Cloud Press, 1999)
  79. ^ Norman O. Brown, "The Apocalypse of Islam". Social Text 3:8 (1983–1984)
  80. ^ Quran 21:50
  81. ^ Wild, ed. by Stefan (2006). Self-referentiality in the Qur'an. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3447053836. 
  82. ^ Preface of Al'-Mizan, reference is to Allameh Tabatabaei
  83. ^ Quran 2:151
  84. ^ Tafseer Al-Mizan
  85. ^ How can there be abrogation in the Quran?
  86. ^ Are the verses of the Qur'an Abrogated and/or Substituted?
  87. ^ Islahi, Amin Ahsan. "Abrogation in the Qur'ān". Renaissance Journal. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  88. ^ Tafsir Kabeer by Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad
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  94. ^ Quran 3:7
  95. ^ Tabatabaee (1988), pp. 37–45
  96. ^ Mojaddedi, Jawid (2008). The Blackwell companion to the Qur'an (Pbk. ed. ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 363–373. ISBN 1405188200. 
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  102. ^ Aslan, Reza (20 November 2008). "How To Read the Quran". Slate. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
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  104. ^ Monthlycrescent.com
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  111. ^ Melchert, Christopher (2000). "Ibn Mujahid and the Establishment of Seven Qur'anic Readings". Studia Islamica (91): 5–22. 
  112. ^ Small, Keith E. (2011). Textual Criticism and Qur'an Manuscripts. Lexington Books. pp. 109–111. ISBN 9780739142912. 
  113. ^ Melchert, Christopher (2008). "The Relation of the Ten Readings to One Another". Journal of Quranic Studies 10 (2): 73–87. doi:10.3366/e1465359109000424. 
  114. ^ Hekmat Nasser, Shady (2012). The Transmission of the Variant Readings of the Quran: The Problem of Tawatur and the Emergence of Shawdhdh. Brill Academic Pub. ISBN 9004240810. 
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Further reading

Introductory texts:

Traditional Quranic commentaries (tafsir):

Main article: List of tafsir

Topical studies:

  • Stowasser, Barbara Freyer. Women in the Qur'an, Traditions and Interpretation, Oxford University Press; Reprint edition (June 1, 1996), ISBN 978-0-19-511148-4
  • Gibson, Dan (2011). Qur'anic Geography: A Survey and Evaluation of the Geographical References in the Qur'an with Suggested Solutions for Various Problems and Issues. Independent Scholars Press, Canada. ISBN 978-0-9733642-8-6.
  • McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (1991). Qurʼānic Christians : an analysis of classical and modern exegesis. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36470-6. 
  • Siljander, Mark D.; Mann, John David (2008). A Deadly Misunderstanding: a Congressman's Quest to Bridge the Muslim-Christian Divide. New York: Harper One. ISBN 9780061438288. 

Literary criticism:

Encyclopedias:

Academic journals:

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