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Open Access Articles- Top Results for R
Advances in Crop Science and TechnologyGenetic Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Yield and its Related Traits in Rainfed Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Genotypes at Fogera
Advances in Crop Science and TechnologyEvaluation of Synergistic Effect Organic and Inorganic Fertilizing System on Grain Yield of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Southern Tigray, N
Advances in Crop Science and TechnologySaving the Farmers and Strengthening Food Security by a Promising R cum F Agriculture
Journal of Powder Metallurgy & MiningLaser Cleaning Treatment and its Influence on the Surface Microstructure of CFRP Composite Material
Journal of Powder Metallurgy & MiningTungsten and the Mining Industry
| Egyptian hieroglyph
| archaic Greek/Old Italic
| Roman square capital
|15th century Florentine
|blackletter (Fraktur)||German kurrent||modern cursive|
|<hiero>D1</hiero>||x30px||x40px File:Greek Rho 03.svgFile:Greek Rho 06.svgFile:Greek Rho round-tack.svg||File:R Agrippa.png||File:RomanR-01.png||File:Fraktur letter R.png||File:Kurrent R.svg||File:R cursiva.gif|
The original Semitic letter may have been inspired by an Egyptian hieroglyph for tp, "head". It was used for /r/ by Semites because in their language, the word for "head" was rêš (also the name of the letter). It developed into Greek 'Ρ' ῥῶ (rhô) and Latin R.
The descending stroke develops as a graphic variant in some Western Greek alphabets (writing rho as File:Greek Rho 03.svg), but it was not adopted in most Old Italic alphabets; most Old Italic alphabets show variants of their rho between a "P" and a "D" shape, but without the Western Greek descending stroke. Indeed, the oldest known forms of the Latin alphabet itself of the 7th to 6th centuries BC, in the Duenos and the Forum inscription, still write r using the "P" shape of the letter. The Lapis Satricanus inscription shows the form of the Latin alphabet around 500 BC. Here, the rounded, closing Π shape of the p and the Ρ shape of the r have become difficult to distinguish. The descending stroke of the Latin letter R has fully developed by the 3rd century BC, as seen in the Tomb of the Scipios sarcophagus inscriptions of that era. At the same time, the letter P could now be written with its loop fully closed, assuming the shape formerly taken by R.
The minuscule (lowercase) form (r) developed through several variations on the capital form. Along with Latin minuscule writing in general, it developed ultimately from Roman cursive via the uncial script of Late Antiquity into the Carolingian minuscule of the 9th century.
In handwriting, it was common not to close the bottom of the loop but continue into the leg, saving an extra pen stroke. The loop-leg stroke shortened into the simple arc used in the Carolingian minuscule and until today.
A calligraphic minuscule r, known as r rotunda (ꝛ), was used in the sequence or, bending the shape of the r to accommodate the bulge of the o (as in oꝛ as opposed to or). Later, the same variant was also used where r followed other lower case letters with a rounded loop towards the right (such as b, h, p) and to write the geminate rr (as ꝛꝛ). Use of r rotunda was mostly tied to blackletter typefaces, and the glyph fell out of use along with blackletter fonts, in English language contexts mostly by the 18th century.
Insular script used a minuscule which retained two downward stroke, but which did not close the loop ("Insular r", ꞃ); this variant survives in the Gaelic type popular in Ireland until the mid 20th century (but now mostly limited to decorative purposes).
The name of the letter in Latin was er (/ɛr/), following the pattern of other letters representing continuants, such as F, L, M, N and S. This name is preserved in French and many other languages. In Middle English, the name of the letter changed from /ɛr/ to /ar/, following a pattern exhibited in many other words such as farm (compare French ferme), and star (compare German Stern).
The letter R is sometimes referred to as the littera canina (canine letter). This phrase has Latin origins: the Latin R was trilled to sound like a growling dog. A good example of a trilling R is the Spanish word for dog, perro.
In William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, such a reference is made by Juliet's nurse in Act 2, scene 4, when she calls the letter R "the dog's name". The reference is also found in Ben Jonson's English Grammar.
The letter R is the eighth most common letter in English and the fourth-most common consonant (after 't', 'n', and 's'). R represents a rhotic consonant in many languages, as shown in the table below. The International Phonetic Alphabet uses several variations of the letter to represent the different rhotic consonants; [r] represents the alveolar trill.
|Alveolar trill [r]||Listen||some dialects of British English or in emphatic speech, standard Dutch, Finnish, Galician, German in some dialects, Hungarian, Icelandic, Italian, Czech, Lithuanian, Latvian, Latin, Norwegian mostly in the northwest, Polish, Catalan, Portuguese (traditional form), Romanian, Scots, Slovak, Spanish and Albanian 'rr', Swedish, Welsh|
|Alveolar approximant [ɹ]||Listen||English (most varieties), Dutch in some Dutch dialects (in specific positions of words), Faroese, Sicilian|
|Alveolar flap / Alveolar tap [ɾ]||Listen||Portuguese, Catalan, Spanish and Albanian 'r', Turkish, Dutch, Italian, Venetian, Galician, Leonese, Norwegian, Irish|
|Voiced retroflex fricative [ʐ]||Listen||Norwegian around Tromsø, Spanish used as an allophone of /r/ in some South American accents|
|Retroflex approximant [ɻ]||Listen||some English dialects (in America, South West England, and Dublin), Gutnish|
|Retroflex flap [ɽ]||Listen||Norwegian when followed by <d>, sometimes in Scottish English|
|Uvular trill [ʀ]||Listen||German stage standard; some Dutch dialects (in Brabant and Limburg, and some city dialects in The Netherlands), Swedish in Southern Sweden, Norwegian in western and southern parts|
|Voiced uvular fricative [ʁ]||Listen||German, Danish, French, standard European Portuguese 'rr', standard Brazilian Portuguese 'rr', Puerto Rican Spanish 'rr' and 'r-', Norwegian in western and southern parts.|
Other languages may use the letter 'r' in their alphabets (or Latin transliterations schemes) to represent rhotic consonants different from the alveolar trill. In Haitian Creole, it represents a sound so weak that it is often written interchangeably with 'w', e.g. 'Kweyol' for 'Kreyol'.
Brazilian Portuguese has a great number of allophones of /ʁ/ such as [χ], [h], [ɦ], [x], [ɣ], [ɹ] and [r], the latter three ones can be used only in certain contexts ([ɣ] and [r] as 'rr'; [ɹ] in the syllable coda, as an allophone of /ɾ/ according to the European Portuguese norm and /ʁ/ according to the Brazilian Portuguese norm). Usually at least two of them are present in a single dialect, such as Rio de Janeiro's [ʁ], [χ], [ɦ] and, for a few speakers, [ɣ].
The letter R is used both inside and outside American English with the letter E to form the ending: "-re", which is used in certain words such as centre. In American English, the "-re" ending is used, but the letters that make up the "-re" ending are inverted, making certain words that use the "-re" ending look like this: center. Pronunciation of words that use "-re" is not affected, because in British English, said word mentioned (centre) uses the same pronunciation as its American English variant.
- 1 Also for encodings based on ASCII, including the DOS, Windows, ISO-8859 and Macintosh families of encodings.
Unicode has a number of variants of the letter R:
- 𝐑𝐫 𝑅𝑟 𝑹𝒓 𝖱𝗋 𝗥𝗿 𝘙𝘳 𝙍𝙧 ℛ𝓇 𝓡𝓻 ℜ𝔯 𝕽𝖗 𝚁𝚛 ℝ𝕣 Unicode font variants for use as mathematical symbols (Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols, Letterlike symbols)
- ʀ small capital R, introduced as the IPA symbol for Uvular trill
- Ꝛ ꝛ r rotunda
- Ꞃ ꞃ "Insular" R (Gaelic type)
- Ʀ "LATIN LETTER YR" (U+01A6), introduced in Latin Extended B as the capitalized letter corresponding to ʀ "LATIN LETTER SMALL CAPITAL R" in its application as transliteration of the Younger Futhark rune Yr (ᛦ)
- ɹ IPA symbol for alveolar approximant
- ɾ IPA symbol for alveolar flap
- ɻ IPA symbol for retroflex approximant
- ɽ IPA symbol for retroflex flap
- ʁ IPA symbol for voiced uvular fricative
- ˞ IPA "hook diacritic" denoting an r-colored vowel
- ® registered trademark symbol
- ℟ symbol for "response" in liturgy
- ₽ historical ruble currency symbol
Related letters and other similar characters
The cognate letters of Latin R (derived from Phoenician 𐤓 rēš):
- ר : Hebrew letter resh
- Ρ ρ/ϱ : Greek letter Rho
- 𐌓 : Etruscan letter R
- ᚱ : runic letter raido
- 𐍂 : Gothic letter reda
- Р р : Cyrillic letter Er
Similar-looking unrelated letters
- "R", Oxford English Dictionary || /ˈɔr/ 2nd edition (1989); "ar", op. cit; a pronunciation // is common in Ireland.
- "A Word A Day: Dog's letter". Wordsmith.org. Retrieved 2012-01-17.
- Shakespeare, William; Horace Howard Furness; Frederick Williams (1913). Romeo and Juliet. Lippincott. p. 189.
- English Letter Frequency
- 16x16px Media related to R at Wikimedia Commons
- 16x16px The dictionary definition of R at Wiktionary
- 16x16px The dictionary definition of r at Wiktionary