RMS Queen Mary
| RMS Queen Mary
RMS Queen Mary in Long Beach, California
<th height="30" style="background-color:#B0C4DE;text-align:center;vertical-align:middle;font-size:110%;">Career </th>
Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Queen Mary</td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top;"><td>Namesake:</td><td>
Mary of Teck</td></tr><tr style="vertical-align:top;"><td>Owner:</td><td>
1936–49: Cunard White Star Line
RMS Queen Mary</td></tr><tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align:center;border: 0;">
}}</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;font-weight:bold; border: 0;">NRHP Reference #</th><td style="border: 0;"> 92001714</td></tr><tr><th scope="row" style="text-align:left;font-weight:bold; border: 0;">Added to NRHP</th><td style="border: 0;"> 15 April 1993</td></tr>
RMS Queen Mary is a retired ocean liner that sailed primarily on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line (known as Cunard-White Star Line when the vessel entered service). Built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Scotland, Queen Mary along with her running mate, the RMS Queen Elizabeth, were built as part of Cunard's planned two-ship weekly express service between Southampton, Cherbourg, and New York City. The two ships were a British response to the superliners built by German and French companies in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth.
Queen Mary sailed on her maiden voyage on 27 May 1936 and captured the Blue Riband in August of that year; she lost the title to SS Normandie in 1937 and recaptured it in 1938, holding it until 1952 when she was beaten by the new SS United States. With the outbreak of World War II, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers for the duration of the war. Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service and along with Queen Elizabeth, commenced the two-ship transatlantic passenger service for which the two ships were initially built. The two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss.
After several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was officially retired from service in 1967. She left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, California, United States, where she remains permanently moored. Much of the machinery, including one of the two engine rooms, three of the four propellers, and all of the boilers, were removed. The ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring restaurants, a museum, and hotel. The ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America.
Construction and naming
With Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80,000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75,000-ton unnamed ship of their own.
Construction on the ship, then known only as "Hull Number 534", began in December 1930 on the River Clyde by the John Brown & Company shipyard at Clydebank in Scotland. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression and Cunard applied to the British Government for a loan to complete 534. The loan was granted, with enough money to complete Queen Mary and to build a running mate, Hull No. 552, which became Queen Elizabeth. One condition of the loan was that Cunard would merge with the White Star Line, which was Cunard's chief British rival at the time and which had already been forced by the depression to cancel construction of its Oceanic. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934. Work on Queen Mary resumed immediately and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion ultimately took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling. Much of the ship's interior was designed and constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild.
The ship was named after Queen Mary, consort of King George V. Until her launch, the name she was to be given was kept a closely guarded secret. Legend has it that Cunard intended to name the ship Victoria, in keeping with company tradition of giving its ships names ending in "ia", but when company representatives asked the king's permission to name the ocean liner after Britain's "greatest queen", he said his wife, Queen Mary, would be delighted. And so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice but to report that No. 534 would be called Queen Mary. This story was denied by company officials, and traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy. Some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, who sailed as a guest of the Cunard Line on Queen Mary 's 1936 maiden voyage. In his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship "on condition you won't print it during my lifetime." The name Queen Mary could also have been decided upon as a compromise between Cunard and the White Star Line, as both lines had traditions of using names either ending in "ic" with White Star and "ia" with Cunard.
There was already a Clyde turbine steamer named TS Queen Mary, so Cunard White Star reached an agreement with the owners that the existing steamer would be renamed TS Queen Mary II, and in 1934 the new liner was launched by Queen Mary as RMS Queen Mary. On her way down the slipway, Queen Mary was slowed by eighteen drag chains, which checked the liner's progress into the Clyde, a portion of which had been widened to accommodate the launch.
When she sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton, England on 27 May 1936, she was commanded by Sir Edgar T. Britten, who had been the master designate for Cunard White Star whilst the ship was under construction at the John Brown shipyard. Queen Mary had a 80,774 [[Gross tonnage#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.gross tonnage (GT)]]; her rival, Normandie, which originally grossed 79,280 tonnes, had been modified the preceding winter to increase her size to 83,243 [[Gross tonnage#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.GT]] (an enclosed tourist lounge was built on the aft boat deck on the area where the game court was), and therefore kept the title of the world's largest ocean liner. Queen Mary sailed at high speeds for most of her maiden voyage to New York, until heavy fog forced a reduction of speed on the final day of the crossing.
In August 1936, Queen Mary captured the Blue Riband from Normandie, with average speeds of Script error: No such module "convert". westbound and Script error: No such module "convert". eastbound. Normandie was refitted with a new set of propellers in 1937 and reclaimed the honour, but in 1938 Queen Mary took back the Blue Riband in both directions with average speeds of Script error: No such module "convert". westbound and Script error: No such module "convert". eastbound, records which stood until lost to United States in 1952.
Among facilities available on board Queen Mary, the liner featured two indoor swimming pools, beauty salons, libraries, and children's nurseries for all three classes, a music studio and lecture hall, telephone connectivity to anywhere in the world, outdoor paddle tennis courts, and dog kennels. The largest room onboard was the cabin class (first class) main dining room (grand salon), spanning three stories in height and anchored by wide columns. The cabin-class swimming pool facility spanned over two decks in height. This was the first ocean liner to be equipped with her own Jewish prayer roomTemplate:Spaced ndashpart of a policy to show that British shipping lines avoided the racism evident at that time in Nazi Germany.
The cabin-class main dining room featured a large map of the transatlantic crossing, with twin tracks symbolising the winter/spring route (further south to avoid icebergs) and the summer/autumn route. During each crossing, a motorised model of Queen Mary would indicate the vessel's progress en route.
As an alternative to the main dining room, the Queen Mary featured a separate cabin-class Verandah Grill on the Sun Deck at the upper aft of the ship. The Verandah Grill was an exclusive à la carte restaurant with a capacity of approximately eighty passengers, and was converted to the Starlight Club at night. Also on board was the Observation Bar, an Art Deco-styled lounge with wide ocean views.
Woods from different regions of the British Empire were used in her public rooms and staterooms. Accommodation ranged from fully equipped, luxurious cabin (first) class staterooms to modest and cramped third-class cabins. Artists commissioned by Cunard in 1933 for works of art in the interior include Edward Wadsworth and A. Duncan Carse.
|Queen Mary Art Deco Interiors|
World War II
In late August 1939, Queen Mary was on a return run from New York to Southampton. The international situation led to her being escorted by the battlecruiser HMS Hood. She arrived safely, and set out again for New York on 1 September. By the time she arrived, the Second World War had started and she was ordered to remain in port alongside Normandie until further notice. In March 1940 Queen Mary and Normandie were joined in New York by Queen Mary 's new running mate Queen Elizabeth, fresh from her secret dash from Clydebank. The three largest liners in the world sat idle for some time until the Allied commanders decided that all three ships could be used as troopships (Normandie was destroyed by fire during her troopship conversion). Queen Mary left New York for Sydney, Australia, where she, along with several other liners, was converted into a troopship to carry Australian and New Zealand soldiers to the United Kingdom.
In the WWII conversion, the ship's hull, superstructure and funnels were painted navy grey. As a result of her new colour, and in combination with her great speed, she became known as the "Grey Ghost." To protect against magnetic mines, a degaussing coil was fitted around the outside of the hull. Inside, stateroom furniture and decoration were removed and replaced with triple-tiered wooden bunks (which were later replaced by standee bunks). Six miles of carpet, 220 cases of china, crystal and silver service, tapestries and paintings were removed and stored in warehouses for the duration of the war. The woodwork in the staterooms, the cabin-class dining room and other public areas was covered with leather. Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were the largest and fastest troopships involved in the war, often carrying as many as 15,000 men in a single voyage, and often traveling out of convoy and without escort. Their high speed made it difficult for U boats to catch them.
On 2 October 1942, Queen Mary accidentally sank one of her escort ships, slicing through the light cruiser HMS Curacoa off the Irish coast with a loss of 239 lives. Queen Mary was carrying thousands of Americans of the 29th Infantry Division to join the Allied forces in Europe. Due to the risk of U-boat attacks, Queen Mary was under orders not to stop under any circumstances and steamed onward with a fractured stem. Some sources claim that hours later, the convoy's lead escort[clarification needed] returned to rescue 99 survivors of Curacoa 's crew of 338, including her captain John W. Boutwood. This claim is contradicted by the liner's then Staff Captain (and later Cunard Commodore) Harry Grattidge, who records that Queen Mary 's Captain immediately ordered the accompanying destroyers to look for survivors within moments of the Curacoa 's sinking.
In December 1942, Queen Mary carried 16,082 American soldiers from New York to Great Britain, a standing record for the most passengers ever transported on one vessel. During this trip, while Script error: No such module "convert". from Scotland during a gale, she was suddenly hit broadside by a rogue wave that may have reached a height of Script error: No such module "convert".. An account of this crossing can be found in Walter Ford Carter's book, No Greater Sacrifice, No Greater Love. Carter's father, Dr. Norval Carter, part of the 110th Station Hospital on board at the time, wrote that at one point Queen Mary "damned near capsized... One moment the top deck was at its usual height and then, swoom! Down, over, and forward she would pitch." It was calculated later that the ship rolled 52 degrees, and would have capsized had she rolled another 3 degrees. The incident inspired Paul Gallico to write his novel, The Poseidon Adventure (1969) and carry the incident to a fictional extreme. This was adapted as a 1972 film by the same name, in which the SS Poseidon is turned upside-down, and the trapped passengers try to escape.
During the war, Queen Mary carried British Prime Minister Winston Churchill across the Atlantic for meetings with fellow Allied forces officials on several occasions. He was listed on the passenger manifest as "Colonel Warden".The ship was also used to return American troops from Europe after the war.
After World War II
From September 1946 to July 1947, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service, adding air conditioning and upgrading her berth configuration to 711 first class (formerly called cabin class), 707 cabin class (formerly tourist class) and 577 tourist class (formerly third class) passengers. Following refit, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth dominated the transatlantic passenger trade as Cunard White Star's two-ship weekly express service through the latter half of the 1940s and well into the 1950s. They proved highly profitable for Cunard (as the company was renamed in 1947).
In 1958 the first transatlantic flight by a jet began a completely new era of competition for the Cunard Queens. On some voyages, winters especially, Queen Mary sailed into harbour with more crew than passengers, though both she and Queen Elizabeth still averaged over 1000 passengers per crossing into the middle 1960s. By 1965, the entire Cunard fleet was operating at a loss.
Hoping to continue financing their still-under-construction Queen Elizabeth 2, Cunard mortgaged the majority of the fleet. Finally, due to a combination of age, lack of public interest, inefficiency in a new market, and the damaging after effects of the national seamen's strike, Cunard announced that both Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth would be retired from service and sold off. Many offers were submitted, and the bid of $3.45m/£1.2m from Long Beach, California beat the Japanese scrap merchants. Queen Mary was retired from service in 1967. On 27 September, she completed her 1,000th and last crossing of the North Atlantic, having carried 2,112,000 passengers over Script error: No such module "convert".. Under the command of Captain John Treasure Jones, who had been her captain since 1965, she sailed from Southampton for the last time on 31 October with 1,093 passengers and 806 crew. After an epic voyage around Cape Horn, she arrived in Long Beach on 9 December. Queen Elizabeth was withdrawn in 1968 and Queen Elizabeth 2 took over the transatlantic route in 1969.
Queen Mary in Long Beach
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Queen Mary is permanently moored as a tourist attraction, hotel, museum, and event facility in Long Beach. From 1983 to 1993, Howard Hughes' plane Spruce Goose, was located in a large dome nearby. The dome was later repurposed as a soundstage for film and television. The structure is now used by Carnival Cruise Lines as a ship terminal, as a venue for the Long Beach Derby Gals roller derby team and as an event venue.
Since drilling had started for oil in Long Beach Harbor, some of the revenue had been set aside in the "Tidelands Oil Fund." Some of this money was allocated in 1958 for the future purchase of a maritime museum for Long Beach.
When Queen Mary was bought by Long Beach, the new owners decided not to preserve her as an ocean liner. It had been decided to clear almost every area of the ship below "C" deck (called "R" deck after 1950, to lessen passenger confusion, as the restaurants were located on "R" deck) to make way for Jacques Cousteau's new Living Sea Museum. This increased museum space to Script error: No such module "convert".. It required removal of all the boiler rooms, the forward engine room, both turbo generator rooms, the ship stabilisers, and the water softening plant. The ship's empty fuel tanks were filled with local mud to keep the ship's centre of gravity and draft at the correct levels, as these critical factors had been affected by the removal of the various components and structure. Only the aft engine room and "shaft alley", at the stern of the ship, would be spared. Remaining space would be used for storage or office space. One problem that arose during the conversion was a dispute between land-based and maritime unions over conversion jobs. The United States Coast Guard had final say; Queen Mary was deemed a building, since most of her propellers had been removed and her machinery gutted. The ship was also repainted with its red water level paint at a slightly higher level than previously. During the conversion, the funnels were removed, as this area was needed to lift out the scrap materials from the engine and boiler rooms. Workers found that the funnels were significantly degraded, and they were replaced with replicas.
With all of the lower decks nearly gutted from R deck and down, Diners Club, the initial lessee of the ship, converted the remainder of the vessel into a hotel. Diners Club Queen Mary dissolved and vacated the ship in 1970 after their parent company, Diners Club International, was sold, and a change in corporate direction was mandated during the conversion process. Specialty Restaurants, a Los Angeles-based company that focused on theme-based restaurants, took over as master lessee the following year.
This second plan was based on converting most of her first- and second-class cabins on A and B decks into hotel rooms, and converting the main lounges and dining rooms into banquet spaces. On Promenade Deck, the starboard promenade was enclosed to feature an upscale restaurant and café named Lord Nelson's and Lady Hamilton's; it was themed in the fashion of early-19th-century sailing ships. The famed and elegant Observation Bar was redecorated as a western-themed bar.
The smaller first-class public rooms, such as the Drawing Room, Library, Lecture Room and the Music studio, would be stripped of most of their fittings and converted to commercial use. This markedly expanded retail space on the ship. Two more shopping malls were built on the Sun Deck in separate spaces previously used for first-class cabins and engineers' quarters.
A post-war feature of the ship, the first-class cinema, was removed for kitchen space for the new Promenade Deck dining venues. The first-class lounge and smoking room were reconfigured and converted into banquet space. The second-class smoking room was subdivided into a wedding chapel and office space. On the Sun Deck, the elegant Verandah Grill would be gutted and converted into a fast-food eatery, while a new upscale dining venue was created directly above it on Sports Deck, in space once used for crew quarters. The second-class lounges were expanded to the sides of the ship and used for banqueting. On R deck, the first-class dining room was reconfigured and subdivided into two banquet venues, the Royal Salon and the Windsor Room. The second-class dining room was subdivided into kitchen storage and a crew mess hall, while the third-class dining room was initially used as storage and crew space. Also on R deck, the first-class Turkish bath complex, the 1930s equivalent to a spa, was removed. The second-class pool was removed and its space initially used for office space, while the first-class swimming pool was used for hotel guests. Combined with modern safety codes and the structural soundness of the area directly below, the swimming pool is no longer in use. No crew cabins remain intact aboard the ship today.
Queen Mary as a tourist attraction
On 8 May 1971 Queen Mary opened her doors to tourists. Initially, only portions of the ship were open to the public as Specialty Restaurants had yet to open its dining venues and PSA had not completed work converting the ship's original First Class staterooms into the hotel. As a result, the ship was open only on weekends. On 11 December 1971 Jacques Cousteau's Museum of the Sea opened, with a quarter of the planned exhibits completed. Within the decade, Cousteau's museum closed due to low ticket sales and the deaths of many of the fish that were housed in the museum. On 2 November 1972 PSA's hotel opened its initial 150 guest rooms. Two years later, with all 400 rooms finished, PSA brought in Hyatt Hotels to manage the hotel. It operated the facility from 1974 to 1980 as the Queen Mary Hyatt Hotel.
By 1980, it had become apparent that the existing system was not working. The ship was losing millions each year for the city because the hotel, restaurants and museum were run by three separate concessionaires, while the city owned the vessel and operated guided tours. It was decided that a single operator with more experience in attractions was needed. Jack Wrather, a local millionaire, had fallen in love with the ship because he and his wife, Bonita Granville, had fond memories of sailing on it numerous times. Wrather signed a 66-year lease with the city of Long Beach to operate the entire property. He oversaw the display of the Spruce Goose, on long-term loan. The immense plane, which had been sitting in a hangar in Long Beach for decades unseen by the public, was installed in a huge geodesic dome adjacent to the liner in 1983, attracting increased attendance. His Wrather Port Properties operated the entire attraction after his death in 1984 until 1988, when his holdings were bought by the Walt Disney Company. Wrather had built the Disneyland Hotel in 1955, when Walt Disney had insufficient funds to construct the resort himself. Disney had been trying to buy the hotel for 30 years. When they finally succeeded, they also acquired the Queen Mary. This was never marketed as a Disney property.
Through the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Queen Mary struggled financially. Disney pinned their hopes for turning the attraction around on Port Disney, a huge planned resort on the adjacent docks. It was to include a theme park known as DisneySea, themed around the world's oceans. The plans eventually fell through; in 1992 Disney gave up the lease on the ship to focus on building what would become Disney California Adventure Park. The DisneySea concept was recycled a decade later in Japan as Tokyo DisneySea, with a recreated ocean liner resembling Queen Mary as its centerpiece.
With Disney gone, the Hotel Queen Mary closed on 30 September 1992. The owners of the Spruce Goose, the Aero Club of Southern California, sold the plane to the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in Oregon. The plane departed on barges on 2 October 1992, leaving the huge dome empty. The Queen Mary tourist attraction remained open for another two months, but on 31 December 1992, the Queen Mary completely closed her doors to tourists and visitors.
On 5 February 1993, RMS Foundation, Inc signed a five-year lease with the city of Long Beach to act as the operators of the property. The foundation was run by President and C.E.O. Joseph F. Prevratil, who had managed the attraction for Wrather. On 26 February 1993 the tourist attraction reopened completely, while the hotel reopened partially on 5 March with 125 rooms and the banquet facilities, with the remainder of the rooms coming on line on 30 April. In 1995, RMS Foundation's lease was extended to twenty years, while the scope of the lease was reduced to operation of the ship. A new company, Queen's Seaport Development, Inc. (QSDI), was established in 1995 to control the real estate adjacent to the vessel. In 1998, the City of Long Beach extended the QSDI lease to 66 years.
In 2005, QSDI sought Chapter 11 protection due to a rent credit dispute with the City. In 2006, the bankruptcy court requested bids from parties interested in taking over the lease from QSDI. The minimum required opening bid was $41M. The operation of the ship, by RMS Foundation, remained independent of the bankruptcy. In Summer 2007, Queen Mary 's lease was sold to a group named "Save the Queen," managed by Hostmark Hospitality Group. They planned to develop the land adjacent to Queen Mary, and upgrade, renovate, and restore the ship. During their management, staterooms were updated with iPod docking stations and flatscreen TVs, and the ship's three funnels and waterline area were repainted their original Cunard Red color. The portside Promenade Deck's planking was restored and refinished. Many lifeboats were repaired and patched, and the ship's kitchens were renovated with new equipment.
In 2004, Queen Mary and Stargazer Productions added Tibbies Great American Cabaret to the space previously occupied by the ship's bank and wireless telegraph room. Stargazer Productions and Queen Mary transformed the space into a working dinner theatre complete with stage, lights, sound, and scullery.
In late September 2009, management of Queen Mary was taken over by Delaware North Companies, who plan to continue restoration and renovation of the ship and its property. They were determined to revitalise and enhance the ship as an attraction.
In April 2011, The City Of Long Beach was informed that Delaware North was no longer managing Queen Mary. Garrison Investment Group (the current owner of the Queen Mary) said this decision was purely business. Delaware North still manages Scorpion, a Soviet submarine that has been a separate attraction next to Queen Mary for the last decade.
Meeting of the Queens
On 23 February 2006, RMS Queen Mary 2 saluted her predecessor as she made a port of call in Los Angeles Harbor, while on a cruise to Mexico. On March 2011, Queen Mary was saluted by the MS Queen Victoria while fireworks were going on, and on March 12, 2013, the MS Queen Elizabeth made a salute while there were fireworks.
The salute was carried out with Queen Mary replying with her one working air horn in response to Queen Mary 2 sounding her combination of two brand new horns and an original 1934 Queen Mary horn (on loan from the City of Long Beach). Queen Mary originally had three whistles tuned to 55 Hz, a frequency chosen because it was low enough that the extremely loud sound of it would not be painful to human ears. Modern IMO regulations specify ships' horn frequencies to be in the range 70–200 Hz for vessels that are over Script error: No such module "convert". in length. Traditionally, the lower the frequency, the larger the ship. Queen Mary 2, being Script error: No such module "convert". long, was given the lowest possible frequency (70 Hz) for her regulation whistles, in addition to the refurbished 55 Hz whistle on permanent loan. Fifty-five Hz is the "A" note an octave above the lowest note of a standard piano keyboard. The air-driven Tyfon whistle can be heard at least Script error: No such module "convert". away.
Queen Mary 's original, professionally manned wireless radio room was removed when the ship was moored in Long Beach. In its place, an amateur radio room was created one deck above the original radio reception room with some of the discarded original radio equipment used for display purposes. The amateur radio station, with the call sign W6RO ("Whiskey Six Romeo Oscar"), relies on volunteers from a local amateur radio club. They staff the radio room during most of the public hours. The radios can also be used by other licensed amateur radio operators.
In honour of his over forty years of dedication to W6RO and Queen Mary, in November 2007 the Queen Mary Wireless Room was renamed as the Nate Brightman Radio Room. This was announced on 28 October 2007, at Brightman's 90th birthday party by Joseph Prevratil, former President and CEO of the Queen Mary.
Rumors of hauntings
Following Queen Mary's permanent docking in California, the ship was rumored to be haunted. Since the 1980s, this supposed haunting has been featured in the marketing and promotion of the ship, with various attractions and tours presenting the theme for visitors. The ship was ranked as "one of the top 10 most haunted places in America" by Time Magazine in 2008. In particular, Cabin B340 (formerly Cabin B326, prior to the ship's refitting after World War II) is alleged to be haunted by the spirit of a person who was murdered there. Individuals have reported hearing sounds of children playing in the nursery. Other reported ghosts include a young sailor who was accidentally killed in the ship's engine room, crewmembers of the Curacoa who were killed when Queen Mary collided with her, and an unidentified "lady in white". At least one book has been written on the subject.
At least 49 crew and passengers are known to have died during the Queen Mary's service as a luxury liner. Although many hauntings are reported as the ghosts of drowning victims, the ship's logs do not record any instances of passengers drowning. Approximately 75% of the deaths were crew members, and about 25% were passengers. It is unknown how many servicemen or POWs died aboard the Queen Mary during her stint as a troop transport ship in World War II; these records are housed by the US military and have not been released.
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- RMS Mauretania (1938)
- MS Queen Elizabeth
- MS Queen Victoria
- RMS St Helena, one of the last Royal Mail Ships
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- "W6RO – Associated Radio Amateurs of Long Beach". Aralb.org. 5 March 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- "Human Touch Draws Ham Radio Buffs". Gazette Newspapers.[dead link]
- "The wireless installation". sterling.rmplc.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- "Haunted Encounters: The Queen of All Ghost Stories". Queen Mary website. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Top 10 Haunted Places: Queen Mary". Time Magazine. October 30, 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Westbook, Devlin (October 30, 2012). "The Queen Mary... Haunted?". pp. The San Diego Reader. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Scott, Peggy (July 11, 1991). "Stately Queen Mary still has sea-going spirit". Copley News Service, cited at The Press-Courier.
- Wlodarski, Robert James; Wlodarski, Anne Powell (2000). The Haunted Queen Mary, Long Beach, California. G-HOST Publishing. ISBN 978-0964908857.
- "Why is the RMS Queen Mary haunted?". Queen Mary 2 cruises. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- Queen Mary, onboard Ghosts & Legends Tour, 06.30.2014)
- "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form" (PDF). National Park Service. 9 October 1992. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- The Cunard White Star Quadruple-screw North Atlantic Liner, Queen Mary. – Bonanza Books, 289 p., 1979. – ISBN 0-517-27929-0. Largely a reprint of a special edition of "The Shipbuilder and Marine Engine-builder" from 1936.
- Duncan, William J., RMS Queen Mary: Queen of the Queens, Anderson, South Carolina: Droke House, distr. Grosset & Dunlap, 1969, ISBN 978-0-8375-6746-4.
- Cunard Line, Ltd., John Brown and Company archives.
- Clydebank Central Library Clydebank, Scotland.
- Roberts, Andrew, Masters and Commanders: How four titans won the war in the West, 1941–1945, Harper Collins e-Books, London
- Grattidge, Harry, Captain of the Queens, Dutton, New York
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Queen Mary (ship, 1936).|
- Website of current commercial operator (Event listings as well as Facts & History section)
- Time Magazine: The Queen; 11 August 1947
- "Thirty Million Dollar Super Liner Is Built", January 1932, Popular Mechanics detailed article on the construction of the future RMS Queen Mary
- The Great Ocean Liners: RMS Queen Mary
- Restored colour archive film of RMS Queen Mary on the Clyde (1936)(archive films from the National Library of Scotland)
- Launch of the Queen Mary (1934) (archive films from the National Library of Scotland)
|Holder of the Blue Riband (Westbound)
1936 – 1937
| Succeeded by|
|Atlantic Eastbound Record|
1936 – 1937
|Holder of the Blue Riband (Westbound)
1938 – 1952
| Succeeded by|
|Atlantic Eastbound Record|
1938 – 1952