- A physiological race, or forma specialis is a group of individuals that do not necessarily differ in morphology from other members of the species, but have identifiably different physiology or habits. Parasitic species frequently have races that are adapted to different hosts.
- Geographic races are geographically isolated from one another and may or may not be morphologically identifiable. They are said to be allopatric.
- Chromosomal races have different karyotypes, i.e., different chromosome numbers (ploidy), or different chromosome structure.
Race vs. subspecies
If the races are sufficiently different or if they have been tested to show little genetic connection regardless of phenotype, two or more groups/races can be identified as subspecies or another infraspecific rank, and given a name. According to Ernst W. Mayr, "a subspecies is a geographic race that is sufficiently different taxonomically to be worthy of a separate name."
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- History of ideas
- Sociology of scientific knowledge
- Scientific racism
- Several meanings of "plant variety (disambiguation)"
- Gene pool
- Genetic isolate
- Founder effect
- Genetic drift
- Ring species
- Cryptic species
- Phylogenetic nomenclature
|40x40px||Wikiquote has quotations related to: Race (biology)|
- Gotoh, T.; Bruin, J.; Sabelis, M.W.; Menken, S.B.J. (1993). "Host race formation in Tetranychus urticae: genetic differentiation, host plant preference, and mate choice in a tomato and a cucumber strain". Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 68 (2): 171–178. doi:10.1111/j.1570-7458.1993.tb01700.x.
- I. Buddenhagen (2009). "Understanding Strain Diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and History of Introduction of 'Tropical Race 4' To Better Manage Banana Production". ISHS Acta Horticulturae 828: 193–204.
- Walker, P.M.B., ed. (1988). "Entry for Race". The Wordsworth Dictionary of Science and Technology. W. R. Chambers Ltd. and Cambridge University Press.
- Rieger, R.; Michaelis, A.; Green, M.M. (1968). A glossary of genetics and cytogenetics: Classical and molecular. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9780387076683.
- Walker, P.M.B., ed. (1988). "Entry for Physiological Race". The Wordsworth Dictionary of Science and Technology. W. R. Chambers Ltd. and Cambridge University Press.
- Ernst Mayr (1970). Populations, Species, and Evolution: An Abridgment of Animal Species and Evolution<span />. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-69013-3.
- Ernst Mayr. The Biology of Race and the Concept of Equality. Daedalus, Winter 2002, pp.89-94.