Open Access Articles- Top Results for Racetam
Journal of Clinical ToxicologyProtective and Anti-oxidant Activity of the Euryops Arabicus against Paracetamol Induced Hepatorenal Toxicity in Rats
Journal of Drug Metabolism & ToxicologyEfficacy Study of Livartho against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Sprague Dawley Rats
Journal of Clinical ToxicologyMetabolic Acidosis with a Raised Anion Gap Associated with High 5-Oxoproline Levels; An Under-Recognized Cause for Metabolic Acidosis in Intensive Car
International Journal of NeurorehabilitationHistopathological Changes in Placenta of Rat Induced by Levtricetam
Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesApproach of Solid Dispersion and Polymer Coating in Formulation of Rapid Dispersible Tablets of Paracetamol
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus. Many, such as piracetam, but not all, are considered nootropics. Some such as oxiracetam and phenylpiracetam are also stimulants. Others such as levetiracetam and seletracetam are anticonvulsants.
There is no universally accepted mechanism of action for racetams. Racetams generally show negligible affinity for common central nervous system receptors, but modulation of central neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine and glutamate, has been reported. Although aniracetam and nebracetam show affinity for muscarinic receptors, only nefiracetam demonstrates nanomolar interactions. Modification of membrane-located mechanisms of central signal transduction is another hypothesis.
Racetams are understood to work by activating glutamate receptors that are colocalized with cholinergic receptors, thus increasing the frequency of activation of the latter. Racetams are posited to enhance memory through interaction with cholinergic and glutamate receptors in the central nervous system.
- Löscher, W.; Richter, A. (2000). "Piracetam and levetiracetam, two pyrrolidone derivatives, exert antidystonic activity in a hamster model of paroxysmal dystonia". European journal of pharmacology 391 (3): 251–254. PMID 10729365. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(00)00105-9.
- Gualtieri, F.; Manetti, D.; Romanelli, M. N.; Ghelardini, C. (2002). "Design and study of piracetam-like nootropics, controversial members of the problematic class of cognition-enhancing drugs". Current pharmaceutical design 8 (2): 125–138. PMID 11812254. doi:10.2174/1381612023396582.
- Ahmed, A. H.; Oswald, R. E. (2010). "Piracetam Defines a New Binding Site for Allosteric Modulators of α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic Acid (AMPA) Receptors". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53 (5): 2197–2203. PMC 2872987. PMID 20163115. doi:10.1021/jm901905j.
- Copani, A.; Genazzani, A. A.; Aleppo, G.; Casabona, G.; Canonico, P. L.; Scapagnini, U.; Nicoletti, F. (1992). "Nootropic drugs positively modulate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-sensitive glutamate receptors in neuronal cultures". Journal of neurochemistry 58 (4): 1199–1204. PMID 1372342. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.1992.tb11329.x.
- Bartus, R. T.; Dean Rl, 3.; Sherman, K. A.; Friedman, E.; Beer, B. (1981). "Profound effects of combining choline and piracetam on memory enhancement and cholinergic function in aged rats". Neurobiology of aging 2 (2): 105–111. PMID 7301036. doi:10.1016/0197-4580(81)90007-5.