Ramjet is the name of several transformers from the Transformers series. All have been Decepticon aligned characters who turn into jets, usually white.
- 1 Transformers: Generation 1
- 2 Transformers: Armada
- 3 Transformers: Universe
- 4 Transformers: Cybertron
- 5 Transformers
- 6 Transformers Animated
- 7 Transformers: War for Cybertron
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Transformers: Generation 1
|Sub-group||Deluxe Vehicles, Micro Vehicles, Seekers|
|Function||Warrior (G1, G2), Jet (Timelines)|
|Motto||"If it flies, crash it."|
|Alternate modes||Cybertronian jet, Modified F-15|
Transformers: Generation 1|
Transformers: Generation 2
|English voice actor||Jack Angel|
|Japanese voice actor||Toshiro Ishii|
Thrust, Ramjet and Dirge are part of a team dubbed by Transformers fans as the "Coneheads" for the way their animation models were drawn to make them visually distinct from the original Decepticon jets Starscream, Skywarp, and Thundercracker despite their toys being modifications of the same mold used to create that original trio. The toys themselves use the nosecone of the jet to become the head of the robot, but on the original jets the nosecone points back, forming a seemingly normal head. To make the three newer jets distinctive, the show animators illustrated them with the nosecones pointing up in robot mode - despite the fact that this is not how their toy instructions or box art depict them.
The original Ramjet was described as an impulsive but brave warrior who enjoyed crashing into objects and enemies. He carried two cluster bombs and two automatic machine guns. Not given much to thinking before acting, Ramjet often crashed into neutral objects, thus collecting new enemies. These crashes often took their toll on Ramjet's body by causing internal damage.
Although he would not appear personally in the Transformers comic until issue #17, Ramjet's vehicle mode, along with Thrust and Dirge's were being mass-produced under slave labor when Shockwave assumed control of G.B. Blackrock Aircraft Assembly Plant #1 (issues #8-12; the planes seen in issues #11-12). This suggests that the planes were either F-15s redesigned by Shockwave for use as Decepticons or that they were already made from blueprints produced (on Earth) by the Blackrock company. This implies that this is how the three Seekers gained their Earth modes when they eventually came to Earth.
Ramjet first appeared in issue #17 of the U.S. Marvel Transformers comic, acting as a bodyguard for Straxus. He had a much more important role in the Marvel UK storyline Target: 2006 (which chronologically predates US #17), where he was portrayed as one of the Decepticons' deadliest killers, and one that needed to be taken out by the Autobot commando group the Wreckers to signal a mass-Autobot uprising on Cybertron. The Decepticons had prepared a major offensive to wipe the Autobots out and capture Emirate Xaaron, unaware this was part of the Autobot trap. Megatron's summoning the Insecticons to Earth scuppered both sides plans.
Subsequently, he joined the Decepticons on Earth. He was seen entering Earth via the Spacebridge, alongside Thrust and Dirge around the same time as the Aerialbots were being created. Despite acquitting themselves well against the inexperienced Autobots they were eventually forced to flee when the Aerialbots formed Superion.
Ramjet would also appear among the Decepticon forces in Marvel's G.I. Joe and the Transformers crossover, where he was seen to be destroyed in battle along with his fellow Seeker, Dirge. Ramjet would not be seen in U.S. comics for some time after this.
Ramjet would serve as part of the Earthbound forces under first Shockwave, then Ratbat, battling both the Autobots and Scorponok's Decepticon faction. When Starscream seized the power of the Underbase, Dirge, Thrust and Ramjet were part of the forces sent against him. Although they were not shown to be deactivated by the villain, they were not seen again in the main continuity, although they would be seen in the U.K. Earthforce tales under the command of Megatron and Shockwave.
Ramjet would appear again in Marvel's Generation 2 comic, possibly revived by nucleon. He was part of the Decepticon forces under Bludgeon, and was seemingly restored to prominence in the Decepticon hierarchy after Megatron's return. He died while fighting the Swarm, consumed completely. Despite being one of the better-known Generation 2 characters, he appeared sparingly, and in his Generation 1 color scheme.
In the original Transformers series, Ramjet appeared in Season 2. He made his first appearance in episode #30, "Dinobot Island Part 1." How Ramjet came to Earth was not shown.
Ramjet made regular appearances during the second season. In episode #33,"Auto Berserk" he took part in the air raid on the Autobots' column escorting the Negavator. Megatron ordered to his jet 'Cons to divert the 'Bots from their device so that he could seize it. But Smokescreen used his smoke so as to dazzle the Seekers, and then downed them all, including Ramjet, with his disruptors. Meanwhile Megatron was sitting already in the Negavator's cab. But he had no time to destroy the Autobots because Ramjet fell just on the cab and knocked Megatron out of it. So the Decepticons had to get nothing for their pains again. Ramjet's most notable appearance, however, was in episode #40, "A Decepticon Raider in King Arthur's Court" where several Transformers characters (Starscream, Rumble, Ravage and Ramjet himself) were somehow transported back in time to England of the Middle Ages. During this episode, Ramjet made good use of his name by head-butting a knight. He also participated in a jousting contest, with Rumble atop his nosecone wielding a lance against Spike Witwicky mounted atop Autobot Warpath's turret. After this tournament he together with Rumble helped Starscream to gather all the necessary ingredients for making the gunpowder which the latter wanted to use against the 'Bots and their human allies. At the end of the episode Merlin helped both the Autobots and Decepticons to return to their own time. Ramjet made appearanaces in episodes "Triple Takeover" and in "Auto Berserk" Ramjet asks Megatron about Starscream, Megatron tells him to abandon Starscream while the other decepticons flee.
Ramjet made brief appearances in The Transformers: The Movie - firstly as the Decepticon shot down by Optimus Prime during the battle of Autobot City, and secondly when he was crushed along with Dirge, and Thrust during Unicron's attempted destruction of Cybertron but still appeared in later episodes.
After the movie, Ramjet was thrown against a building and seemingly destroyed by Ultra Magnus, but returned to make small appearances throughout the third season.
One possible explanation for all of Ramjet's deaths may be that the "Ramjets" that died were merely Decepticon "drones" that looked like the original Ramjet since there have been Decepticon "drones" that appeared similar to Thundercracker and Skywarp in the cartoon before.
He last appeared in "Thief in the Night".
Ramjet would also play a brief but important role in Alignment, writer Simon Furman's take on what happened after the Transformers: Generation 2 comic series ended. After Megatron's battered body was recovered by Soundwave after a duel with Galvatron, Ramjet was one of the conspirators (along with Soundwave, Ravage and Direwolf) who gave some of their spark energy to resurrect Megatron in a more powerful body, allowing him to defeat the forces of the Liege Maximo. This indicates that in some point in the G2 timeline he was resurrected after his death at the hands of the Swarm.
Based on the Transformers Classics toy line, the Timelines 2007 story is set 15 years after the end of the Marvel Comics story (ignoring all events of the Marvel U.K. and Generation 2 comics). According to exclusive bio information in the Transformers Collectors' Club magazine #15 Ramjet died when he was attacked by the Underbase empowered Starscream, but Shockwave had made a backup of his engrams. Megatron rebuilt his body and uploaded these engrams to it. Because of flaws in the backup Ramjet is more unstable than ever.
Megatron survived the crash of the Ark on Earth, reformatted himself into a new form and now leads Astrotrain, Laserbeak, Ramjet, Ravage, Skywarp, Soundwave, Starscream and the Constructicons. Optimus Prime has also returned to Earth commanding Bumblebee, Cliffjumper, Grimlock, Jetfire, Mirage and Rodimus (formerly Hot Rod).
In Crossing Over, when the Cybertronians Skyfall and Landquake arrive on Earth unexpectedly Megatron attempts to destroy them, but Optimus Prime and his Autobots are able to drive Megatron away. Later when the Autobots were inventigating energy readings the Decepticons attacked. Ramjet attacked Jetfire.
In Transformers: Timelines volume 2 #2, "Games of Deception" Megatron detects the arrival of Bug-Bite's ship on Earth and sends Starscream, Skywarp and Ramjet to investigate. Ramjet is shot with a cerebro shell by Thrust, putting him under Bugbite's control.
Ramjet appears in At Fight's End.
Ramjet appeared in the 1986 story and coloring book The Lost Treasure of Cybertron by Marvel Books.
Ramjet was recruited as a Decepticon under the leadership of Megatron in his war against the Autobots on the planet Cybertron. Ramjet became a member of the elite Seekers under Aerospace Commander Starscream. He often worked with fellow Seekers Dirge and Thrust.
When Shockwave led the Decepticon attack on the Autobot capitol of Iacon 8.2 million years ago, Ramjet was among his troops along with Astrotrain, Blitzwing, Bludgeon, Brawl, Chopshop, Dirge, Frenzy, Octane, Onslaught, Tantrum, Venom and Vortex.
After the Great Shutdown ended, Ramjet was reformatted by Shockwave in the form of an Earth-style jet, becoming one of his bodyguards. After the Great War ended Ramjet was among the Decepticons under the command of Ultra Magnus who were sent on to Earth to capture Optimus Prime's Autobots and return them to Cybertron. When it was revealed that Shockwave was going to kill Optimus Prime and take over Cybertron for himself, Ramjet was among the Decepticons who sided with Shockwave.
Defeated by the Autobots on Cybertron, Shockwave was forced to set up a new secret headquarters in the wastelands of Cybertron, with Astrotrain, Blitzwing, Dirge, Ramjet and Thrust following him. Shockwave completed work on his new warrior, Sixshot. Megatron returned to Cybertron with three clone warriors and the Predacons and was able to defeat Shockwave. Shockwave was kept alive, but restrained. All Shockwave's warriors except Blitzwing, who was destroyed, joined up with Megatron in his plan to invade the Earth .
Devil's Due Publishing
Ramjet would appear again in the second G.I. Joe vs. the Transformers crossover from Devil's Due Publishing with Dirge, Thrust, Scourge and Cyclonus, acting as bodyguards for Shockwave. When the Dinobots returned from different a time period they routed Shockwave's troops. Ramjet was presumably killed either during this event, or when Cobra Commander detonated a store of explosives inside Starscream, killing everyone present. In this story, Ramjet had not received an Earthen mode and transformed into a Cybertronian jet.
Ramjet made his IDW Publishing debut in a The Transformers: Spotlight issue focusing on him. Following on from his appearance in New Avengers/Transformers, Ramjet was established as a devious schemer with a contempt for Megatron and a desire to overthrow him. Ramjet's grandiose ("non-linear") plan included a facsimile providing him with codes to remotely set off American missiles, causing chaos in which he could take over, and a tracker that could locate other Cybertronians anywhere in the galaxy. From there he planned to harvest Earth's energon, subjugate its population with Micro-Constructicons and construct a Space Bridge. Unfortunately for him, as he was beginning to carry out his plan, he was ambushed by Megatron, who killed him by ripping out his spark, and then took his decapitated head as a trophy.
In the Generation 2 Redux setting from Fun Publications Ramjet ended up on Earth after the events of the television series, where he worked as muscle for dictators. He took a canister of forestonite from the Autobot Motormouth, which he used to enhance his powers.
Ramjet appears in the Generations 2011 issue #2 "The Fierce Fighting on Planet Nebulos" where he is among the Decepticon forces who ambush the Autobots on Nebulos.
Generation 2 Optimus Prime and Ramjet were featured battling in the trailer for Botcon 2010.
- Generation 1 Seeker Ramjet (1985)
- A remold of the toy used for Starscream and other Seekers.
- Generation 2 Seeker Ramjet (1993)
- Ramjet was first re-issued in 1993, as part of Generation 2. This toy featured a predominantly-purple color scheme. It came with a sound box accessory. G2 Ramjet was also sold on card. A 3-D model of G2 Ramjet battled with Optimus Prime in the opening credits of the Generation 2 animated series (which was actually the original series with new CGI bumpers). The original Starscream toy was altered somewhat and an electronic sound maker was added for the Generation 2 toy line.
- Generation 2 Seeker Ramjet/Sandstorm Desert Camo redeco (unreleased)
- In 2007 samples and artwork appeared on the internet from a former Hasbro employee about proposed redeco of Generation 2 Ramjet. A hand painted sample and box art appeared with Ramjet hand painted in light brown with a toothy mouth and eyes on the nosecone. This character was named Sandstorm in the 2011 book Transformers Vault.
- Generation 2 Seeker Ramjet Navy Blue redeco (unreleased)
- Along with G2 Sandstorm/Desert Ramjet another Ramjet redeco was revealed by the former Hasbro employee, this time in navy blue.
- Classics Deluxe Ramjet (2007)
- On Sunday, September 10, 2006, pictures of resin prototypes for Classics Ramjet were discovered on the internet. The toy shares many of the same basic parts as Classics Starscream but with some alterations. These include a different nose cone which transforms into the character's signature "cone head", as well as new wings where the tailfins originally were located, featuring extra jet boosters at the back. This retooling gives the figure a look that closely resembles his Generation 1 counterpart. Ramjet was released in early 2007 as part of the second wave of Transformers Classics alongside Classics Cliffjumper. This toy was featured on the cover of Lee's Toy Review magazine for November 2006.
- The mold for this figure was also used for several different variants of Dirge and Thrust.
- Smallest Transformers Ramjet
- Although no Ramjet toy was released in the Smallest Transformers toy line, third party companies modified the mold used for Starscream to create an unlicensed Ramjet figure.
- Smallest Transformers Generation 2 Ramjet
- A remold of the initial Ramjet bootleg toy made to look more like the Generation 2 toy.
- Transformers 3D Battle-Card Game Ramjet (2007)
- A redeco of 3D Battle-Cards Starscream in the colors of Generation 1 Ramjet.
- Henkei! Henkei! D-04 Deluxe Ramjet (2008)
- The Japanese version of the Classics Deluxe figure by Takara Tomy is repainted in more cartoon-accurate colors with metallic highlights.
- Universe Classic Series Legends Ramjet (2008)
- Ramjet is part of the Aerial Rivals Legends set with Thrust. He is a redeco of Cybertron Legends Starscream in Generation 1 colors.
- Timelines Deluxe Ramjet (2011)
- A repaint of Classic Ramjet was announced at Botcon 2010 as an upcoming exclusive for the Transformers Collectors Club. It will be in Generation 2 colors. This toy was displayed in issue 39 of the Transformers Collectors Club Magazine
- PP03J Jet (2011)
- An unofficial Masterpiece Ramjet made by iGear Toys.
|Motto||"Tell that to my friend!"|
|Alternate modes||F-16 Falcon|
Ramjet's background was explored in the Dreamwave More Than Meets the Eye series. In it he was portrayed as a coward he used his partner's sheer bulk to hide behind in battle, influencing his dimmer colleague to chaos and destruction. Ramjet linked up with his partner after a failed operation at an Energon plant left Tidal Wave at death's door. However the Mini-Con was able to forcibly recharge his colleague's systems, powering him up even further - although some believe the only enhancements Ramjet made were in Tidal Wave's mind.
He is immensely fast and maneuverable in jet form, but due to his light armor, he is vulnerable to a direct hit from anti-aircraft fire.
- Armada Tidal Wave with Ramjet (2003)
- This Ramjet was the Mini-Con that partnered Tidal Wave, and like the other Ramjets, was a jet. This toy featured a bright purple and orange color scheme.
- Energon Tidal Wave with Ramjet (2003)
- Also in the same year, as part of the Transformers: Energon series, Ramjet again partnered Tidal Wave. This toy featured a grey color scheme.
|Sub-group||Ultra Vehicles, Micro Vehicles|
|Partner||Gunbarrel, Terradive, Thunderclash, Thunderwing|
|Motto||"Annihilation is ecstasy."|
|Alternate modes||Cybertronian Jet Fighter|
In 2004, another Ramjet appeared as part of the Transformers: Universe series and this time was a large toy. It was a recolor of Armada Skywarp. The toy featured a white, blue and red color scheme and was sold along with four Mini-Cons: Gunbarrel, Terradive, Thunderclash and Thunderwing.
Ramjet appeared as one of the major characters in the 2005 Transformers: Cybertron-based magazine comic story produced by the Transformers Collectors Club. In this continuity he was one of the Heralds of Unicron alongside Nemesis Prime.
Set free by the black hole created by Unicron's death in Transformers: Cybertron, Ramjet and Nemesis Prime journeyed to the nearly deserted Cybertron. Attacking Alpha Trion, Vector Prime and their dimensionally displaced ally Sentinel Maximus, their sinister plan was soon revealed - they intended to use the Dead Matrix to drain the lifeforce of Primus himself and use it to revive their master Unicron.
Using the undead Dark Scorponok as a weapon against the damaged Alpha Trion and manipulating Skyfall to their side, Ramjet and Nemesis Prime led an attack on Primus's spark chamber, only to be confronted by Sentinel Maximus and Vector Prime. As Nemesis Prime entered the chamber, Ramjet and Vector Prime entered into a mighty duel high above Iacon City. Though he was badly wounded himself, Vector Prime defeated Ramjet and used his powers to exile him to another dimension entirely. With Nemesis Prime defeated by the unexpected inter-dimensional arrival of Omega Prime, it seemed that the Heralds' quest was a failure. Unbeknownst to all the Dead Matrix was stolen by Soundwave, who tossed it into the Unicron-created black hole. There what energy it had been able to siphon from Primus reacted with the dead spark of Unicron, and the Chaos-Bringer was born again.
Ramjet appeared in a flashback in The Coming Storm.
- Universe Ultra Ramjet with Thunderclash (2004)
- Universe Ramjet was a Spring Value Pack exclusive to Toys-R-Us. A redeco of Armada Skywarp and Thunderclash, but with three extra Mini-Cons, redecos of the Armada Air Military Team.
- Universe Legends Ramjet (2005)
- This Ramjet was a redeco of the Legends of Cybertron version of Starscream, was a free giveaway at BotCon 2005. It was painted to resemble Transformers: Universe Ramjet. He had no biography or tech specs.
Cybertron Ramjet toy
|Alternate modes||VentureStar concept shuttle|
A new Mini-Con named Ramjet was sold in the Cybertron line.
Apparently not the same character as the Ramjet from Armada and Energon, this Ramjet was one of Thrust's recruits early in the war, helping to overthrow the Mini-Con council. Before this he was a tour guide of Mini-Con colonies on the moons of Cybertron - often dumping his charges in remote areas. During the events of Cybertron he put this skill to good use charhing exorbitant fees to Transformers desperate to escape Cybertron and the expanding black hole, only to dump them in Terrorcon infested areas or even into the black hole. Ramjet would pay the price for his ways in the accompanying club comic, however. When Unicron attacked Cybertron in the midst of the Mini-Con civil war, Ramjet was first amongst those killed by the Chaos-Bringer.
- Cybertron Ramjet (2006)
- Ramjet is a redeco of Energon Skyboom.
Revenge of the Fallen Ramjet toy
|Sub-group||Fast Action Battlers, Voyagers|
|Function||Air Warrior, Seeker|
|Alternate modes||F-22 Raptor, Cybertronian jet|
Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen
|Voiced by||Taylor Kitsch (Legendary Wars and Darkness Rising)|
Although Ramjet does not appear in the live-action Transformers film, he is featured in the expanded toy line.
According to the biography printed in the collected Reign of Starscream books he is untrustworthy and would gladly shoot a comrad in the back to get ahead.
In The Reign of Starscream part 3 Ramjet appears among the Decepticon troops on Cybertron. In issue #5 Starscream sacrificed the sparks of Crankcase, Elita One, Grindcore, Signal Flare, and Warpath to bring his new Allspark Cube online. Although the cube failed to function Starscream did not have time to find out why as Dreadwing made his bid to overthrow the Decepticons using his army of drones. Most Decepticons sided with Dreadwing, except Thundercracker, who remained loyal to his leader. Crosshairs beheaded Ramjet and the Autobots were able to deactivate the drones as Starscream overcame Dreadwing's remaining forces, including Divebomb.
Note - The appearance of Ramjet is modified in the IDW Publishing stories so that his head more resembles movie's alien style than the movie toy and his Cybertronian alternate mode.
All toys of this character are officially licensed from Lockheed Martin.
- Transformers Fast Action Battlers Ramjet (2007)
- A white redeco of the Fast Action Battlers Starscream toy, with easy transformation for younger children.
- Revenge of the Fallen Voyager Ramjet (2009)
- A Wal-Mart exclusive redeco of the Voyager Class Starscream from the first film's toy line (as the more recent Starscream uses a completely different mold).
|Sub-group||Starscream Clones, Activators|
|Partner||Starscream, Thundercracker, Skywarp, Sunstorm, Slipstream, Megatron, Blitzwing, Lugnut, Swindle|
|Motto||"What!? I don't lie!"|
|Alternate modes||Futuristic jet similar to a Harrier Jump Jet|
|English voice actor||Tom Kenny|
|Japanese voice actor||Jin Yamanoi|
In Transformers Animated, Ramjet is one of several clones of Starscream. As each clone inherits one personality trait from Starscream, his is dishonesty. Ramjet is a pathological liar, to the point of sometimes even telling lies that obviously contradict previous lies.
He shows up again at the end of "Three's a Crowd" when he is flying alongside Lugnut after freeing him of the stasis cuffs. He then "promises" Lugnut not to tell Megatron about what happened.
He returns two episodes later in "Five Servos of Doom." Here, Sentinel Prime is going to exchange various materials for Ramjet to Lockdown, only that the clone manages to bribe Lockdown into betraying Sentinel, taking him as his hostage. After the combined efforts of Optimus Prime, Jazz, and Safeguard (the combined form of Jetfire and Jetstorm) ground him, Optimus and Jazz toss a billboard onto him, seemingly crushing him, Prowl and Lockdown. However, Prowl uses an advanced technique called "Processor over Matter", and saves the three of them, only for Lockdown to escape and for the clone to end up in the Elite Guard's custody.
However, during the Elite Guard ship's return to Cybertron, an electrical storm reactivates an immobilized Swindle. The Decepticon arms dealer frees Ramjet as they and the other Decepticons take the ship. After receiving a helmet from Swindle so that he could tell him and his clone brother Sunstorm apart (and increases his resemblance to Generation 1 Ramjet), Ramjet is eventually recaptured and brought to Cybertron.
- Animated Activators Ramjet (Takara Tomy) (2010)
- A FamilyMart Japan exclusive white/red redeco of Activators Starscream offered as a mail-in item.
Transformers: War for Cybertron
|Alternate modes||Cybertronian jet|
|Series||Transformers: War for Cybertron|
|English voice actor||Steven Blum|
- Alvarez, J.E. (2001). The Unofficial Guide to Transformers 1980s Through 1990s Revised & Expanded 2nd Edition. Schiffer Publishing Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 0-7643-1364-9.
- "Ramjet (Decepticon Seekers, Transformers G1)". Seibertron.com. 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Transformers Season Two Box Set, Part 1 by Brian Cirulnick, February 2003". Anime.com. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Simpson, Bud (1993). Decepticon Madness. Modern Publishing. ISBN 1-56144-346-8.
- "Idw Publishing For November". Comics Continuum. 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Simon Furman (w), Guido Guidi (p). "Generations 2011" The Fierce Fighting on Planet Nebulos 2 (2011), Japan: Takara Tomy
- [dead link]
- Benjamin C. Meyer. "Transformers Ramjet Robot". ToyBin. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- The African American entrepreneur: then and now By W. Sherman Rogers page 321. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Tomart's Action Figure Digest #7, 1992, page 9
- Tformers.com. "Ramjet - Transformers Classics Toys Database". TFormers.com. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Lee's Toy Review, issue #169, November 2006
- "Henkei Ramjet". TFW2005.com. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "BotCon 2010 Collectors Club Round Table". TFW2005.com. 2010-06-26. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- "Transformers Collectors Club 2011 Exclusives". Transformers Collectors Club magazine (Fun Publications). January 2011. p. 8.
- "Tidal Wave with Ramjet". Unicron.us. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Forest Lee and Dan Khanna (w), Forest Lee (p). Transformers: Cybertron: Balancing Act 1 (April 2007), IDW Publishing
- "Ramjet (Decepticon Energon Saber Mini-Con Team, Transformers: Cybertron)". Seibertron.com. 2012-02-05. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
- Jim Sorenson & Bill Forster (August 15, 2009). Transformers Animated: The Allspark Almanac. Idea & Design Works Llc. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-60010-487-9.
- "Japanese Transformers Autobot Alliance Altered Decos and FamilyMart Lottery Draws". TFW2005.com. 2010-08-28. Retrieved 2012-02-12.