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Open Access Articles- Top Results for Retro
Journal of Sleep Disorders & TherapyAssociation of Childhood Asthma and Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Retrospective Cohort Study from a Nationwide Population-based Database
Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public HealthPrevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in St. Marry Hospital, Axum, Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study
Otolaryngology: Open AccessCartilage Palisade Grafting in Retrograde Canal Wall Down Mastoidectomy: A Review of 80 Cases
Journal of AIDS & Clinical ResearchNutritional Status and CD4 Cell Counts in HIV/AIDS Patients under Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Journal of PharmacovigilanceAdverse Drug Reactions to Antiretroviral Therapy (ART): Prospective Study in HIV Infected Adults in Sikasso (Mali)
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Retro style is style that is consciously derivative or imitative of trends, modes, fashions, or attitudes of the recent past.
The term retro has been in use since the 1970s to describe on the one hand new artefacts that self-consciously refer to particular modes, motifs, techniques, and materials of the past. But on the other hand, some people (incorrectly) use the term to categorise styles that have been created in the past. Retro style refers to new things that display characteristics of the past. It is mostly the recent past that retro seeks to recapitulate, focusing on the products, fashions and artistic styles produced since the Industrial Revolution, of Modernity. The word "retro" derives from the Latin prefix retro, meaning "backwards, or in past times"
In France, the word rétro, an abbreviation for rétrospectif  gained cultural currency with reevaluations of Charles de Gaulle and France’s role in World War II. The French mode rétro of the 1970s reappraised in film and novels the conduct of French civilians during the Nazi occupation. The term rétro was soon applied to nostalgic French fashions that recalled the same period. Shortly thereafter it was introduced into English by the fashion and culture press, where it suggests a rather cynical revival of older but relatively recent fashions. In Simulacra and Simulation, French theorist Jean Baudrillard describes "retro" as a demythologization of the past, distancing the present from the big ideas that drove the “modern” age.
The concept of nostalgia is linked to retro, but the bittersweet desire for things, persons and situations of the past has an ironic stance in retro style. Retro shows nostalgia with a dose of cynicism and detachment. It is said that the desire to capture something from the past and evoke nostalgia is fuelled by dissatisfaction with the present.
“Retro” can be applied to several things and artefacts, for example forms of technological obsolescence (including, for instance, manual typewriters, cash registers, bulky hand-held cellphones, etc.) and also the resurrection of old computer games and the equipment on which they are played. But most commonly “retro” is used to describe objects and attitudes from the recent past that no longer seem “modern.” It suggests a fundamental shift in the way we relate to the past. Different from more traditional forms of revivalism, “retro” suggests a half ironic, half longing consideration of the recent past.; it has been called an “unsentimental nostalgia,”  recalling “modern” forms that are no longer current.
Specific types of retro
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Since the 1980s the implications of the word ‘retro’ have been expanding in the application to different media. Several fields have adopted the term retro from the design world. Thus next to design artefacts like objects, graphic design, fashion and interior design, ‘retro’ can be used for: music, art, videogames, architecture, television and food. Sometimes, it can also suggest an entire outlook on life (describing especially forms of social conservatism like home schooling or the embrace of traditional gender roles).
Up until the 1960s, interiors were decorated with antiques. During the 1960s in London shops started selling pieces of second hand furniture. These shops were different from the previous antique shops because they sold daily life objects from the recent past. These objects used to be seen as junk: Victorian enamel signs, stuffed bears, old furniture painted with union jacks, bowler hats etc. A new way of producing and consuming the past emerged and a broader range of objects from the recent past was used for new designs.
Before the word ‘retro’ came into use in the 1970s, the practise of adopting old styles for new designs was already common. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, designers borrowed from the past, for example classicistic style. The difference is that since the 1960s people started to refer to the recent past.
In the 1980s design history emerged as a discipline and several histories of design were published. The access to these overviews and the ability to experiment with computer design programs has caused an increase of retro designed objects in the last decades.
Interior design magazines often show retro style as an interior decoration of mixed styles and objects from the past, second hand and new. For example seventies patterned wallpapers, combined with second-hand furniture from the 1960s and 1950s. The value of old artefact has increased because the object used to be considered old-fashioned and everyday. In this case ‘retro’ indicates a value and that is also partly why today’s retailers produce new objects in an old style.
Graphic design, typography and packaging
In graphic design too, long before the use of the word ‘retro’, referencing to earlier graphic characteristics was done. William Morris can be seen as an example, for i.a. book design he adopted Medieval production and stylistic models in 1891. Furthermore, in the beginning of the twentieth century, Gothic, Baroque and Rococo motifs were used for new products. In typography classicism has always been an influence and throughout the 20th century, early woodcut printing too. The introduction of the technique of photocomposition to typesetting in the 1960s allowed typographers greater flexibility in the selection and arrangement of type styles and sizes. For example, psychedelic typefaces were developed gaining inspiration from Art Nouveau and other cultures. Historicist styles are also used is in the promotion and packaging of food and householdproducts, referring to childhood memories and domestic nostalgic ideals.
Retro fashion refers to fashion from 1940-1990. Retro fashion is a clothing style which consists in wearing clothes commonly used in the past. This way of clothing often includes garments and accessories that are characteristic of such times, and many people use them in an exaggerated way and in combination with current clothing. Examples are leather handbags from the 1950s, "bell-bottom jeans", Poodle skirts, big sunglasses, fedoras, funky jackets (commonly Adidas Classics) and shoes, small neckties, chiffon scarves, sport equipment, skinny jeans etc. Makeup may also play a part in feminine retro fashions, with focal points being heavily-lined eyes and bright red lipstick; hairstyles such as pompadours, ponytails, and ducktails may be adopted, as well as styles that model film stars of the 1940s and 1950s.
An example of this trend is 1970s and 1980s sportswear; soccer jackets, jerseys and T-shirts with former logos of the soccer associations are very popular; their designs commonly remember the old days by using lines in the sides and combinations of colors characteristic of those times. A specific case is the 1970 FIFA World Cup held in Mexico. Its logo and font type is used in a variety of retro sport garments. Brands such as Adidas, Puma and Nike have their own divisions specialized in retro products. Some soccer, baseball and basketball clubs also have re-edited their former garments to raise their sales.
Other examples are that the 1970s brought about a 1950s revival with American Graffiti, Grease, and Happy Days. This lasted into the 1980s with the rockabilly revival. The 1950s greaser look greatly influenced the punk subculture. In the late 2000s there a was a revival of neon and pastel colors, stereotypically associated with 1980s fashion. Nowadays, 1990s fashion has made a comeback, many of the fabrics and patterns ubiquitous to the decade (such as crushed velvet and floral) are popular now in the 2010s. Dr. Martens, a shoe brand popular in the 1990s, has also made a strong comeback in the early 2010s. 2011 - 2012 was the British company's best selling season of all time.
The style now called "retro art" is a genre of pop art which was developed in the 1940s and 1950s in response to a need for bold, eye-catching graphics that were easy to reproduce on simple presses available at the time in major centres. Retro advertising art has experienced a resurgence in popularity since its style is distinctive from modern computer-generated styling. Contemporary artist Anne Taintor uses retro advertising art as the centerpiece for her ongoing commentary on the modern woman. Specific styling features include analog machine design, vintage television program etc.
Perhaps the most famous example of a retro pop-art character is the more generalized form of the Ward Cleaver-styled J. R. "Bob" Dobbs-esque icon which has been widely played off, copied, and parodied.
Film, music and television
The 1980s moved on to a 1960s revival with power pop being influenced by sixties pop rock. Various artists covered 1960s pop and R&B hits. Most notable is "You Keep Me Hangin' On" being covered by Kim Wilde and "Where Did Our Love Go?" being covered by Soft Cell. The 1990s brought a brief 1970s revival with That '70s Show and a revival of disco music and 1970s pop led by The ABBA Generation by the A*Teens. A series known as I Love the '70s also debuted. The 2000s began the 1980s revival. This craze has brought about revivals of The Transformers, G.I. Joe, Speed Racer, The Smurfs, and Voltron. The post-punk revival coincides with this, as the genre was originally popular (albeit underground) in the 1980s. (Speed Racer had, however, been first revived into the 1990s as Speed Racer X and Voltron as Voltron: The Third Dimension.) There was a That '80s Show, but it was short-lived. I Love the '80s, a part of a series of decade retrospectives, became the most popular of the series and spawned two sequel series. The early 2010s have seen the beginning of a 1990s revival. TV channel Nickelodeon has established a block on its TEENick station featuring 1990s Nickelodeon programs. Several of Nick's 1990s game shows have been revived. There was also an I Love the '90s series.
Retrogaming is a pastime which is becoming increasingly popular where individuals play video games on vintage computers or vintage game consoles. What constitutes a vintage or retro machine is sometimes open to debate. Typically, most retro gamers are interested in Atari 2600, Nintendo Entertainment System, Mega Drive, Dreamcast, Super Nintendo, and classic Game Boy games and consoles. Emulation often plays a part in retrogaming if the original hardware is unavailable.
Retro erotica (photography)
Retro erotica is usually photography in the style of pinups or pornography typically dating from the 1970s or earlier. It ranges from hardcore to non-nude pinup style photography, often featuring lingerie such as girdles, bullet bras and garter belts and hosiery with hairstyles, makeup and props fashioned after those periods. Some aficionados distinguish retro (modern photography in an older style) from vintage (actual period photos or film) while others conflate the two as either retro or vintage. There are a number of web sites dedicated to both types.
- Retro-style automobile
- Jadeite (kitchenware)
- Old school
- Ralf Metzenmacher
- Popular culture studies
- Period piece
- Juli Lynne Charlot Poodle skirt creator
- Old school
- Vintage clothing
- Revivalism (architecture)
- Woodham 2004
- Dermody, Breathnach 2009, p. 7
- Baker 2012, p. 622
- Guffey 2006, p. 25
- "French definition of ''rétro''". Cnrtl.fr. 1978-09-11. Retrieved 2011-11-20.
- Walker, John. (1992) "Retro". Glossary of Art, Architecture & Design since 1945, 3rd. ed.
- Elizabeth E. Guffey, Retro: The Culture of Revival, pp. 9–22
- Baudrillard. p. 43
- Guffey 2006, p. 20
- Dermody, Breathnach 2009, p. 15
- E. Guffey 2006
- Guffey 2006, p. 16
- Baker 2012, p. 624
- Dermody, Breathnach 2009, p. 7
- Dermody and Breathnach 2009, p. 11
- Baker 2012, p. 622
- Dermody, Breathnach 2009, pp. 7-8
- Heller and Lasky, 1993
- Dermody, Breathnach 2009, pp. 8-10
- Dermody, Breathnach 2009, p. 16
- Lauren Cochrane. "Dr Martens enjoy comeback with best-selling season ever | Fashion". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- "Bookulating Suggest-O-Mometer". Retrieved 2011-10-05.
- Flynn, David (17 November 2014). "Qantas reveals ‘flying kangaroo’ livery on Boeing 737". Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (18 April 2014). "Happy 85th: LOT adds 'RetroJET' livery to Embraer E175". USA Today. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Baudrillard, Jean (1995). Simulacra and Simulation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-06521-9.
- Collins, James C (1989). Uncommon Cultures: Popular Culture and Post-Modernism. New York/London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-90137-6.
- Eco, Umberto (1986). Travels in Hyperreality. New York: Harcourt. ISBN 978-0-15-191079-3.
- Eco, Umberto (1988). The Structure of Bad Taste. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.
- Guffey, Elizabeth E (2006). Retro: The Culture of Revival. London: Reaktion. ISBN 978-1-86189-290-4.
- Robyns, Clem (1991). "Beyond the first dimension: recent tendencies in popular culture studies", in Joris Vlasselaers (Ed.) The Prince and the Frog, Leuven: ALW, 14-32.
- Ross, Andrew (1989). No Respect. Intellectuals and Popular Culture. New York/London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-90037-9.
- Samuel, Raphael (1994). Theatres of Memory. London: Verso. ISBN 978-0-86091-209-5.
- Retro-Trader, 2002: Web site listing and displaying many retro related items.
- Dermody, Brenda and Breathnach, Teresa (2009). New Retro: classic graphics, today’s designs London: Thames & Hudson
- Baker, Sarah Elsie (2012). Retailing Retro. Class, cultural capital and the material practices of the (re)valuation of style in: European Journal of Cultural Studies, 15: 621,
- Heller, Steven and Lasky, Julie (1993). Borrowed Design: The Use and Abuse of Historical Form, New York: Wiley
- Woodham, Jonathan M. (2004). A Dictionary of Modern Design. Oxford: Oxford University Press
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