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Rhombencephalon

Rhombencephalon
File:EmbryonicBrain.svg
Diagram depicting the main subdivisions of the embryonic vertebrate brain. These regions will later differentiate into forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain structures.
File:Gray708.svg
Scheme of roof of fourth ventricle.
Identifiers
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Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The rhombencephalon or hindbrain is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system in vertebrates. It includes the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. Together they support vital bodily processes.[1]

File:Rhombencephalon.jpg
Rhombencephalon

The hindbrain can be subdivided in a variable number of transversal swellings called rhombomeres. In the human embryo eight rhombomeres can be distinguished, from caudal to rostral: Rh8-Rh1. Rostrally, the isthmus demarcates the boundary with the midbrain or mesencephalon.

A rare disease of the rhombencephalon—"rhombencephalosynapsis"—is characterized by a missing vermis resulting in a fused cerebellum. Patients generally present with cerebellar ataxia.

The caudal rhombencephalon has been generally considered as the initiation site for neural tube closure.[2]

Myelencephalon

Rhombomeres Rh8-Rh4 form the myelencephalon.

The myelencephalon forms the medulla oblongata in the adult brain; it contains:

Metencephalon

Rhombomeres Rh3-Rh1 form the metencephalon.

The metencephalon is composed of the pons and the cerebellum; it contains:

Evolution

The hindbrain is homologous to a part of the arthropod brain known as the sub-oesophageal ganglion, in terms of the genes that it expresses and its position in between the brain and the nerve cord.[3] On this basis, it has been suggested that the hindbrain first evolved in the Urbilaterian - the last common ancestor of chordates and arthropods - between 570 and 555 million years ago.[3][4]

Additional images

References

  1. ^ "Brain atlas - Hindbrain". Lundbeck Institute - Brain explorer. Retrieved 2013-06-04. 
  2. ^ SpringerLink - Journal Article
  3. ^ a b Ghysen A (2003). "The origin and evolution of the nervous system". Int. J. Dev. Biol. 47 (7–8): 555–62. PMID 14756331. 
  4. ^ Haycock, DE Being and Perceiving

External links

Template:Cerebellum


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