Open Access Articles- Top Results for Rick Perry

Rick Perry

Not to be confused with British football executive Rick Parry or New Zealand ice hockey player Rick Parry (ice hockey).

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. colspan=2 style="text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.File:Rick Perry by Gage Skidmore 8.jpg#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. colspan=2 style="text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Perry in February 2012
colspan=2 class="n" style="text-align: center; font-size: 132%;"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.Rick Perry
colspan=2 style="background-color: lavender; text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 47th Governor of Texas

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.colspan=2 style="border-bottom:none; text-align:center"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.In office
December 21, 2000 – January 20, 2015 #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Lieutenant

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Bill Ratliff (2000–2003)
David Dewhurst (2003–2015) #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Preceded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. George W. Bush #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Succeeded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Greg Abbott #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

colspan=2 style="background-color: lavender; text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 39th Lieutenant Governor of Texas

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.colspan=2 style="border-bottom:none; text-align:center"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.In office
January 19, 1999 – December 21, 2000 #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-


#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. George W. Bush #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Preceded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Bob Bullock #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Succeeded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Bill Ratliff #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

colspan=2 style="background-color: lavender; text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 9th Commissioner of Agriculture of Texas

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.colspan=2 style="border-bottom:none; text-align:center"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.In office
January 15, 1991 – January 19, 1999 #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-


#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Ann Richards
George W. Bush #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Preceded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Jim Hightower #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Succeeded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Susan Combs #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

colspan=2 style="background-color: lavender; text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Member of the Texas House of Representatives
from the 64th district

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.- #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.colspan=2 style="border-bottom:none; text-align:center"#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.In office
January 8, 1985 – January 8, 1991 #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Preceded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Joe Hanna #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Succeeded by

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. John Cook #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect.-

colspan=2 style="background-color: lavender; text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Personal details
style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Born

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. James Richard Perry
(1950-03-04) March 4, 1950 (age 65)
Paint Creek, Texas, U.S.

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Political party

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Democratic (Before 1989)
Republican (1989–present)

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Spouse(s)

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Anita Thigpen (1982–present)

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Children

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 2

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Alma mater

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Texas A&M University

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Religion

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Nondenominational Evangelicalism[1]

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Signature

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Rick Perry's signature

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Website

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Official website

colspan=2 style="background-color: lavender; text-align: center" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Military service
style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Allegiance

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 23px United States of America

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Service/branch

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 23px United States Air Force

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Years of service

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 1972–1977[2]

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Rank

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 25px Captain

style="text-align:left;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Unit

#REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. 772nd Tactical Airlift Squadron

30px This article is part of a series about
Rick Perry
Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney

2012 Presidential Campaign
Governor of Texas
Political positions

James Richard "Rick" Perry (born March 4, 1950) is an American Republican politician who served as the 47th Governor of Texas from 2000 to 2015. A Republican, he was elected Lieutenant Governor of Texas in 1998 and assumed the governorship in December 2000 when then-governor George W. Bush resigned to become President of the United States. Perry is the longest serving governor in Texas state history. As a result, he is the only governor in modern Texas history to have appointed at least one person to every eligible state office, board, or commission position (as well as to several elected offices to which the governor can appoint someone to fill an unexpired term, such as six of the nine current members of the Texas Supreme Court).

Perry was elected to full gubernatorial terms in 2002, 2006 and 2010 and is the fourth Texas governor (after Allan Shivers, Price Daniel, and John Connally) to serve three terms. With a tenure in office to date of 15 years, 62 days, Perry was, at the time he left office, the second longest serving current U.S. governor – after Terry Branstad of Iowa. Perry served as chairman of the Republican Governors Association in 2008 (succeeding Sonny Perdue of Georgia) and again in 2011.[3]

Perry won the Texas 2010 Republican gubernatorial primary election, defeating U.S. Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and former Wharton County Republican Party Chairwoman and businesswoman Debra Medina.[4] In the 2010 Texas gubernatorial election, Perry won a third term by defeating former Houston mayor Bill White and Kathie Glass.[5]

On August 13, 2011, Perry announced in South Carolina that he was running for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 2012 presidential election. Perry suspended his campaign in January 2012 and eventually endorsed Republican nominee Mitt Romney.

On July 8, 2013, Perry announced that he would not seek re-election to his fourth term in the 2014 election, planning to retire instead.[6] Unnamed sources said to be close to Perry told the National Review that Perry may focus on another White House bid for 2016.[7]

On August 15, 2014, Perry was indicted by a grand jury on felony charges for abuse of power. He was accused of coercing a Democratic District Attorney who had been convicted of drunk driving to resign by threatening to veto funding for state public corruption prosecutors.[8][9][10] The indictment received some support and also wide criticism from all sides of the political spectrum, and editorial criticism from major US newspapers.

Early life

A fifth-generation Texan, Perry was born on March 4, 1950 in Paint Creek, about Script error: No such module "convert". north of Abilene in West Texas, to ranchers Joseph Ray Perry and the former Amelia June Holt. Perry's ancestry is almost entirely English, dating as far back as the original Thirteen Colonies. His family has been in Texas since before the Texas Revolution.[11][12]

His father, a Democrat, was a long-time Haskell County commissioner and school board member. Perry has said that his interest in politics probably began in November 1961, when his father took him to the funeral of U.S. Representative Sam Rayburn (D-TX),[13] who during his long public career served as speaker of the Texas House for a short time at the age of 29 and then later for 17 years as the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives.

Perry was in the Boy Scouts (BSA) and earned the rank of Eagle Scout; his son, Griffin, later became an Eagle Scout as well.[14][15] The BSA has honored Perry with the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award.[16]

Perry graduated from Paint Creek High School in 1968.


Upon graduation of high school, Rick Perry attended Texas A&M University where he was a member of the Corps of Cadets, a member of the Alpha Gamma Rho fraternity, was elected senior class social secretary, and was also elected as one of A&M's five yell leaders.[17][18] Perry graduated in 1972 with a Bachelor of Science in animal science.[19][20]

Perry said that the Corps of Cadets gave him the discipline to complete his animal sciences degree and earn a commission in the Air Force. In a 1989 interview he said that "I was probably a bit of a free spirit, not particularly structured real well for life outside of a military regime, I would have not lasted at Texas Tech or the University of Texas. I would have hit the fraternity scene and lasted about one semester."[19] Ultimately, Perry was elected a yell leader — a student that leads Aggie fans in a series of "yells" during athletic events or other school events — and social secretary for his class.[19]

First jobs

In the early 1970s, Perry interned during several summers with the Southwestern Company, as a door-to-door book salesman. "I count my time working for Dortch Oldham [president of the Southwestern Company] as one of the most important formative experiences of my life," Perry said in 2010. "There is nothing that tests your commitment to a goal like getting a few doors closed in your face." He said that "Mr. Oldham taught legions of young people to communicate quickly, clearly and with passion, a lesson that has served me well in my life since then."[21]

Upon graduation from college in 1972, Perry was commissioned as an officer in the United States Air Force and completed pilot training in February 1974. He was then assigned as a C-130 pilot to the 772nd Tactical Airlift Squadron at Dyess Air Force Base. Perry's duties included two-month overseas rotations at RAF Mildenhall in England and Rhein-Main Air Base in Germany. His missions included a 1974 U.S. State Department drought relief effort in Mali, Mauritania and Chad, and two years later, earthquake relief in Guatemala.[22] He left the United States Air Force in 1977 with the rank of Captain, returned to Texas, and went into business farming cotton with his father.[23]

Early political career

Texas Legislature

In 1984, Perry was elected to the Texas House of Representatives as a Democrat from district 64, which included his home county of Haskell. He served on the House Appropriations and Calendars committees during his three two-year terms in office. He befriended fellow freshman state representative Lena Guerrero of Austin, a staunch liberal Democrat who endorsed Perry's reelection bid in 2006 on personal, rather than philosophical, grounds.

Perry was part of the "Pit Bulls", a group of Appropriations members who sat on the lower dais in the committee room (or "pit") who pushed for austere state budgets during the 1980s.[24] At one point, The Dallas Morning News named him one of the ten most effective members of the legislature.[25]

In 1987, Perry voted for a $5.7 billion tax increase proposed by Republican governor Bill Clements.[26] Perry supported Al Gore in the 1988 Democratic presidential primaries and worked in an unspecified capacity for Gore's campaign in Texas.[27] On September 29, 1989, Perry announced that he was switching parties, becoming a Republican.[28]

Agriculture Commissioner

In 1990, as a newly minted Republican, Perry challenged Jim Hightower, the incumbent Democratic Agriculture Commissioner. Karl Rove was Perry’s campaign manager.[29]

In the March 13, 1990 Republican primary, Perry polled 276, 558 votes (47.19%), with Richard McIver garnering 176, 976 votes (30.20%) and Gene L. Duke, who placed third, polling 132, 497 votes (22.61%). [3] Since Perry fell shy of the necessary 50% to win outright, a runoff was held between Perry and McIver set on April 10, 1990. In the runoff, he emerged victorious, garnering 96, 649 votes (68.76%) to McIver's 43, 921 votes (31.25%). [4]

During 1990, Hightower's office was embroiled in an FBI investigation into corruption and bribery. Three aides were convicted in 1993 of using public funds for political fundraising, although Hightower himself was not found to be involved in the wrongdoings.[30] Perry narrowly defeated Hightower in November 1990, garnering 1,864,463 votes (49.10%) to Hightower's 1,820,145 votes (47.94%). [5]

According to the book Boy Genius: Karl Rove, the Brains Behind the Remarkable Political Triumph of George W. Bush, Rove raised $3 million to raise Perry’s profile, "while tarnishing the name of Jim Hightower" resulting in Perry’s name becoming a "household name in Texas—and Hightower’s name synonymous with corruption."[31]

As Agriculture Commissioner, Perry was responsible for promoting the sale of Texas farm produce to other states and foreign nations, and for supervising the calibration of weights and measures, such as gasoline pumps and grocery store scales.[32]

In April 1993, Perry, while serving as Texas agriculture commissioner, expressed support for the effort to reform the nation's health care, describing it as "most commendable".[33] The health care plan, first revealed in September, was ultimately unsuccessful due to Republican congressional opposition.[34][35][36][37][38] In 2005, after being questioned on the issue by a potential opponent in the Republican governor primary, Perry said that he expressed his support only in order to get Clinton to pay more attention to rural health care.[39]

In 1994, Perry was reelected Agriculture Commissioner by a large margin, getting 2,546,287 votes (62 percent) to Democrat Marvin Gregory's 1,479,692 (36 percent). Libertarian Clyde L. Garland received the remaining 85,836 votes (2 percent).[40] Gregory, a chicken farmer from Sulphur Springs, Texas, was on the Texas Agricultural Finance Authority with Perry in the early nineties, as a Republican. He became a Democrat before running against Perry in 1994.[41]

Lieutenant Governor

In 1998, Perry chose not to seek a third term as Agriculture Commissioner, running instead for Lieutenant Governor to succeed the retiring Democrat Bob Bullock. During this election, Rick Perry had a notable falling out with his previous top political strategist Karl Rove, which began the much-reported rivalry between the Bush and Perry camps.[42] Perry polled 1,858,837 votes (50.04 percent) to the 1,790,106 (48.19 percent) cast for Democrat John Sharp of Victoria, who had relinquished the Comptroller's position after two terms to seek the lieutenant governorship. Libertarian Anthony Garcia polled another 65,150 votes (1.75 percent).[40] Perry thus became the state's first Republican lieutenant governor since Reconstruction, taking office on January 19, 1999.

Governor of Texas

File:FEMA - 16240 - Photograph by Ed Edahl taken on 09-27-2005 in Texas.jpg
President George W. Bush and Texas Governor Rick Perry shake hands after a question and answer session at the Port Arthur airport. Port Arthur was hit hard by Hurricane Rita.
Perry assumed the office of governor on December 21, 2000, following the resignation of George W. Bush – who was preparing to become President of the United States.[14] He won the office in his own right in the 2002 gubernatorial election, where he received 57.80% of votes to Laredo oilman and businessman Tony Sanchez's 39.96%.[40] He was re-elected in the 2006 gubernatorial election against three major opponents, polling 39% of votes against runner-up former U.S. Congressman Chris Bell of Houston with 29.8%. In the 2010 gubernatorial election, Perry became the first Texas governor to be elected to three four-year terms, polling 54.97% of votes to former Houston Mayor Bill White's 42.48%.

In his three gubernatorial campaigns, Perry received hard-money campaign contributions of $102 million, half of which came from 204 donors.[43]

In the 2001 legislative session, Perry set a record for his use of the veto, rejecting 82 acts, more than any other governor in any single legislative session in the history of the state since Reconstruction.[44] [45][46]

In 2003, Perry formed the non-profit organization, the OneStar Foundation, designed to connects such the non-profits with resources and expertise to accomplish their missions and to promote volunteerism. He tapped the state Republican chairman Susan Weddington, who stepped down from that position after six years, as the president of OneStar. She left in 2009, and he chose Elizabeth Seale as her successor.[47][48]

Fiscal policies

File:Rick Perry at Pioneer 013.jpg
Rick Perry giving a speech at Pioneer Hi-Bred conference

In his presidential campaign, Perry highlighted the economic success Texas achieved under his governorship, although the true success of his policies has been questioned.[49][50][51][52][53][54] A proclaimed proponent of fiscal conservatism, Perry has often campaigned on job growth and tax issues, such as his opposition to creating a state income tax. Perry refused in 2002 to promise not to raise taxes as governor, and in the following years did propose or approve various tax and debt[55] increases.[56][57][58][59] In 2009, Perry signed Grover Norquist's pledge to "oppose and veto any and all efforts to increase taxes".

Texas began borrowing money in 2003 to pay for roads and will owe $17.3 billion by the end of 2012, increasing total state debt, from $13.4 billion in 2001 to $37.8 billion in 2011.[60] The state's public finance authority sold $2 billion in bonds for unemployment benefits, and it's authorized to sell $1.5 billion more if necessary. Texas federal borrowing topped $1.6 billion in October 2010, before the bond sales.[61] Texans voted November 8, 2011 for a Water Works Bill with an additional $6 billion of debt and against new tax breaks for landowners.[62] A Republican on the Natural Resources Committee laments "we couldn’t get the votes" which would break Perry's pledge not to raise taxes.[63]

In 2003, Perry signed legislation that created the Texas Enterprise Fund, which has since given $435 million in grants to businesses. The New York Times reported that many of the companies receiving grants, or their chief executives, have made contributions to Perry's campaigns or to the Republican Governors Association.[64] Perry has been criticized for supporting corporate tax breaks and other incentives, while the state government was experiencing budget deficits.[65][66]


As governor, Perry has been an outspoken opponent of federal health-care reform proposals and of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, describing the latter as "socialism on American soil".[67] Perry's focus in Texas has been on tort reform, signing a bill in 2003 which restricted non-economic damages in medical malpractice judgments.[68] Perry touted this approach in his Presidential campaign, although independent analysts have concluded that it has failed to increase the supply of physicians or limit health-care costs in Texas.[67][69]

During Perry's governorship, Texas rose from second to first among states with the highest proportion of uninsured residents at 26%, and had the lowest level of access to prenatal care in the U.S.[67] Perry and the state legislature have cut Medicaid spending.[67][70] The Los Angeles Times wrote that under Perry, "working Texans increasingly have been priced out of private healthcare while the state's safety net has withered."[70]

Perry's office has said that Texas represents a model private-sector approach to health-care. His spokeswoman stated that "Texas does provide an adequate safety net to those truly in need... and many individuals simply choose not to purchase healthcare coverage."[70]

Perry is pro-life and has signed bills with rules or restrictions for abortion procedures and funding for them.[71][72] In December 2011, Perry said he had undergone a "transformation" and now opposed all abortions, including in cases of rape and incest. The next day he clarified that he would allow an exception for abortions that would save a mother's life.[73][74]

In February 2007, Perry issued an executive order mandating that Texas girls receive the HPV vaccine, which protects against some strains of the human papilloma virus, a contributing factor to some forms of cervical cancer.[75] Following the move, news outlets reported various apparent financial connections between Perry and the vaccine's manufacturer, Merck.[75][76] Merck's political action committee has contributed $28,500 since 2001 to Perry's campaigns.[77] The order was criticized by some parents and social conservatives, and a lawsuit was filed later that month.[78] In May 2007, the Texas Legislature passed a bill undoing the order; Perry did not veto the bill, saying the veto would have been overruled, but blamed lawmakers who supported the bill for the deaths of future cancer victims.[79]

In 2011, Governor Perry both had adult stem cell surgery, in Houston by Dr. Jones, and started "laying the groundwork" for the commercialization of the adult stem cell industry in Texas.[80][81]


Perry grew up in the United Methodist Church. He and his family were members of Tarrytown United Methodist Church in Austin until 2010, when they began attending Lake Hills Church, a non-denominational evangelical megachurch in western Travis County. Perry told the Austin American-Statesman that he began attending Lake Hills because it was close to the rental home where he and his wife lived while the Governor's Mansion was being renovated.[1]

In 2006, Perry stated that he believes in the inerrancy of the Bible and that those who do not accept Jesus as their savior will go to hell. A couple of days later, he clarified, "I don't know that there's any human being that has the ability to interpret what God and his final decision-making is going to be."[82]

In his 2008 book On My Honor, Perry expressed his views on the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause of the U.S. Constitution. "Let's be clear: I don't believe government, which taxes people regardless of their faith, should espouse a specific faith. I also don't think we should allow a small minority of atheists to sanitize our civil dialogue on religious references."[83]

In June 2011, Perry proclaimed August 6 as a Day of Prayer and Fasting, inviting other governors to join him in a prayer meeting hosted by the American Family Association in Houston.[84][85] The event was criticized as going beyond prayer and fasting to include launching Perry's presidential campaign.[86]

Perry has called himself "a firm believer in intelligent design as a matter of faith and intellect", and has expressed support for its teaching alongside evolution in Texas schools, but has also said that "educators and local school officials, not the governor, should determine science curriculum".[87]


Perry has repeatedly attacked the Robin Hood plan to provide court-mandated equitable school financing for all school districts in the state. In 2005, following rejection of Perry's proposal to replace the Robin Hood plan, Perry vetoed all funding for public schools for the 2007–2008 biennium, saying he would not "approve an education budget that shortchanges teacher salary increases, textbooks, education technology, and education reforms. And I cannot let $2 billion sit in some bank account when it can go directly to the classroom."[88] Following a second rejection of Perry's bill, Perry asked John Sharp to head a task force charged with preparing a bipartisan education plan, which was subsequently adopted.[89][90]

In 2001, Perry expressed his pride in the enactment of the statute extending in-state tuition to undocumented immigrants who meet Texas' residency requirements. It also required the undocumented students to pledge to apply for permanent residency or citizenship if this became a possibility for them.[91] In September 2014, Gov. Perry stated during a debate his continuous support for the program.[92]


In 2002, Perry described the Texas same-sex anti-sodomy law as "appropriate".[93] The following year the United States Supreme Court's civil rights decision in Lawrence v. Texas (2003) struck down the statute for violating the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.[citation needed]

Perry supported the 2005 ballot proposition, which amended the Texas constitution by defining marriage as "only a union between a man and a woman" and prohibiting the state from creating or recognizing "any legal status identical or similar to marriage".[94] In 2011, after New York legalized same-sex marriage, Perry stated that it was their right to do so under the principle of states' rights delineated in the Tenth Amendment.[95] A spokesman later reiterated Perry's support for a federal constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage, saying that position was not inconsistent, since an amendment would require approval by three-fourths of the states.[96]

In his first book, On My Honor, published in 2008, Perry drew a parallel between homosexuality and alcoholism, writing that he is "no expert on the 'nature versus nurture' debate", but that gays should simply choose abstinence.[97] During the 2012 presidential campaign, he criticized the repeal of "don't ask, don't tell".[98] He said that using foreign aid as a policy tool against foreign countries which do not give full rights to homosexuals was "not in America’s interests".[99]

Perry, an Eagle Scout, has called on the Boy Scouts to continue their ban on homosexuality and blamed America for not living up to the ideals of the scouts.[100]


Perry's campaigns for lieutenant governor and governor focused on a tough stance on crime. He has supported block grants for crime programs.[101]

Jeff L. Blackburn, chief counsel of the Innocence Project of Texas, said of Perry that "He has done more good than any other governor we've ever had ... unless, of course, it involves the death penalty. On the death penalty, Rick Perry has a profound mental block."[102]

In 2007, Perry signed a law ending automatic arrest for cannabis possession.[103]

Death penalty

For more details on this topic, see Capital punishment in Texas.

Perry supports the death penalty.[104] In June 2002, he vetoed a ban on the execution of mentally retarded inmates.[101] As of September 18, 2014, there have been 278 executions since Perry first took office in December 2000.[105]

Cases in which Perry has been criticized for his lack of intervention include those of Cameron Todd Willingham, Frances Newton, and Mexican nationals José Medellín and Humberto Leal Garcia.[106][107][108][109]

Perry commuted the death sentence of Kenneth Foster, who was convicted of murder despite evidence that he was only present at the scene of the crime. Foster was convicted under a Texas law that makes co-conspirators liable in certain cases of homicide. In this case, it tied Foster to the triggerman. Perry raised doubts about the law and urged the legislature to re-examine the issue. "I believe the right and just decision is to commute Foster’s sentence from the death penalty to life imprisonment," Perry said in a statement at the time.[110]

Perry also refused to grant a stay of execution in the case of Cameron Todd Willingham even though an investigation by the Texas Forensic Science Commission determined parts of the original investigation may not have looked at all of the evidence correctly. Perry called Willingham a “monster” and later replaced the chairman of the Science Commission. [111][112]


In 2001, Perry proposed the Trans-Texas Corridor, a $145+ billion-dollar project that would build multi-lane highways, rail lines and data lines from Oklahoma to Mexico, and from east to west in southern Texas. Instead of paying for the project with taxes, Perry proposed that it be partially financed, partially built and wholly operated by private contractors, who would subsequently receive all toll proceeds.[113] All of Perry's gubernatorial opponents opposed the corridor project, as did the 2006 state party platforms of both the Democratic and Republican parties.[114][115] After much contentious debate between supporters and opponents, an official decision of "no action" was issued by the Federal Highway Administration on July 20, 2010, formally ending the project.

Gun ownership

Perry has an A+ rating from the National Rifle Association.[116] He possesses a Concealed Handgun License (CHL)[117] and has signed a number of bills that increased CHL access.[118]

2012 presidential campaign

File:RickPerry Iowa Fair.jpg
Perry campaigning at the Iowa State Fair

Until 2011, Perry persistently denied aspirations to higher office; he was originally included on the 2012 presidential straw poll ballot at the Values Voter Summit in September 2009, but his name was removed at his request.[119] In April 2008 while appearing as a guest on CNBC's Kudlow & Company, he specifically stated that he would not agree to serve as Vice President in a McCain administration, stating that he already had "the best job in the world" as governor of Texas. Further, during a Republican gubernatorial debate in January 2010, when asked if he would commit to serving out his term if re-elected, he replied that "the place hasn't been made yet" where he would rather serve than the governor of Texas. In December 2010, when asked if he was a "definite maybe" to run for president in 2012, he replied, "a definite no, brother".[120]

On May 27, 2011, he said he was "going to think about" running for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination after the close of the Texas legislative session.[121] Perry said in a response to a question from a reporter, "but I think about a lot of things", adding a grin.[122]

On August 11, a Perry spokesman said that he would be running for president in 2012, with plans to announce his formal entry into the race the next day.[123][124] Perry himself confirmed it on a visit to KVUE, the ABC affiliate in Austin. As the Associated Press bulletin announcing his entry into the race came across the wire, Perry signed and dated a printed copy of the bulletin.[125]

On August 13, Perry officially announced that he would be running for president.[126]

After announcing his candidacy, Perry immediately became a serious contender in the race, with a poll released by Rasmussen Reports on August 16, 2011, showing him leading in the Republican field at 29 percent, with the eventual Republican nominee Mitt Romney at a distant second at 18 percent and the then-front runner Michele Bachmann at 13 percent.[127] Perry hoped that Texas' own record of job growth in contrast to the rest of the country could persuade voters that he could reverse the economic downturn.[128] However, by September Perry's campaign began to suffer following a number of poor debate performances. Perry suffered further following a November 2011 debate in which he was unable to name one of the three government agencies that he would eliminate as president; he later identified the third agency as the Department of Energy.[129]

In October 2011, the Washington Post reported that Perry's family leases a hunting camp once called "Niggerhead". According to some local residents interviewed by the Post, the Perrys used the camp for years before painting over a large rock with that name on it, which stands at an entrance to the area, and during this time Perry hosted friends and supporters at the camp.[130] Perry's campaign disputed the claims, stating that the Perrys painted over the rock almost immediately after acquiring a lease on the property in 1983.[131][132] The Washington Post news reporter filing the October 1, 2011, news report interviewed seven people "...who spoke in detail of their memories of seeing the rock with the name at various points during the years that Perry was associated with the property through his father, partners or his signature on a lease".[130]

On December 6, Perry released a presidential campaign video on YouTube called "Strong" discussing his religious beliefs, as well as criticism of Obama's governance.[133] The video states "there's something wrong in this country when gays can serve openly in the military, but our kids can't openly celebrate Christmas or pray in school." The video was widely criticized in the on-line community and received over 750,000 dislikes on YouTube.[134]

Perry came in fifth place in the Iowa caucuses and skipped the New Hampshire primary. With polls showing Perry trailing in the upcoming South Carolina primary, Perry announced on January 19, 2012, that he would be dropping out of the 2012 presidential race. Perry initially endorsed Newt Gingrich, but then endorsed Mitt Romney in April after Gingrich announced that he was suspending his campaign.[135]


On August 15, 2014, Perry was indicted by a Travis County grand jury,[136] for threatening to veto $7.5 million in funding for the Public Integrity Unit, a state public corruption prosecutors department, and coerce the resignation of Travis County District Attorney Rosemary Lehmberg, a Democrat,[137] after she was convicted of drunk driving, and incarcerated. The indictment has two charges: abuse of official capacity (a first-degree felony), and coercion of a public servant (a third-degree felony).[138][139]

Billy Ray Stubblefield, chief judge of Texas' Third Judicial District, presides over the case.[140] Michael McCrum, the special prosecutor, was appointed by former judge of the 379th District Court in Texas, Bert Richardson of Bexar County, who was selected to handle the grand jury investigation by Stubblefield.[141] Jay Root of the Texas Tribune said "Lehmberg and other Travis County officials recused themselves from the case and are not prosecuting it" noting that the prosecutor was appointed by Bert Richardson, a "Republican judge".[141] The Dallas Morning News editorially said that the key question for the jury to decide after hearing all the evidence is "[d]id our governor violate state law in how and why he withheld that funding?"[142]

Perry's supporters called the charges political and partisan,[10] and several Democratic commentators, including David Axelrod, Jonathan Prince, Matthew Yglesias, and Jonathan Chait have stated that they believe the charges are either weak or unwarranted.[8][143] Major newspapers including The New York Times ("appears to be the product of an overzealous prosecution"), The Los Angeles Times ("the courts are the wrong place to settle political scores"), The Washington Post ("The grand jury, however, would criminalize Mr. Perry’s conduct by twisting the pertinent statutes into a pair of pretzels"), and USA Today ("Politics as usual should not be a violation of criminal law") criticized the indictment.[144][145][146][147] Harvard Law School professor Alan Dershowitz stated that "The two statutes under which Gov. Perry was indicted are reminiscent of the old Soviet Union — you know, abuse of authority. The idea of indicting him because he threatened to veto spending unless a district attorney who was caught drinking and driving resigned, that's not anything for a criminal indictment. That's a political issue." [148] Eugene Volokh, UCLA School of Law professor, said that the Texas Constitution gives Perry the right to veto bills and he cannot be prosecuted for using his lawful and constitutional authority as Texas Governor and he also stated that Perry's threat to veto the funding is protected by the First Amendment, according to the Texas case of State v. Hansen.[149]

After turning himself in, Perry pleaded not guilty, and waived arraignment.[150] On August 25, attorneys for Perry filed a motion in state district court in Austin to dismiss the felony charges against him.[151] McCrum is to file a written response to the motion by August 29.[152]

On October 3, 2014, Perry's lawyers filed a motion to have the charges dismissed for procedural errors, based on their contention that Lehmberg was not properly recused and McCrum was not properly sworn in as Lehmberg's substitute.[153] A state district judge rejected the motion to dismiss in November.[154]

Political future

File:Rick Perry by Gage Skidmore 9.jpg
Governor Perry speaking at the 2014 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland.

Following the end of his third full term, he served up to 14 consecutive years in office. The University of Texas at Austin–Texas Tribune Poll released on June 17, 2013, showed Perry leading potential primary challenger Attorney General Greg Abbott by double digits, 45–19%.[155] In February, the same poll had Perry leading by a 3-to-1 margin (49–17%) of 32 points over Abbott.[156]

Perry decided not to run for re-election to a fourth full term, announcing, in front of family and supporters at the Holt Cat Headquarters in San Antonio, Texas, on July 8, 2013, that he would retire instead.[6][157] Perry retired with the 10th longest gubernatorial tenure in United States history at the end of his term on January 20, 2015 at 5,144 days.[158] [6]

Almost immediately following the 2012 election, Perry was mentioned as a potential candidate for the Presidency in the 2016 Presidential election, with a Time magazine article from July of 2013 saying that "everything is aligned for Rick Perry to be the Republican nominee for president in 2016."[159] On May 15, 2015 it was widely reported that Perry was planning to announce his plans on June 4 with many sources assuming that Perry would be announcing his presidential run.[160][161]

Books and speeches

File:Rick Perry by Gage Skidmore 10.jpg
Rick Perry speaking at the 2015 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) in National Harbor, Maryland on February 27, 2015.

Rick Perry has written two books:

  • On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts are Worth Fighting For was published in February 2008.[162] It celebrates the positive impact of the organization on the youth of America and criticizes the ACLU for its legal actions against the Boy Scouts of America.[163]
  • Fed Up! Our Fight to Save America from Washington, was written with senior advisor Chip Roy and published in November 2010.[164] It discusses his support for limited central government.

Perry has given a number of speeches, including one at the Heritage Foundation on his views of the proper role of the federal government and the military in disaster management.[165]

Personal life

In 1982, Perry married Anita Thigpen, his childhood sweetheart whom he had known since elementary school. They have two grown children, Griffin and Sydney. Anita attended West Texas State University and earned a degree in nursing. She has spearheaded a number of health-related initiatives such as the Anita Thigpen Perry Endowment at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, which focuses on nutrition, cardiovascular disease, health education, and early childhood development.[166] She has also helped develop and host the Texas Conference for Women.[167]

Perry has played himself in minor roles for several feature films, including Man of the House, Deep in the Heart, and Hating Breitbart.

In 2001, the American Cowboy Culture Association, based in Lubbock, handed Perry its "The Top Cowboy of Texas" award. In accepting the honor, Perry cited the importance of his father, Ray Perry, and a former neighbor in Haskell County, the late Watt R. Matthews (born 1899), who Perry said taught him "not only about Texas and [its] history.. but also about the importance of the values that we learned growing up in a rural environment".[168]

Perry is also a member of the National Society of the Sons of the American Revolution and won their Gold Good Citizenship Medal.[169]

Perry's son, Griffin married Meredith Lewis on December 19, 2009. On June 20, 2013, Griffin and Meredith's child was born, making Perry a grandfather.[170]

Electoral history

Texas Gubernatorial Election 2002
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rick Perry (Incumbent) 2,617,106 58.1
Democratic Tony Sanchez 1,809,915 40.3
Texas Gubernatorial Election 2006[171]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rick Perry (Incumbent) 1,716,792 39.02
Democratic Chris Bell 1,310,337 29.78
Independent Carole Keeton Strayhorn 796,851 18.11
Independent Richard "Kinky" Friedman 547,674 12.44
Libertarian James Werner 26,749 0.60
Texas Gubernatorial Election 2010[5]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Rick Perry (Incumbent) 2,733,784 54.97
Democratic Bill White 2,102,606 42.28
Libertarian Kathie Glass 109,057 2.19
Green Deb Shafto 19,475 0.39
Independent Andy Barron (Write-In) 7,973 0.16


  1. ^ a b Joshunda Sanders, Jason Embry. "Candidates attending more than one church". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  2. ^ Kudlow, Larry (6 March 2015). "Captain Rick Perry: Time for a military man in the White House?". CNBC. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  3. ^ "RGA Announces New Leadership". Republican Governors Association. November 18, 2010. Retrieved March 26, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Texas Governor Profile". The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  5. ^ a b "TX Governor Race – Nov 02, 2010". Our Campaigns. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "Texas Gov. Rick Perry announces he will not seek re-election in 2014". KTRK. July 8, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013. 
  7. ^ Woodruff, Betsy. (March 19, 2013) Perry 2016? | National Review Online. Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  8. ^ a b "Perry indicted". Washington Post. August 15, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Texas Governor Rick Perry indicted by grand jury". Retrieved August 15, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "Texas Gov. Rick Perry is indicted". LA times. Retrieved August 16, 2014. 
  11. ^ "rick perry". Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Surname Database: Perry Last Name Origin". Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Richard L. Connor: Texas' Perry might surprise Obama in 2012". Maine Sunday Telegram. June 5, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  14. ^ a b "Texas Governor Rick Perry". Office of the Governor. Retrieved November 8, 2006. 
  15. ^ Lucas, Fred (February 11, 2008). "Texas Governor Urges Protection for Boy Scouts of America". Cybercast News Service. Archived from the original on May 18, 2008. Retrieved August 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Distinguished Eagle Scout Award" (PDF). Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  17. ^ Hylton, Hilary (January 25, 2009). "Bush Returns to a Divided Texas Republican Party". Time. 
  18. ^ From Cheerleading to Politics - ABC News. (May 19, 2012). Retrieved on 2013-08-12.
  19. ^ a b c Hooks, Chris (August 2, 2011). "Texas A&M Years Launched Perry — and a Rivalry". The Texas Tribune (Austin). Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  20. ^ Jacobs, Jennifer (September 21, 2011). "Trivia question: Which presidential candidate has a degree in economics?". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved November 12, 2011. 
  21. ^ Wood, E. Thomas (February 27, 2009). "Dortch Oldham dies at 89". Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  22. ^ "For Rick Perry, Air Force Service Broadened and Narrowed Life". The New York Times. November 25, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Candidates' Corner 2012– Rick Perry". U.S. Global Leadership Coalition | American Foreign Policy & Foreign Affairs - August 13, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  24. ^ Camia, Catalina (July 15, 2011). "GOP's Rick Perry spent early years as a Democrat". USA Today. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  25. ^ "71st Legislature, 6th C.S., HR63." (PDF). Legislative Reference Library of Texas. 1990. Retrieved August 13, 2011. 
  26. ^ Jay Root, Rick Perry: The Democrat Years The Texas Tribune July 14, 2011.
  27. ^ "Rick Perry backed Al Gore, didn't lead his Texas campaign". PolitiFact. Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  28. ^ "50 Things You need to Know about Governor Rick Perry" Dallas Morning News February 19, 2010.
  29. ^ Bickerstaff, Steve (2010). Lines in the Sand: Congressional Redistricting in Texas and the Downfall of Tom DeLay. University of Texas Press. p. 21. ISBN 9780292783058. 
  30. ^ Three ex-aides to Hightower are sentenced Houston Chronicle. November 11, 1993
  31. ^ Lou Dubose; Jan Reid; Carl M. Cannon (2003). Boy Genius: Karl Rove, the Brains Behind the Remarkable Political Triumph of George W. Bush. PublicAffairs. p. 43. ISBN 9781586481926. 
  32. ^ "What is the Texas Department of Agriculture?". Texas Department of Agriculture. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  33. ^ Ashford-Grooms, Meghan (September 24, 2011). "Ron Paul says Rick Perry wrote a letter supporting Hillarycare". Austin American-Statesman / Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  34. ^ R.G. Ratcliffe (March 29, 2005). "Perry letter commending Hillary Clinton found". Houston Chronicle. 
  35. ^ "Tea Party faithful wonder if Rick Perry walks the walk". Accuracy in Media. August 10, 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  36. ^ Ramsey, Ross (July 14, 2011). "Perry, Social Conservatives and the Road to the Top". The Texas Tribune. 
  37. ^ Ratcliffe, R.G. (September 10, 2009). "The video Perry's campaign can't resist using". San Antonio Express-News. 
  38. ^ Mark, David. Going dirty: the Art of Negative Campaigning. p. 127.
  39. ^ Ratcliffe, R.G. (March 30, 2005). "Perry says Hutchison-Clinton video politics as usual". Houston Chronicle. 
  40. ^ a b c "Office of the Secretary of State : 1992 - Current ELECTION HISTORY". Retrieved 2015-05-05. 
  41. ^ Swartz, Mimi (September 2011). "The Great Campaigner". Texas Monthly. 
  42. ^ "POLITICO: If Rick Perry gets in, will Karl Rove be out?". Retrieved September 10, 2010. 
  43. ^ Taibbi, Matt (October 26, 2011), "Rick Perry: The Best Little Whore In Texas", Rolling Stone, retrieved November 20, 2011 
  44. ^ "The Executive Branch: Budgetary Powers", Texas Politics, University of Texas at Austin, retrieved June 20, 2011
  45. ^ "The Limits of the Veto", Texas Politics, University of Texas at Austin, retrieved June 20, 2011
  46. ^ Aaronson, Becca (June 17, 2011). "Vetoes — Then and Now". The Texas Tribune (Austin). Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  47. ^ "Susan Wedding President/CEO OneStar Foundation". Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  48. ^ "San Antonio Exec Named President of OneStar Foundation". Fund Raising Success Magazine. February 12, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  49. ^ Luhby, Tami (August 12, 2011). "Rick Perry and his Texas jobs boom: The whole story – Aug. 12, 2011". Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  50. ^ "West Texans React to Perry's Presidency Run". Odessa, TX: KWES-TV. August 13, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  51. ^ "The Lone Star Jobs Surge". The Wall Street Journal. June 10, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  52. ^ Plumer, Brad (July 28, 2011). "Breaking down Rick Perry's 'Texas miracle' – Ezra Klein". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Rick Perry's four economic vulnerabilities - TODAY News -". Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  54. ^ The Texas Unmiracle By PAUL KRUGMAN, New York Times, August 14, 2011
  55. ^ Texas Department of Transportation (State of Texas). "Proposition 12 (General Obligation Bond Projects)". Retrieved October 11, 2011. 
  56. ^ Gleckman, Howard (August 16, 2011). "Rick Perry's Changing Take On Raising Taxes". Forbes.
  57. ^ "The Texas pole tax". The Economist. January 3, 2008.
  58. ^ "Gov. Perry Signs Landmark Business Tax Reform" (Press release). Office of the Governor. May 18, 2006. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  59. ^ "New Texas Margin Tax – Business or Income Tax". August 16, 2006. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  60. ^ "Analyzing Rick Perry’s record: Texas transportation needs left behind | Texas on the Potomac | a blog". August 20, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  61. ^ Schnurman, Mitchell. "Texas' debt practices contradict Perry's rhetoric | News | News from Fort Worth, Dallas". Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  62. ^ Galbraith, Kate (November 9, 2011). "Texas Water Propositions Meet Different Fates". Texas Tribune.
  63. ^ Mildenberg, David; McFerron, Whitney (October 14, 2011). "Texans Face Billions in Water Works Bills as Drought Saps Perry's Economy". Bloomberg. 
  64. ^ Perry Mines Texas System to Raise Cash, by Nicholas Confessore and Michael Lu, New York Times, August 20, 2011.
  65. ^ Luhby, Tami (January 19, 2011). "Even budget deficits are bigger in Texas.". Retrieved February 22, 2014. 
  66. ^ "Lines Blur as Texas Gives Industries a Bonanza."
  67. ^ a b c d Sack, Kevin (September 3, 2011). "G.O.P. Candidates’ Stances on Health Care Mask Their Records as Governors". New York Times. Retrieved September 12, 2011. 
  68. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (September 15, 2003). "Malpractice Suits Capped at $750,000 in Texas Vote". New York Times. 
  69. ^ Paik, Myungho; Black, Bernard S.; Hyman, David A.; Silver, Charles M. (July 16, 2010). "Will Tort Reform Bend the Cost Curve? Evidence from Texas". Social Science Research Network. Retrieved September 12, 2011. 
  70. ^ a b c Levey, Noam (September 8, 2011). "Texas healthcare system withering under Gov. Perry". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 12, 2011. 
  71. ^ "Rick Perry Gets A Grade on Abortion From Texas Pro-Life Groups". June 10, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  72. ^ "Texas Gov. Rick Perry Signs Bill De-Funding Planned Parenthood". Catholic Tide. July 21, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  73. ^ Saenz, Arlette. "Rick Perry Clarifies Abortion Stand, Mother’s Life Only Exception." ABC News, December 28, 2011.
  74. ^ Philpott, Ben. "Rick Perry Pivots on Abortion." KUT News, December 27, 2011.
  75. ^ a b Carney, Timothy (June 21, 2011) "Rick Perry's mixed record on regulatory robbery", The Washington Examiner
  76. ^ Peterson, Liz Austin (February 22, 2007). "Perry's staff discussed vaccine on day Merck donated to campaign". Austin American-Statesman. Associated Press. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  77. ^ Mason, Melanie. "Rick Perry understated drug company campaign cash." Los Angeles Times, September 13, 2011.
  78. ^ "Texas Families Seek to Block Gov's Order". Newsmax Media. Associated Press. February 25, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  79. ^ MacLaggan, Corrie (May 9, 2007). "Perry lets HPV bill go into law". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 16, 2011. 
  80. ^ Ramshaw, Emily (August 4, 2011). "Perry, Allies Lay Groundwork for TX Stem Cell Industry". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved March 6, 2012. 
  81. ^ Maslin Nir, Sarah (August 4, 2011). "Rick Perry Has Stem Cell Procedure, Then Works to Bring it to Texas". The New York Times. Retrieved March 6, 2012. 
  82. ^ Hoppe, Christy (November 6, 2006). "Perry believes non-Christians doomed". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on November 19, 2006. Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  83. ^ Perry, Rick (2008). On My Honor. Macon, GA: Stroud & Hall Publishers. p. 88. ISBN 0-9796462-2-7. 
  84. ^ Perry, Rick (June 6, 2011). "Gov. Perry Declares August 6th a Day of Prayer". Office of the Governor. Retrieved June 29, 2011. 
  85. ^ Bacon, Perry, Jr.; Henderson, Nia-Malika (August 5, 2011). "Texas Gov. Rick Perry to host major prayer event in Houston". The Washington Post.
  86. ^ Fikac, Peggy (August 19, 2011). "Email on voting prompts questions about Perry prayer event". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 20, 2011. 
  87. ^ "2010 The Vote: K-12 Education". San Angelo Standard-Times. September 11, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  88. ^ "Press Release: Gov. Perry Says Legislators Must Come Back, Get School Funding Right". Office of the Governor Rick Perry Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  89. ^ "Proceedings: Third Day — Tuesday, July 26, 2005". Archived from the original on 2005-11-30. 
  90. ^ "Gov. Perry's Principles For A Stronger Texas" (PDF). Office of the Governor – Rick Perry – Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  91. ^ Perry, Rick (August 22, 2001). "Gov. Rick Perry's Remarks to the Border Summit". Office of the Governor. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  92. ^ Batheja, Aman. "Perry backs in-state tuition law". Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  93. ^ "Perry calls sodomy law 'appropriate'". Houston Chronicle. Associated Press. December 4, 2002. Retrieved August 19, 2011. 
  94. ^ Elliott, Janet (November 8, 2005). "Same-sex marriage ban wins OK". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved August 29, 2011. 
  95. ^ Jacobs, Jennifer (July 23, 2011). "Perry defends gay marriage as states' choice; Santorum takes a swipe". The Des Moines Register. Retrieved August 19, 2011. 
  96. ^ Barabak, Mark Z. (July 28, 2011). "Rick Perry contorts over same-sex marriage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 19, 2011. 
  97. ^ Benjamin, Mark (August 24, 2011). "Perry Compared Homosexuality to Alcoholism in 2008 Book". Time. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  98. ^ Stein, Sam (December 8, 2011). "Rick Perry's Anti-Gay Iowa Ad Divides His Top Staff". The Huffington Post. Retrieved February 15, 2012. 
  99. ^ "Rick Perry Says Human Rights for Gays ‘Not in America’s Interests’.". December 6, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2014. 
  100. ^ "Perry Fights Letting Gays in Boy Scouts."
  101. ^ a b "Public Notes on 01-NGA10". On The Issues. September 14, 2001. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  102. ^ Sontag, Deborah (October 30, 2011). "Perry Displays Varied Stance Toward Crime". The New York Times.
  103. ^ Yoder, Steve (November 7, 2011). "The GOP, 'tough on crime' no more?" Salon.
  104. ^ Thomas, Evan; Brant, Martha (November 10, 2007). "Injection of Reflection". Newsweek. Retrieved June 22, 2008. 
  105. ^ "Death Row Information: Executed Offenders". Texas Dept of Criminal Justice. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  106. ^ "From arson to politics: Why has Texas's governor derailed a death-penalty investigation?". The Economist. October 22, 2009. Retrieved August 13, 2011. 
  107. ^ Grann, David (January 7, 2009). "Cameron Todd Willingham, Texas, and the death penalty". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  108. ^ "Frances Elaine Newton #982". Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  109. ^ Graczyk, Michael (July 8, 2011). "Criticism of Texas' execution of Mexican Leal doesn't bother Perry". Fort Worth Star-Telegram. Retrieved August 7, 2011. 
  110. ^ [1][dead link]
  111. ^ [2] |date=March 19, 2015 |accessdate=March 19, 2015]]
  112. ^ Thornton, Paul (August 6, 2014). "Cameron Todd Willingham's ghost won't stop haunting Rick Perry". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  113. ^ "Trans-Texas Corridor: FAQs". Texas Department of Transportation. 2004. Archived from the original on November 13, 2007. Retrieved November 13, 2008. 
  114. ^ "2006 State Republican Party Platform" (PDF). Texas Republican Party. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 25, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008. 
  115. ^ "2006 Texas Democratic Party Platform" (PDF). 2006. Retrieved June 26, 2008. 
  116. ^ "Rick Perry's unwavering support for gun rights could boost his presidential prospects". Nra-Ila. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  117. ^ "'Wily' coyote no match for governor's gun". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  118. ^ "Gov. Perry Signs Bills to Protect Gun Owners' Rights". Office of the Governor Rick Perry – Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  119. ^ "Texas Gov. Rick Perry pulled out of conservative straw poll". CNN. September 18, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  120. ^ "Quote of the Day". Political Wire. Retrieved December 26, 2010. 
  121. ^ "Texan Perry to 'think about' a 2012 White House run". The Washington Times. May 27, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011. 
  122. ^ Gutierrez, Kris (May 27, 2011). "President Perry? Texas Governor to 'Think About it'". Fox News. Retrieved August 13, 2011. 
  123. ^ "Spokesman says Texas Gov. Rick Perry is running for president, announcement planned Saturday". The Washington Post. August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011. [dead link]
  124. ^ "Rick Perry to run for president, spokesman says". CBS News. Associated Press. August 11, 2011. Retrieved August 11, 2011. 
  125. ^ Bergamo, Jim (August 11, 2011). "Spokesman says Perry running for president". Austin, TX: KVUE.
  126. ^ "Promising Better Direction, Perry Enters Race".
  127. ^ "GOP Primary: Perry 29%, Romney 18%, Bachmann 13%". Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  128. ^ Parker, Ashley. "Promising Better Direction, Perry Enters Race". The New York Times. Retrieved October 27, 2012. 
  129. ^ Montopoli, Brian. "Republican debate winners and losers: A disastrous night for Perry". CBS News. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  130. ^ a b McCrummen, Stephanie (October 1, 2011). "At Rick Perry’s Texas hunting spot, camp’s old racially charged name lingered". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  131. ^ Burns, Alexander (October 2, 2011). "Perry team pushes back on Herman Cain criticism". Politico. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  132. ^ "Republican Rick Perry in hunting lodge race row". BBC News. October 3, 2011. Retrieved October 3, 2011. 
  133. ^ RPerry2012 (December 6, 2011). "Strong Campaign YouTube Video". YouTube. Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  134. ^ George, Alison (December 9, 2011). "Rick Perry Ad Generating Epic Hate on YouTube". Slate. Retrieved March 12, 2012. 
  135. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Shear, Michael D. (January 19, 2012). "Perry to End Bid for Presidency". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2012. 
  136. ^ Benjy Sarlin (August 12, 2014). "Rick Perry indicted for abuse of power by grand jury". MSNBC. Retrieved August 17, 2014. 
  137. ^ Manny Fernandez (August 15, 2014). "Gov. Rick Perry of Texas Is Indicted on Charge of Abuse of Power". The New York Times. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 
  138. ^ "Texas Gov. Rick Perry indicted for alleged abuse of power in veto dispute". Fox News. October 1, 2006. Retrieved August 17, 2014. 
  139. ^ "Gov. Rick Perry surrenders to Travis County Jail". Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  140. ^ Schladen, Marty. "Texas Gov. Rick Perry booked on two felony counts". El Paso Times. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  141. ^ a b Root, Jay. "Five Things to Know About Perry Indictment". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  142. ^ "Editorial: Rick Perry case deserves fullest, fairest hearing". Dallas News. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  143. ^ Colin Campbell (August 16, 2014). "Even Liberals Think The Indictment Of Rick Perry Looks Weak". Business Insider. Retrieved August 16, 2014. 
  144. ^ Is Gov. Rick Perry’s Bad Judgment Really a Crime? The New York Times, By THE EDITORIAL BOARD, AUG. 18, 2014
  145. ^ "Rick Perry indictment: Politicians' spats don't belong in courts". LA Times. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  146. ^ Board, Editorial. "The wrong-headed case against Texas Gov. Rick Perry". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  147. ^ The Editorial Board (2014-08-14). "Rick Perry's flimsy indictment: Our view". Retrieved 2014-08-19. 
  148. ^ Wanda Carruthers (August 18, 2014). "Dershowitz: Perry Indictment 'What Happens in Totalitarian Societies'". Newsmax. Retrieved August 23, 2014. 
  149. ^ Eugene Volokh (August 20, 2014). "Another way of thinking about the problems with the Rick Perry indictment". Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2014. 
  150. ^ Fikac, Peggy. "News Perry pleads not guilty, heads out of state". My San Antonio. Retrieved 21 August 2014. 
  151. ^ Weber, Paul. "Rick Perry Attorneys Want Indictment Dismissed". The Huffington Post Post. Retrieved 25 August 2014. 
  152. ^ Montgomery, David. "Texas Governor’s Lawyers Seek Dismissal of Abuse-of-Power Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 August 2014. 
  153. ^ Langford, Terri (October 3, 2014). "Perry Lawyers: McCrum Wasn't Properly Sworn In". Texas Tribune (Austin, Texas). Retrieved October 4, 2014. 
  154. ^ Sara Fischer (19 November 2014). "Judge rules he won't dismiss Rick Perry case over paperwork technicality". CNN. 
  155. ^ UT/TT Poll: Texans Favor Cruz Over Perry for President. The Texas Tribune. Retrieved on August 12, 2013.
  156. ^ UT/TT Poll: Perry Starts Ahead of Abbott in 2014 Race. The Texas Tribune. Retrieved on August 12, 2013.
  157. ^ "Rick Perry Won't Run for Re-election". The Texas Tribune. July 8, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2014. 
  158. ^ Ostermeier, Eric (July 8, 2013). "Perry Will Retire with 10th Longest Gubernatorial Tenure in US History". Smart Politics. 
  159. ^ Miller, Zeke (July 9, 2013). "Can Anyone Stop Rick Perry In 2016?". Time. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  160. ^ Miller, Jake (May 15, 2015). "Rick Perry makes a decision on 2016 presidential race". CBS News. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  161. ^ Topaz, Joshua; Gluesk, Katie (May 15, 2015). "Rick Perry to announce White House intentions on June 4". Politico. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  162. ^ Perry, Rick (February 2008). On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts are Worth Fighting For. Stroud & Hall. ISBN 978-0-9796462-2-5. 
  163. ^ Selby, W. Gardner (February 9, 2008). "In first book, Perry criticizes ACLU and defends Boy Scouts". Austin American-Statesman. Retrieved June 22, 2008. 
  164. ^ Perry, Rick (November 2010). Fed Up! Our Fight to Save America from Washington. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-13295-4. 
  165. ^ Perry, Rick (November 2005). Federalizing Disaster Response. Heritage Foundation. 
  166. ^ "Endowment named for First Lady Anita Perry – The News – University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio". June 15, 2001. Retrieved August 18, 2011. 
  167. ^ Giles, Mike. "Governor Rick Perry Leads Texas by Faith". DFW Christian Family. Retrieved August 22, 2011. 
  168. ^ Fillpot, Dirk (October 24, 2001). "Perry becomes a driving force". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Retrieved September 5, 2013. 
  169. ^ Gov. Rick Perry Inducted TXSAR 11 Feb 2010
  170. ^ Perry says he’s about to be a grandfather Dallas News, Apr 29, 1913
  171. ^ "Texas Board of Elections as of July 24, 2009". Retrieved February 22, 2014. 

External links

Media coverage
Texas House of Representatives
Preceded by
Joe Hanna
Member of the Texas House of Representatives
from the 64th district

Succeeded by
John Cook
Political offices
Preceded by
Jim Hightower
Commissioner of Agriculture of Texas
Succeeded by
Susan Combs
Preceded by
Bob Bullock
Lieutenant Governor of Texas
January 19, 1999–December 21, 2000
Succeeded by
Bill Ratliff
Preceded by
George W. Bush
Governor of Texas
December 21, 2000–January 20, 2015
Succeeded by
Greg Abbott
Party political offices
Preceded by
George W. Bush
Republican nominee for Governor of Texas
2002, 2006, 2010
Succeeded by
Greg Abbott

Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).