Adverts

Open Access Articles- Top Results for Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge

Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge
IUCN category IV (habitat/species management area)
284px
Mule deer in Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge; downtown Denver is visible in the background.
Lua error in Module:Location_map at line 371: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value).
Location Adams County, Colorado, U.S.
Nearest city
  1. REDIRECT Template:If empty
  • This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name. For more information follow the category link.
Coordinates

39°50′0″N 104°50′30″W / 39.83333°N 104.84167°W / 39.83333; -104.84167Coordinates: 39°50′0″N 104°50′30″W / 39.83333°N 104.84167°W / 39.83333; -104.84167{{#coordinates:39|50|0|N|104|50|30|W|type:landmark_region:US_ |primary |name=

}}
Area Script error: No such module "convert".
Established
  1. REDIRECT Template:If empty
  • This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name. For more information follow the category link.
Visitors 300,000 (in 2013)
Governing body
  1. REDIRECT Template:If empty
  • This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name. For more information follow the category link.
http://www.fws.gov/rockymountainarsenal/
#REDIRECT Template:If empty
  • This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name. For more information follow the category link.

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is a Script error: No such module "convert". National Wildlife Refuge located adjacent to Commerce City, Colorado, in the United States. It is approximately Script error: No such module "convert". northeast of downtown Denver. The facility is on the grounds of the former Rocky Mountain Arsenal, a United States Army chemical weapons manufacturing facility. The site was designated a national wildlife refuge in 1992 by the United States Congress, and underwent a costly environmental cleanup in order to remove pollutants. The refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. More than 330 species of wildlife inhabit the refuge, including deer, coyotes, white pelicans, owls, and American bison.

Creating the refuge

The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was built in 1942 to manufacture chemical weapons. A portion of the site was leased to private industry in 1946 for petroleum production and agricultural and industrial chemical manufacturing.[1] When the American chemical weapons program was shut down after the Vietnam War,[2] the RMA served as a site for dismantling and disposing of these weapons.[1] The Shell Oil Company also used a portion of the site in the 1980s to produce pesticides.[2] The RMA was closed in 1985, and in 1987 environmental testing revealed that the site was extremely polluted. The RMA was listed on the National Priorities List, a list of hazardous waste sites in the United States eligible for long-term remedial action (cleanup) financed under the federal Superfund program run by the Environmental Protection Agency.[1]

In 1986, while environmental testing was continuing, a winter communal roost of bald eagles, then an endangered species, was discovered at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal.[3] Additional investigation by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) discovered that the RMA was home more than 330 species of wildlife. With the arsenal not fit for human habitation, pressure quickly built to have it turned into a wildlife refuge. Congress enacted the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Act on September 25, 1992, and the legislation was signed into law by President George H. W. Bush on October 9. The law stipulated that a majority of the RMA site would become a national wildlife refuge under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service once the environmental restoration is completed. The Act also provided that, to the extent possible, the RMA was to be managed as a wildlife refuge in the interim.[4]

At the time the refuge was established, the RMA consisted of more than Script error: No such module "convert". of grassland dotted with small manmade lakes and ponds.[5] Not all of this land was set aside for the refuge, however. Section 2(c)(2) of the enabling legislation set aside Script error: No such module "convert". for use as the South Adams County Water Treatment Plant and Script error: No such module "convert". for a United States Postal Service facility. Section 5(a)(1) of the act designated another Script error: No such module "convert". for public sale.[4] The former Shell Oil Company land also proved to be a problem, as it was somewhat geographically isolated from the rest of the refuge and not likely to be used by wildlife as habitat. Subsequently, about Script error: No such module "convert". of the Shell Oil site was sold to Commerce City in 2010. Of the remaining Script error: No such module "convert". of the Shell site, Script error: No such module "convert". are (as of 2013) being used for a water treatment facility and another Script error: No such module "convert". for domestic livestock grazing. The USFWS anticipates selling these Script error: No such module "convert". by 2023.[6] These land set-asides, sales, and transfers left the refuge with Script error: No such module "convert". of land.[7]

History of the refuge

The entire Script error: No such module "convert". of the old RMA was included in the remediation effort. On January 21, 2003, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified Script error: No such module "convert". as ready for use, and this acreage was turned over to the USFWS. Another Script error: No such module "convert". were certified clean on January 15, 2004.[8] This allowed USWFS to formally open the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge on April 2, 2004. At that time, walking trails gave guests access to about Script error: No such module "convert". of the refuge, and buses allowed visitors to tour another Script error: No such module "convert"..[5] EPA released another Script error: No such module "convert". on July 31, 2006.[8] The remaining Script error: No such module "convert". were declared contaminant-free and turned over to the refuge on October 15, 2010. The total cost of the cleanup was $2.1 billion.[9]

Although all land to be included in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge has been turned over to the Department of the Interior, management of the refuge remains the responsibility of both the USFWS and the U.S. Army. Because some land may still contain chemical weapons devices (such as unexploded projectiles or buried equipment) and cannot safely be integrated into the wildlife refuge, the Fish & Wildlife Service manages only Script error: No such module "convert". of land. The remainder of the property (Script error: No such module "convert".) is managed by the U.S. Army. The USFWS and Army signed an inter-agency agreement to cooperate in the management of the Army land according to UWFWS principles.[10]

Sixteen American bison were from the National Bison Range in Montana to an enclosed Script error: No such module "convert". section of the refuge in March 2007 as part of the USFWS Pilot Bison Project. The number of bison reached 87 in 2013, forcing the USFWS to cull the herd to just 60 animals as the limited acreage could not support so many animals. USFWS officials said that in a few years they will expand the bison acreage to Script error: No such module "convert"., which will allow the herd to expand to an anticipated 210 animals.[11]

The refuge's Visitor Center opened on May 21, 2011.[12]

As of 2013, the USFWS had identified 332 species of wildlife on the refuge. Most of these species, however, existed only in very low numbers.[13] Beginning in 2011, the USFWS began implementing a plan to remove invasive plant species and restore native plants on most of the refuge.[14] About two-thirds of the refuge consists of mixed-grass and shortgrass prairie, while the remainder is a mix of forest, shrubland, and lakes, streams, and riparian areas. A large number of man-made features dot the landscape, including irrigation ditches, lakes and ponds, and former homesteads.[2]

Public use

A Comprehensive Management Plan for the refuge was finalized in June 1996.[2] Under the plan, the refuge is available for public use, and community outreach and educational programs will be implemented to encourage public use.

A record 300,000 people visited the refuge in 2013, and refuge officials say they expect visitation to top one million annually once visitor facilities, outreach plans, and a wildlife management plan are completely in place.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c "Interior Secretary Norton to Dedicate Former Army Chemical Weapons Facility as National Wildlife Refuge". U.S. Department of the Interior. April 14, 2004. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013, p. i.
  3. ^ Ingold, John (November 2, 2007). "'Dew of Death' Discovery Shuts Wildlife Refuge". The Denver Post. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Act of 1992. Pub.L. 102-402". GovTrack.us. October 9, 1992. Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Ex-Arms Production Site to Open as Wildlife Refuge". Associated Press. April 17, 2004. 
  6. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013, p. 7.
  7. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013, p. 1.
  8. ^ a b "NPL Partial Site Deletion Narrative, Rocky Mountain Arsenal (USARMY), Adams County, Colorado". Environmental Protection Agency. July 31, 2006. Retrieved September 23, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Interior Secretary Ken Salazar Joins Partners At Celebration of Transformation of Rocky Mountain Arsenal". U.S. Department of the Interior. October 15, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  10. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013, pp. 1-2.
  11. ^ a b Finley, Bruce (December 17, 2013). "Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Rounding Up 27 Bison to Thin Hungry Herd". The Denver Post. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Remarks for Secretary Salazar Rocky Mountain Arsenal Visitor Center Ribbon-Cutting". U.S. Department of the Interior. May 26, 2011. Retrieved September 22, 2014. 
  13. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013, p. 23.
  14. ^ U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2013, p. 2.

Bibliography

Template:Protected Areas of Colorado