Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika About this sound listen (help·info)) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia, the Russian Federation, or simply Russia, was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91. The Republic comprised sixteen autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais, and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group.
The RSFSR was established on November 7, 1917 (October Revolution) as a sovereign state. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922 Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR.
The economy of Russia became heavily industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR. It was, by 1961, the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially-organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration relatively liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives. The effects of market policies led to the failure of many enterprises and total instability by 1990.
On June 12, 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty. On June 12, 1991, Boris Yeltsin was elected the first President. On December 8, 1991, heads of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords. The agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its founder states (i.e. denunciation of 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR) and established the CIS. On December 12, the agreement was ratified by the Russian Parliament, therefore Russian SFSR denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and de facto declared Russia's independence from the USSR.
On December 25, 1991, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation (Russia). On December 26, 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Council of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, which by that time was the only functioning house of Soviet parliament (the other house, Soviet of the Union, had already lost the quorum after recall of its members by the union republics). After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks established the Soviet state on 7 November [O.S. 25 October] 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown during the October Revolution. Initially, the state did not have an official name and wasn't recognized by neighboring countries for five months. Meanwhile, anti-Bolsheviks coined the mocking label "Sovdepia" for the nascent state of the "Soviets of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies".
On January 25, 1918 the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets renamed the unrecognized state the Soviet Russian Republic. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed on March 3, 1918, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire to Germany in exchange for peace during the rest of World War I. On July 10, 1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire seceded, reducing the size of the country even more.
On December 30, 1922, with the creation of the Soviet Union, Russia became one of six republics within the federation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The final Soviet name for the republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was adopted in the Soviet Constitution of 1936—by that time, Soviet Russia gained roughly the same borders of the old Tsardom of Russia before the Great Northern War of 1700.
For most of the Soviet Union's existence, it was commonly referred to as "Russia," even though technically "Russia" was only one republic within the larger union—albeit by far the largest, most powerful and most highly developed.
On December 25, 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the republic was renamed the Russian Federation, which it remains to this day. This name and "Russia" were specified as the official state names in the April 21, 1992 amendment to the existing constitution and were retained as such in the 1993 Constitution of Russia.
The international borders of the RSFSR touched Poland on the west; Norway and Finland on the northwest; and to its southeast were the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolian People's Republic, and the People's Republic of China. Within the Soviet Union, the RSFSR bordered the Ukrainian, Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian SSRs to its west and Azerbaijan, Georgian and Kazakh SSRs to the south.
Roughly 70% of the area in the RSFSR consisted of broad plains, with mountainous regions mainly concentrated in the east. The area is rich in mineral resources, including petroleum, natural gas, and iron ore.
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Early years (1917–20)
The Soviet regime first came to power on November 7, 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown in the October Revolution. The state it governed, which did not have an official name, would be unrecognized by neighboring countries for another five months.
On January 25, 1918, at the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the unrecognized state was renamed the Soviet Russian Republic. On March 3, 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire to Germany, in exchange for peace in World War I. On July 10, 1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic. By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire had seceded, reducing the size of the country even more.
On December 30, 1922, the First Congress of the Soviets of the USSR approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, by which Russia was united with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic into a single federal state, the Soviet Union. Later treaty was included in the 1924 Soviet Constitution,[clarification needed] adopted on January 31, 1924 by the Second Congress of Soviets of the USSR.
Paragraph 3 of Chapter 1 of the 1925 Constitution of the RSFSR states the following:
By the will of the peoples of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, who decided on the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics during the Tenth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, being a part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, devolves to the Union the powers which according to Article 1 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics are included within the scope of responsibilities of the government bodies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Many regions in Russia were affected by the Soviet famine of 1932–1933: Volga; Central Black Soil Region; North Caucasus; the Urals; the Crimea; part of Western Siberia; and the Kazak ASSR. With the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution on December 5, 1936, the size of the RSFSR was significantly reduced. The Kazakh ASSR and Kirghiz ASSR were transformed into the Kazakh and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics. The Karakalpak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic was transferred to the Uzbek SSR.
The final name for the republic during the Soviet era was adopted by the Russian Constitution of 1937, which renamed it the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was dissolved by Joseph Stalin, when the Karachays were exiled to Central Asia for their alleged collaboration with the Germans and territory was incorporated into the Georgian SSR.
On March 3, 1944, on the orders of Stalin, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was disbanded and its population forcibly deported upon the accusations of collaboration with the invaders and separatism. The territory of the ASSR was divided between other administrative unit of Rusiian SFSR and the Georgian SSR.
On September 14, 1953, after the death of Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev Became new leader of SSSR.
on January 9, 1957, Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic restored by Khrushchev and they were transferred from Georgian SSR back to Russian SFSR.
In 1964, Nikita Khrushchev was removed from his position of power and replaced with Leonid Brezhnev. Under his rule, the Russian SFSR and the rest of the Soviet Union went through an era of stagnation. Even after he died in 1982, the era didn’t end until Mikhail Gorbachev took power and introduced liberal reforms in Soviet society.
On June 12, 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies of the Republic adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian SFSR, which was the beginning of the "War of Laws", pitting the Soviet Union against the Russian Federation and other constituent republics.
On March 17, 1991, an all-Russian referendum created the post of President of the RSFSR. On June 12, Boris Yeltsin was elected President of Russia by popular vote. During an unsuccessful coup attempt on August 19–21, 1991 in Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union and Russia, President of Russia Yeltsin strongly supported the President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev.
On August 23, after the failure of GKChP, in the presence of Gorbachev, Yeltsin signed a decree suspending all activity by the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR in the territory of Russia. On November 6, he went further, banning the Communist Parties of the USSR and the RSFSR from the territory of the RSFSR.
On December 8, 1991, at Viskuli near Brest (Belarus), the President of the Russian SFSR and the heads of Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR signed the "Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States" (known in media as Belavezha Accords). The document, consisting of a preamble and fourteen articles, stated that the Soviet Union ceased to exist as a subject of international law and geopolitical reality. However, based on the historical community of peoples, relations between them, given the bilateral treaties, the desire for a democratic rule of law, the intention to develop their relations based on mutual recognition and respect for state sovereignty, the parties agreed to the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. On December 12, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR by an overwhelming majority: 188 votes for, 6 against, 7 abstentions. On the same day, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and recalled all Russian deputies from the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. The legality of this act is the subject of discussions because, according to the 1978 Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian SFSR, the Russian Supreme Soviet had no right to do so. However, by this time the Soviet government had been rendered more or less impotent, and was in no position to object. Although the December 12 vote is sometimes reckoned as the moment that the RSFSR seceded from the collapsing Soviet Union, this is not the case. It appears that the RSFSR took the line that it was not possible to secede from an entity that no longer existed.
On December 24, Yeltsin informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations that by agreement of the member states of the CIS Russian Federation would assume the membership of the Soviet Union in all UN organs (including permanent membership in the UN Security Council). Thus, Russia is considered to be an original member of the UN (since October 24, 1945) along with Ukraine (Ukrainian SSR) and Belarus (Byelorussian SSR). On December 25—just hours after Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union—the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation (Russia), reflecting that it was now a sovereign state. The change was originally published on January 6, 1992 (Rossiyskaya Gazeta). According to law, during 1992, it was allowed to use the old name of the RSFSR for official business (forms, seals and stamps). The Russian Federation's Constitution (Fundamental Law) of 1978, though with the 1991–1992 Amendements, remained in effect until the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis.
The name "Russian Federation" had also been used in Soviet times.
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The Government was known officially as the Council of People's Commissars (1917–1946), Council of Ministers (1946–1978) and Council of Ministers–Government (1978–1991). The first government was headed by Vladimir Lenin as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR" and the last by Boris Yeltsin as both head of government and head of state under the title "President".
The Russian SFSR was controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, until the abortive 1991 August coup, which prompted President Yeltsin to suspend the recently created Communist Party of the Russian SFSR.
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSRs) within the Russian SFSR
- Turkestan ASSR – Formed on April 30, 1918, on the territory of the former Turkestan General-Governorate. As part of the delimitation programme of Soviet Central Asia, the Turkestan ASSR along with the Khorezm SSR and the Bukharan PSR were disbanded on October 27, 1924, and in their place came the Union republics of Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR. The latter contained the Tajik ASSR until December 1929 when it too became a full Union republic, the Tajik SSR. The RSFSR retained the newly formed Kara-Kirghiz and the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblasts. The latter was part of the Kirgiz, then the Kazak ASSR until 1930, when it was directly subordinated to Moscow.
- Bashkir ASSR – Formed on March 23, 1919 from several northern districts of the Orenburg Guberniya populated by Bashkirs. On October 11, 1990, it declared its sovereignty, as the Bashkir SSR, which was renamed in 1992 the Republic of Bashkortostan.
- Tatar ASSR – Formed on May 27, 1920 on the territory of the western two thirds of the Kazan Governorate populated by Tatars. On October 30, 1990, declared sovereignty as the Republic of Tatarstan and on October 18, 1991 it declared its independence. The Russian constitutional court overturned the declaration on March 13, 1992. In February 1994, a separate agreement was reached with Moscow on the status of Tatarstan as an associate state in Russia with confederate status.
- Kirgiz ASSR Formed on August 26, 1920, from the Ural, Turgay, Semipalatinsk Oblasts, and parts of Transcaspia, Bukey Horde and Orenburg Guberniya populated by Kirgiz-Kaysaks (former name of Kazakh people). Further enlarged in 1921 upon gaining land from Omsk Guberniya and again in 1924 from parts of Jetysui Guberniya and Syr Darya and Samarkand Oblasts. On 19 April 1925 renamed as the Kazak ASSR (see below)
- Mountain ASSR Formed on January 20, 1921, after the Bolshevik Red Army evicted the short-lived Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus. Initially composed of several national districts; one-by-one these left the republic until November 7, 1924, when the remains of the republic was partitioned into the Ingush Autonomous Oblast, the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and the Sunzha Cossack district (all subordinates to the North Caucasus Kray).
- Dagestan ASSR – Formed on January 20, 1921, from the former Dagestan Oblast. On September 17 1991, it declared sovereignty as the Dagestan SSR.
- Crimean ASSR Formed on October 18, 1921, on the territory of Crimean peninsula, following the Red Army's eviction of Baron Wrangel's army, ending the Russian Civil War in Europe. On May 18, 1944, it was reduced to the status of Oblast, alongside the deportation of the Crimean Tatars, as collective punishment for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime in Taurida Subdistrict. On February 19, 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Re-established on February 12 1991, it declared sovereignty on September 4 of that year. On May 5 1992, it declared independence as the Republic of Crimea, on May 13; the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine overturned the declaration, but compromised on an Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine. After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, an internationally disputed referendum and Russian military intervention, Crimea was annexed by Russia in March 2014.
- Yakut ASSR – Formed on February 16 1922 upon the elevation of the Yakut Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On September 27, 1990, it declared sovereignty as the Yakut-Sakha Soviet Socialist Republic. From December 21, 1991, it has been known as the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
- Buryat ASSR – Formed on March 30, 1923 as due to merger of the Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast of the RSFSR and the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast of the Far Eastern Republic. Until 7 July 1958 – Mongol-Buryat ASSR. On March 27, 1991 it became the Republic of Buryatia.
- Karelian ASSR – Formed on July 23, 1923 when the Karelian Labor Commune was integrated into the RSFSR's administrative structure. On March 31, 1940, it was elevated into a full Union republic as the Karelo-Finnish SSR. On July 16, 1956, it was downgraded in status to that of an ASSR and re-subordinated to RSFSR. It declared sovereignty on October 13 1991 as the Republic of Karelia.
- Volga German ASSR – Formed on December 19, 1924, upon elevation of the Volga German Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On August 28, 1941, upon the deportation of Volga Germans to Kazakhstan, the ASSR was disbanded. The territory was partitioned between the Saratov and Stalingrad Oblasts.
- Kazak ASSR was formed on April 19, 1925, when the first Kirgiz ASSR was renamed and partitioned. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic on December 3, 1936. On October 25, 1990, it declared sovereignty and on December 16, 1991 its independence as the Republic of Kazakhstan.
- Chuvash ASSR – Formed on April 21, 1925 upon the elevation of the Chuvash Autonomous Olbast into an ASSR. It declared sovereignty on October 26 1990 as the Chuvash SSR.
- Kirghiz ASSR was formed on February 1, 1926 upon elevation of the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic on December 3, 1936. On December 12, 1990, it declared sovereignty as the Republic of Kyrgyzstan and on August 31, 1991 its independence.
- Kara-Kalpak ASSR – Formed on March 20, 1932 upon elevation of the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblast into the Kara-Kalpak ASSR; from December 5 1936 a part of the Uzbek SSR. In 1964, it was renamed the Karakalpak ASSR. It declared sovereignty on December 14, 1990.
- Mordovian ASSR – Formed on December 20, 1934 upon the elevation of Mordovian Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. It declared sovereignty on December 13, 1990 as the Mordovian SSR. Since January 25, 1991 it has been known as the Republic of Mordovia.
- Udmurt ASSR was formed on December 28, 1934 upon the elevation of Udmurt Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. It declared sovereignty on September 20, 1990. Since October 11, 1991 it has been known as the Udmurt Republic.
- Kalmyk ASSR was formed on October 20 1935 upon the elevation of Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On December 27, 1943, upon the deportation of the Kalmyks, the ASSR was disbanded and split between the newly established Astrakhan Oblast and parts adjoined to Rostov Oblast, Krasnodar Krai, and Stavropol Krai. On January 9, 1957, Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was re-established in its present borders, first as a part of Stavropol Krai and from July 19, 1958 as a part of the Kalmyk ASSR. On October 18, 1990, it declared sovereignty as the Kalmyk SSR.
- Kabardino-Balkar ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, upon the departure of the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast from the North Caucasus Kray. After the deportation of the Balkars on 8 April 1944, the republic is renamed as Kabardin ASSR and parts of its territory transferred to Georgian SSR, upon the return of the Balkars, the KBASSR is re-instated on 9 January 1957. On 31 January 1991, the republic declared sovereignty as the Kabardino-Balkar SSR, and from 10 March 1992 – Kabardino-Balkarian Republic.
- Northern Ossetian ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, upon the disbandment of the North Caucasus Kray, and its constituent North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast was raised into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 26 December 1990 as the North Ossetian SSR.
- Chechen-Ingush ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, when the North Caucausus Kray was disestablished and its constituent Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and subordinated to Moscow. Following the en masse deportation of the Chechens and Ingush, on 7 March 1944, the ChIASSR was disbanded, and the Grozny Okrug was temporarily administered by Stavropol Kray until the 22 March, when the territory was portioned between North Ossetian and Dagestan ASSRs, and the Georgian SSR. The remaining land was merged with Stavropol Krays Kizlyar district and organised as Grozny Oblast, which existed until 9 January 1957, when the ChIASSR was re-established, though only the southern border's original shape was retained. Declared sovereignty on 27 November 1990 as the Chechen-Ingush Republic. On 8 June 1991, the 2nd Chechen National Congress proclaimed a separate Chechen-Republic (Noxchi-Cho), and on 6 September, began a coup which overthrew the Soviet local government. De facto, all authority passed to the self-proclaimed government which was renamed as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria in early 1993. In response, the western Ingush districts after a referendum on 28 November 1991, were organised into an Ingush Republic which was officially established on 4 June 1992, by decree of Russian President as the Republic of Ingushetia. The same decree de jure created a Chechen republic, although it would be established only on 3 June 1994 and carry out partial governance during the First Chechen War. The Khasavyurt Accord would again suspend the government on 15 November 1996. The present Chechen Republic government was re-established on 15 October 1999.
- Komi ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936 upon the elevation of the Komi (Zyryan) Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 23 November 1990 as the Komi SSR. From 26 May 1992 – the Republic of Komi.
- Mari ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936 upon the elevation of the Mari Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared Sovereignty on 22 December 1990 as the Mari Soviet Socialist Republic (Mari El).
- Tuva ASSR – Formed on 10 October 1961 when the Tuva Autonomous Oblast was elevated[by whom?] into an ASSR. On 12 December 1990 declared sovereignty as the Soviet Republic of Tyva.
- Gorno-Altai ASSR was formed on October 25, 1990, when Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast declared sovereignty; since July 3, 1991 it has been known as the Gorno-Altai SSR.
- Karachayevo-Cherkessian ASSR was formed on November 17, 1990, when Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and, instead of Stavropol Krai, subordinated directly to the RSFSR. It declared sovereignty on July 3, 1991 as the Karachay-Cherkess SSR.
- LENINE'S MIGRATION A QUEER SCENE, Arthur Ransome for The New York Times, March 16, 1918.
- article 114 of the 1937 Constitution, article 171 of the 1978 Constitution
- Riasanovsky, Nicholas (2000). A History of Russia (sixth edition). Oxford University Press. p. 458. ISBN 0-19-512179-1.
- Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR approved the Law of the RSFSR #2094-I of December 25, 1991 "On renaming of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" // Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR and Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR Daily. – 1992. – № 2. – Article 62
- Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people (original VTsIK variant, III Congress revision), article I
- The Free Dictionary Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2011.
- Peterson, James A.; Clarke, James W. "Petroleum Geology and Resources of the Volga-Ural Province, U.S.S.R." (PDF). Pubs.USGS.gov. 1983, U.S. Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Sokolov, Vasily Andreevich (2002). Petroleum. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. p. 183. ISBN 0898757258. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- Mawdsley, Evan (2007). "Sovdepia: The Soviet Zone, October 1917 – November 1918". The Russian Civil War. Pegasus Books. p. 70. ISBN 9781933648156. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
The Bolsheviks' enemies gave the name 'Sovdepia' to the area under the authority of the Soviets of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies. The comic-opera term was intended to mock [...].
- Declaration on the rights of working and exploited people. Hist.msu.ru. Retrieved on June 22, 2011.
- Soviet Russia information. Russians.net (August 23, 1943). Retrieved on June 22, 2011.
- Carr, EH The Bolshevik Revolution 1917–23, vol 3 Penguin Books, London, 4th reprint (1983), pp. 257–258. The draft treaty was published for propaganda purposes in the 1921 British document Intercourse between Bolshevism and Sinn Féin (Cmd 1326).
- Chronicle of Events. Marxistsfr.org. Retrieved on June 22, 2011.
- "Russia the Great: Mineral resources". Russian Information Network. Retrieved November 22, 2010.
- Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (approved by Twelfth All-Russian Congress of Soviets on May 11, 1925).
- Decree of the President of the Russian SFSR of August 23, 1991 No. 79
- Decree of the President of the Russian SFSR 06.11. 1991 N169 "On activity of the CPSU and the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR"
- The Russian SFSR has constitutional right to "freely seccede from the Soviet Union" (art. 69 of the RSFSR Constitution, Article 72 of the USSR Constitution), but according to USSR laws 1409-I (enacted on April 3, 1990) and 1457-I (enacted on April 26, 1990) this can be done only by a referendum and only if two-thirds of all registered voters of the republic has supported that motion. No special referendum on the secession from the USSR was held in the RSFSR
- See for example, the log of the meeting of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on February 19, 1954 (in Russian)
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- Invalid language code. Full Texts and All Laws Amending Constitutions of the Russian SFSR
- Russian Federation; The Whole Republic a Construction Site by D. S. Polyanski.
- Full 1918 RSFSR Constitution
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