Open Access Articles- Top Results for STEM fields

STEM fields

STEM is an acronym referring to the academic disciplines of science,[note 1] technology, engineering, and mathematics.[1] The term is typically used when addressing education policy and curriculum choices in schools to improve competitiveness in science and technology development. It has implications for workforce development, national security concerns and immigration policy.[1] The acronym arose in common use shortly after an interagency meeting on science education held at the National Science Foundation chaired by the then NSF director Rita Colwell. A director from the Office of Science division of Workforce Development for Teachers and Scientists suggested the change from the older acronym SMET to STEM. Dr. Colwell, expressing some dislike for the older acronym, responded by suggesting NSF to institute the change.

Other variations

  • eSTEM (environmental STEM) [2][3]
  • MINT (mathematics, information sciences, natural sciences, and technology) is a much less common term with a similar meaning.[4]
  • STREM (science, technology, robotics, engineering and mathematics) adds robotics as a field for a more comprehensive view.
  • STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art and mathematics) adds the arts as a field for a more holistic view.[5][6][7][8][9][10]
  • STEAM (science, technology, engineering and applied mathematics) more focus on applied mathematics[11]
  • STREAM (science, technology, religion, engineering, art and mathematics) adds both religion and arts as a field to the model[12]
  • GEMS (Girls in Engineering, Math and Science) used for programs to encourage Women (usually girls in the early elementary panel) into these science fields.[13]
  • STEMM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine)

United States

In the United States, the acronym began to be used in education and immigration debates in initiatives to begin to address the perceived lack of qualified candidates for high-tech jobs. It also addresses concern that the subjects are often taught in isolation, instead of as an integrated curriculum.[14] Maintaining a citizenry that is well versed in the STEM fields is a key portion of the public education agenda of the United States.[15] The acronym has been widely used in the immigration debate regarding access to United States work visas for immigrants who are skilled in these fields. This version of the term is accredited to Texas. It has also become commonplace in education discussions as a reference to the shortage of skilled workers and inadequate education in these areas.[16]

National Science Foundation

Many organizations in the United States follow the guidelines of the National Science Foundation on what constitutes a STEM field. The NSF uses a broader definition of STEM subjects that includes subjects in the fields of chemistry, computer and information technology science, engineering, geosciences, life sciences, mathematical sciences, physics and astronomy, social sciences (anthropology, economics, psychology and sociology), and STEM education and learning research.[1][17] Eligibility for scholarship programs such as the CSM STEM Scholars Program use the NSF definition.[18]

It is the only American federal agency whose mission includes support for all fields of fundamental science and engineering, except for medical sciences.[19] Its disciplinary program areas include scholarships, grants, fellowships in fields such as biological sciences, computer and information science and engineering, education and human resources, engineering, environmental research and education, geosciences, international science and engineering, mathematical and physical sciences, social, behavioral and economic sciences, cyberinfrastructure and polar programs.[17][20]

Immigration policy

Although many organizations in the United States follow the guidelines of the National Science Foundation on what constitutes a STEM field, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has its own functional definition used for immigration policy.[21] In 2012, DHS or ICE announced an expanded list of STEM designated-degree programs that qualify eligible graduates on student visas for an optional practical training (OPT) extension. Under the OPT program, international students who graduate from colleges and universities in the United States are able to remain in the country and receive training through work experience for up to 12 months. Students who graduate from a designated STEM degree program can remain for an additional 17 months on an OPT STEM extension.[22][23]

STEM-eligible degrees in US immigration


An exhaustive list of STEM disciplines does not exist because the definition varies by organization. The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement lists disciplines including[24] physics, actuarial science, chemistry, biology, mathematics, applied mathematics, statistics, computer science, computational science, psychology, biochemistry, robotics, computer engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, information science, civil engineering, aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, astrophysics, astronomy, optics, nanotechnology, nuclear physics, mathematical biology, operations research, neurobiology, biomechanics, bioinformatics, acoustical engineering, geographic information systems, atmospheric sciences, educational/instructional technology, software engineering, and educational research.

Level of Degree or Other Awarded to Temporary Residents [25]
Academic Discipline, Broad (standardized)
STEM Discipline
Doctorate Degree-Research / Scholarship Doctorate Degree-Professional Practice Doctorate Degree-Other First Professional Degrees Master's Degrees Bachelor's Degrees Total
2000 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 2,728 9,824 4,532 17,084
Physical Sciences 1,296 1,140 532 2,968
Geosciences 170 195 46 411
Math and Computer Sciences 868 7,735 3,379 11,982
Life Sciences 2,183 946 2,805 2,329 8,263
Science and Engineering Technologies 31 574 659 1,264
Total 7,276 946 22,273 11,477 41,972
2001 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 2,999 11,002 4,419 18,420
Physical Sciences 1,290 1,239 556 3,085
Geosciences 180 172 49 401
Math and Computer Sciences 849 8,991 3,831 13,671
Life Sciences 2,083 1,258 3,158 2,586 9,085
Science and Engineering Technologies 46 527 780 1,353
Total 7,447 1,258 25,089 12,221 46,015
2002 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 2,935 10,800 4,266 18,001
Physical Sciences 1,203 1,188 543 2,934
Geosciences 194 199 59 452
Math and Computer Sciences 829 9,007 4,363 14,199
Life Sciences 2,111 950 3,151 2,395 8,607
Science and Engineering Technologies 52 617 651 1,320
Total 7,324 950 24,962 12,277 45,513
2003 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 3,045 13,347 4,277 20,669
Physical Sciences 1,318 1,177 523 3,018
Geosciences 168 206 57 431
Math and Computer Sciences 899 10,679 5,476 17,054
Life Sciences 2,190 965 3,261 2,601 9,017
Science and Engineering Technologies 47 645 661 1,353
Total 7,667 965 29,315 13,595 51,542
2004 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 3,584 15,640 4,550 23,774
Physical Sciences 1,376 1,368 591 3,335
Geosciences 184 258 50 492
Math and Computer Sciences 1,012 10,681 5,740 17,433
Life Sciences 2,329 946 4,026 2,703 10,004
Science and Engineering Technologies 30 617 681 1,328
Total 8,515 946 32,590 14,315 56,366
2005 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 4,096 14,865 4,740 23,701
Physical Sciences 1,584 1,356 668 3,608
Geosciences 212 247 80 539
Math and Computer Sciences 1,261 9,291 4,752 15,304
Life Sciences 2,611 996 4,175 3,272 11,054
Science and Engineering Technologies 24 551 668 1,243
Total 9,788 996 30,485 14,180 55,449
2006 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 4,688 13,291 4,711 22,690
Physical Sciences 1,803 1,423 764 3,990
Geosciences 211 253 76 540
Math and Computer Sciences 1,579 8,455 3,908 13,942
Life Sciences 2,831 941 4,671 3,843 12,286
Science and Engineering Technologies 37 572 591 1,200
Total 11,149 941 28,665 13,893 54,648
2007 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 5,072 11,660 4,389 21,121
Physical Sciences 1,943 1,408 742 4,093
Geosciences 246 216 58 520
Math and Computer Sciences 1,628 8,056 3,143 12,827
Life Sciences 3,119 905 4,525 4,477 13,026
Science and Engineering Technologies 35 576 627 1,238
Total 12,043 905 26,441 13,436 52,825
2008 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 3,662 1,268 13,428 4,180 22,538
Physical Sciences 1,502 396 1,425 773 4,096
Geosciences 190 57 204 70 521
Math and Computer Sciences 1,363 357 9,289 2,566 13,575
Life Sciences 2,610 743 257 771 4,642 4,242 13,265
Science and Engineering Technologies 29 11 770 602 1,412
Total 9,356 2,832 257 771 29,758 12,433 55,407
2009 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 2,288 2,253 15,570 4,071 24,182
Physical Sciences 1,046 884 1,334 796 4,060
Geosciences 143 104 234 82 563
Math and Computer Sciences 898 694 10,561 2,658 14,811
Life Sciences 1,779 1,402 569 18 508 5,039 4,582 13,897
Science and Engineering Technologies 14 26 888 700 1,628
Total 6,168 5,363 569 18 508 33,626 12,889 59,141
2010 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 4,305 1 1 15,929 4,502 24,738
Physical Sciences 1,837 1,392 801 4,030
Geosciences 232 241 104 577
Math and Computer Sciences 1,510 1 10,433 2,875 14,819
Life Sciences 2,993 1,267 27 5,421 4,736 14,444
Science and Engineering Technologies 29 1 885 728 1,643
Total 10,906 1,269 29 34,301 13,746 60,251
2011 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 4,765 3 17,387 5,251 27,406
Physical Sciences 1,908 1,473 880 4,261
Geosciences 215 226 122 563
Math and Computer Sciences 1,531 3 11,171 3,384 16,089
Life Sciences 3,045 1,349 14 5,875 5,080 15,363
Science and Engineering Technologies 37 817 753 1,607
Total 11,501 1,352 17 36,949 15,470 65,289
2012 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 4,947 17,583 6,331 28,861
Physical Sciences 1,880 1,618 965 4,463
Geosciences 239 316 116 671
Math and Computer Sciences 1,689 12,087 4,255 18,031
Life Sciences 3,232 1,407 17 6,181 5,414 16,251
Science and Engineering Technologies 41 1 912 841 1,795
Total 12,028 1,407 18 38,697 17,922 70,072
2013 Degrees/Awards Conferred:Temporary Residents (NCES population of institutions) (Sum)
Engineering 5,366 2 17,919 6,747 30,034
Physical Sciences 1,929 1,576 1,088 4,593
Geosciences 254 317 181 752
Math and Computer Sciences 1,872 13,334 4,774 19,980
Life Sciences 3,207 1,428 23 6,413 5,747 16,818
Science and Engineering Technologies 42 2 3 920 988 1,955
Total 12,670 1,430 28 40,479 19,525 74,132


STEM generally supports broadening the study of engineering within each of the other subjects, and beginning engineering at younger grades, even elementary school. It also brings STEM education to all students rather than only the gifted programs. In his 2012 budget, President Barack Obama renamed and broadened the "Mathematics and Science Partnership (MSP)" to award block grants to states for improving teacher education in those subjects.[26]

In 2006 the United States National Academies expressed their concern about the declining state of STEM education in the United States. Its Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy developed a list of 10 actions fedetury. Their top three recommendations were to

  • Increase America's talent pool by improving K–12 science and mathematics education
  • Strengthen the skills of teachers through additional training in science, mathematics and technology
  • Enlarge the pipeline of students prepared to enter college and graduate with STEM degrees

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration also has implemented programs and curricula to advance STEM education in order to replenish the pool of scientists, engineers and mathematicians who will lead space exploration in the 21st century.

Individual states, like California, have run pilot after-school STEM programs, for example, to learn what the most promising practices are and how to implement them to increase the chance of student success.[27]

Continuing STEM education has expanded to the post-secondary level through masters programs such as The University of Maryland's STEM Program[28] as well as the University of Cincinnati.[29]

American Competitiveness Initiative

In the State of the Union Address on January 31, 2006, President George W. Bush announced the American Competitiveness Initiative. Bush proposed the initiative to address shortfalls in federal government support of educational development and progress at all academic levels in the STEM fields. In detail, the initiative called for significant increases in federal funding for advanced R&D programs (including a doubling of federal funding support for advanced research in the physical sciences through DOE) and an increase in U.S. higher education graduates within STEM disciplines.

The NASA Means Business competition, sponsored by the Texas Space Grant Consortium, furthers that goal. College students compete to develop promotional plans to encourage students in middle and high school to study STEM subjects and to inspire professors in STEM fields to involve their students in outreach activities that support STEM education.

The National Science Foundation has numerous programs in STEM education, including some for K–12 students such as the ITEST Program that supports The Global Challenge Award ITEST Program. STEM programs have been implemented in some Arizona schools. They implement higher cognitive skills for students and enable them to inquire and use techniques used by professionals in the STEM fields.

The STEM Academy is a national nonprofit-status organization dedicated to improving STEM literacy for all students. It represents a recognized national next-generation high-impact academic model. The practices, strategies, and programming are built upon a foundation of identified national best practices which are designed to improve under-represented minority and low-income student growth, close achievement gaps, decrease dropout rates, increase high school graduation rates and improve teacher and principal effectiveness. The STEM Academy represents a flexible use academic model that targets all schools and is for all students.[30]

Project Lead The Way (PLTW) is a leading provider of STEM education curricular programs to middle and high schools in the United States. The national nonprofit organization has over 5,200 programs in over 4,700 schools in all 50 states. Programs include a high school engineering curriculum called Pathway To Engineering, a high school biomedical sciences program, and a middle school engineering and technology program called Gateway To Technology. PLTW provides the curriculum and the teacher professional development and ongoing support to create transformational programs in schools, districts, and communities. PLTW programs have been endorsed by President Barack Obama and United States Secretary of Education Arne Duncan as well as various state, national, and business leaders.

STEM Education Coalition

The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Coalition[31] works to support STEM programs for teachers and students at the U. S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and other agencies that offer STEM-related programs. Activity of the STEM Coalition seems to have slowed since September 2009.

Boy Scouts of America

The Boy Scouts of America have announced the roll out of an awards program in the spring of 2012 to promote more interest and involvement in the STEM disciplines. The NOVA and SUPERNOVA awards are available to Boy Scouts, Cub Scouts and Venturers as they complete specific requirements appropriate to their program level in each of the four main STEM program areas: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Department of Defense programs[32]

The Ecybermission is a free, web-based science, mathematics and technology competition for students in grades six through nine sponsored by the U.S. Army. Each webinar is focused on a different step of the scientific method and is presented by an experienced eCYBERMISSION CyberGuide. CyberGuides are military and civilian volunteers with a strong background in STEM and STEM education, who are able to provide valuable insight into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics to students and team advisers.

STARBASE is a premier educational program, sponsored by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Reserve Affairs. Students interact with military personnel to explore careers and make connections with the "real world." The program provides students with 20–25 hours of stimulating experiences at National Guard, Navy, Marines, Air Force Reserve and Air Force bases across the nation.

SeaPerch is an innovative underwater robotics program that trains teachers to teach their students how to build an underwater remotely operated vehicle (ROV) in an in-school or out-of-school setting. Students build the ROV from a kit composed of low-cost, easily accessible parts, following a curriculum that teaches basic engineering and science concepts with a marine engineering theme.


America COMPETES Act of 2007: The America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) became law on August 9, 2007. The act responds to concerns that the United States may not be able to compete economically with other nations in the future due to insufficient investment today in science and technology research and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce development. The America COMPETES Act is intended to increase the nation's investment in science and engineering research and in STEM education from kindergarten to graduate school and postdoctoral education.

The act authorizes funding increases for the National Science Foundation, National Institute of Standards and Technology laboratories, and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science over FY2008–FY2010. Robert Gabrys, Director of Education at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, articulated success as increased student achievement, early expression of student interest in STEM subjects, and student preparedness to enter the workforce.

In January 2014, the U.S. House of Representatives Research and Technology subcommittee held a hearing to examine STEM education programs run by the private sector. In 2014 the U.S. federal government plans to spend $3 billion on STEM education programs through a variety of federal agencies.[citation needed]


In November 2012 the White House announcement before congressional vote on the STEM Jobs Act put President Obama in opposition to many of the Silicon Valley firms and executives who bankrolled his re-election campaign.[33] The Department of Labor identified 14 sectors that are "projected to add substantial numbers of new jobs to the economy or affect the growth of other industries or are being transformed by technology and innovation requiring new sets of skills for workers."[34] The identified sectors were as follows: advanced manufacturing, Automotive, construction, financial services, geospatial technology, homeland security, information technology, Transportation, Aerospace, Biotechnology, energy, healthcare, hospitality, and retail.

The Department of Commerce notes STEM fields careers are some of the best-paying and have the greatest potential for job growth in the early 21st century. The report also notes that STEM workers play a key role in the sustained growth and stability of the U.S. economy, and training in STEM fields generally results in higher wages, whether or not they work in a STEM field.[35]


While Canada outperforms the United States in terms of STEM graduates, it still ranks 12th out of 16 peer countries. 21.2% of all graduates in Canada are from STEM programs, far behind countries such as France, Germany, and Austria. The peer country with the greatest proportion of STEM graduates, Finland, has over 30% of their university graduates coming from science, mathematics, computer science, and engineering programs.[36]

Scouts Canada

Scouts Canada has taken similar measures as their American counterpart to promote STEM fields to youth. Their STEM program is currently in the pilot stage, scheduled to launch in 2015.[37]

Schulich Leader Scholarships

In 2011 Canadian entrepreneur and philanthropist Seymour Schulich established the Schulich Leader Scholarships, $100 million in $60,000 scholarships for students beginning their university education in a STEM program at 20 institutions across Canada. Each year 40 Canadian students would be selected to receive the award, two at each institution, with the goal of attracting gifted youth into the STEM fields.[38] The program also supplies STEM scholarships to five participating universities in Israel.[39]


Turkish STEM Education Task Force (or FeTeMM—Fen Bilimleri, Teknoloji, Mühendislik ve Matematik) is a coalition of academicians and teachers who show an effort to increase the quality of education in STEM fields rather than focussing on increasing the number of STEM graduates.[40][41]


AL-Bairaq students during activities that focuses on STEM
File:UNESCO Visits Al Bairaq.webm
UNESCO Visits Al Bairaq

Qatar took the initiation to activate STEM through AL-Bairaq program. AL-Bairaq is carried out by Center for Advanced Materials (CAM) at Qatar University and targets high-school students with a curriculum that focuses on STEM. AL-Bairaq engages high school students in scientific activities which enhances their skills, motivation, and interest and guide them in their future career. Each year around 946 students participate in AL-Bairaq competitions with about 40 high schools in Qatar.[42]

What is special in AL-Bairaq project is that it links between learning and fun, which motivate youth to join it. It doesn't depend on the ready prepared lessons but make the students to be partners in the learning process. AL-Bairaq also, gives the students the freedom for discovering their abilities and skills. AL-Bairaq engages students and increases motivation with project-based learning, encourages students to solve authentic problems, and inquires them to work with each other as a team to build real solutions. AL-Bairaq is cultural achievements that reflect student's humanity, power the economy for our country.[43][44]

The effects of AL-Bairaq on the secondary school students are supported by the results of a research which was carried out in Qatar as they concluded that advanced learning environment resulted in the improvement of the students' ability to acquire and retain new knowledge. Furthermore, advanced learning environment had direct positive impact on students' attitude towards research and students gained positive attitude towards work as well.[45]


Main article: Women in STEM fields

The United States is trying to encourage women to become interested in the STEM fields. Many campaigns[which?] have been implemented to encourage women to enter these fields, however, there has been little effect equalizing interest between the genders in the STEM fields. Current campaigns to increase the gender balance within STEM fields include the UK's WISE[46] as well as mentoring programs, such as the Million Women Mentors initiative connecting girls and young women with STEM mentors[47] and Verizon's #InspireHerMind project.[48] The US Office of Science and Technology Policy during the Obama administration is collaborating with the White House Council on Women and Girls to increase the participation of women and girls within STEM fields[49] along with the "Educate to Innovate" campaign.[50]

Women in STEM fields are often underrepresented, holding less than 25% of the jobs in the U.S.[51] and 13% in the UK (2014).[52] In the United States, studies have been conducted to explain this pattern, such as mechanisms in recruitment and hiring processes.[53] On average, women in STEM fields earn 33% more than those in non-STEM professions.[54] However, women can be found as leaders in top professions around the country. These include the U.S. Department of Defense, NASA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF).[55][56]

Though women nearly comprise half of the US workforce, they've held less than 25% of STEM jobs consistently over the last decade.[47] Women and other minorities account for 75% of college students but earn only 45% of STEM degrees each year.[47] While 12% of women in bachelor programs will get a degree in STEM each year, only 3% go on to work within the STEM field.[47] According to the National Science Foundation, only 5% of Asian women, 5% of African American women and 2% of Hispanic women constitute scientist and engineering labor force in the U.S.[57] While nearly 60% of bachelor's degrees are awarded to graduating women each year, less than 20% are in computer science.[58]


There has been significant debate about whether the emphasis on STEM curriculum is the proper approach and substantial skepticism of the claims of its advocates.[59][60] Some have suggested STEM could not achieve the economic goals intended,[61] and others have added additional subjects or qualifiers:[62]

  • STEAM (art)—some have discussed the need for product design in marketing new technologies, and point to the successes of Apple, which combines technology and functionality with style.[5][6][7][8][9][10]
  • STEAM (applied mathematics) [63]
  • eSTEM (environmental STEM) [2][3]

See also


  1. ^ The word "Science" here only refers to fundamental sciences (maths and natural sciences).


  1. ^ a b c
  2. ^ a b eSTEM Academy, retrieved 2013-07-02
  3. ^ a b Arbor Height Elementary to implement "eSTEM" curriculum in coming years, West Seattle Herald, 4-30-2013, retrieved 2013-07-02
  4. ^ "Wiedeking: "Education is the strongest profit-yieldi form of investment"". Porsche. 2009-03-11. Retrieved 2014-04-06. 
  5. ^ a b The Business Journal
  6. ^ a b Oregon Public Broadcasting
  7. ^ a b Newsweek
  8. ^ a b Philly Inquirer
  9. ^ a b CNET
  10. ^ a b Wired
  11. ^ Virginia Tech and Virginia STEAM Academy form strategic partnership to meet critical education needs | Virginia Tech News | Virginia Tech
  12. ^ National Catholic Education Association
  13. ^ [ National Girls Collaborative Project]
  14. ^ "STEM Education in Southwestern Pennsylvania" (PDF). The Intermediate Unit 1 Center for STEM Education. 2008. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  15. ^ Morella, Michael (July 26, 2012). "U.S. News Inducts Five to STEM Leadership Hall of Fame". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  16. ^ Kakutani, Michiko (November 7, 2011). "Bill Clinton Lays Out His Prescription for America’s Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  17. ^ a b Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP) (nsf12599)
  18. ^ ISTEM – College of Southern Maryland
  19. ^ "What We Do". The National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Jennifer G. Roeper (May 19, 2012). "DHS Expands List of STEM designated-degree programs". Fowler White Boggs P.A. Retrieved 2012-10-01. 
  23. ^
  24. ^ "STEM Designated Degree Programs". U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. April 2008. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  25. ^ "IPEDS Completions Survey by Race". National Science Foundation, National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics. 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  26. ^ Jane J. Lee (14 February 2012). "Obama's Budget Shuffles STEM Education Deck". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  27. ^
  28. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^
  31. ^ Bybee, R. W. (2010). "What is STEM Education?". Science 329 (5995): 996–996. Bibcode:2010Sci...329..996B. PMID 20798284. doi:10.1126/science.1194998.  edit
  32. ^
  33. ^ Declan McCullagh (November 28, 2012). "Obama opposes Silicon Valley firms on immigration reform". CNET. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  34. ^ "The STEM Workforce Challenge: the Role of the Public Workforce System in a National Solution for a Competitive Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Workforce" (PDF). U.S. Department of Labor. April 2007. Retrieved 2012-12-21. 
  35. ^ STEM: Good Jobs Now and For the Future | Economics and Statistics Administration
  36. ^ "Percentage of Graduates in Science, Math, Computer Science, and Engineering". Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  37. ^ "STEM Activities". Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  38. ^ "Toronto philanthropist Schulich unveils $100-million scholarship". Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  39. ^ "Philanthropist Makes $100 Million Investment In Nation’s Future". Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  40. ^ "FeTeMM Çalışma Grubu". Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  41. ^ "STEM Education Task Force". Retrieved 3 September 2014. 
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  46. ^ Retrieved 2 March 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  47. ^ a b c d Million Women Mentors Retrieved 2 March 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  48. ^ Verizon Retrieved 2 March 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  49. ^ White House Retrieved 2 March 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. ^ White House (PDF) Retrieved 2 March 2015.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  51. ^
  52. ^
  53. ^ Glass, C.; Minnotte, K. L. (2010). "Recruiting and hiring women in STEM fields". Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 3 (4): 218–229. doi:10.1037/a0020581. 
  54. ^
  55. ^
  56. ^
  57. ^ "Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2013" (PDF). NSF. National Science Foundation. Retrieved 2 March 2015.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  58. ^ Wohlsen, Marcus. "Women Engineers Trace Tech Gender Gap To Childhood". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  59. ^
  60. ^
  61. ^
  62. ^
  63. ^ Virginia Tech and Virginia STEAM Academy form strategic partnership to meet critical education needs | Virginia Tech News | Virginia Tech

Further reading

External links