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Saône

For other uses, see Saone (disambiguation).

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This page is a soft redirect.410 m3/s(14,479 cu ft/s)
Saône (Sona)
River
The Saône in Lyon by night.
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Tributaries
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Vioménil
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Rhône
45°43′39″N 4°49′4″E / 45.72750°N 4.81778°E / 45.72750; 4.81778Coordinates: 45°43′39″N 4°49′4″E / 45.72750°N 4.81778°E / 45.72750; 4.81778{{#coordinates: 45|43|39|N|4|49|4|E|type:river_region:FR primary name=

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The Saône (Template:IPA-fr;[1] Arpitan Sona, Latin: Arar) is a river of eastern France. It is a right tributary of the River Rhône, rising at Vioménil in the Vosges department and joining the Rhône in Lyon, just south of the Presqu'île.

The name "Saône" derives from that of the Gallic river goddess Souconna, which has also been connected with a local Celtic tribe, the Sequanes. Monastic copyists progressively transformed "Souconna" to "Saoconna", which ultimately gave rise to "Saône". The other recorded ancient names for the river were Brigoulus and Arar.

Geography

The Saône rises at Vioménil at the foot of the cliff of the Faucilles in the Vosges at an elevation of Script error: No such module "convert"., and flows into the Rhône at Lyon at an elevation of Script error: No such module "convert".. Its length is Script error: No such module "convert"..[2] Its largest tributary is the Doubs; upstream of receiving the Doubs at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs in Saône-et-Loire, the Saône is called the "Petite Saône" (lesser Saône), which reflects the large contribution of the Doubs to the Saône. In fact the Doubs' mean annual flow rate is slightly stronger than that of the Petite Saône, Script error: No such module "convert". compared to Script error: No such module "convert".; some thus assert that it is in fact the Saône that flows into the Doubs. Nonetheless the Saône has a substantially larger watershed than the Doubs, at Script error: No such module "convert". vs. Script error: No such module "convert"..

At Script error: No such module "convert". the Saône has the largest watershed of any French river that does not flow directly into the sea, covering approximately 1/18 of metropolitan France.

In pre-Roman times the river's name was "Arar", a doubling of the Indo-European root ar (water). According to Caesar's Gallic Wars this doubling reflected the idea that it was difficult to identify the direction of the river due to its slow rate of flow. Its current name came from a sacred spring, Sauc-Onna, located at Chalon, which was used by Roman legionnaries to refer to the entire river.

Departments and cities traversed by the Saône

File:View over the Saône, Lyon.jpg
View over the Saône, Lyon, France

Main tributaries of the Saône

File:200606 - Pont de la Saône à Tournus.JPG
Bridge over the Saône at Tournus

R indicates a right tributary, L indicates a left tributary.

Navigation

File:Tunnel de Saint Albin.jpg
Saint Albin tunnel at Scey-sur-Saône-et-Saint-Albin

The Saône is classed as navigable after its confluence with the Côney at Corre in the north of Haute-Saône all the way to its confluence with the Rhône (itself a navigable river) at la Mulatière, in Lyon. The navigable stretch is over Script error: No such module "convert". long, of which Script error: No such module "convert". is European large gauge (from Verdun-sur-le-Doubs to Lyon).

The Saône is linked with the Loire by the Canal du Centre, with the Yonne by the Canal de Bourgogne, with the Marne by the Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne (previously the Canal de la Marne à la Saône), with the Meuse by the Canal de l'Est, whose southern branch has been renamed the Canal des Vosges, and with the Rhine by the Canal du Rhône au Rhin. All the canals are Freycinet gauge.

Also navigable are the small Canal de Pont-de-Vaux (3 km), the Seille, navigable in a Script error: No such module "convert". stretch up to Louhans, and the lower part of the Doubs. None of these three connect the Saône to any other body of water, however.

Hydrology

The lesser Saône

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Source of the Saône at Vioménil
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The Saône at Gray
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The main bridge at Gray

The lesser Saône has a tendency to flood (sometimes influenced by snow), with a very strong oceanic effect. The soils are not susceptible to much infiltration, so that they saturate quickly which contributes to surface runoff. The flow rate grows very quickly, and after receiving the waters of the Lanterne, the Saône already becomes a powerful river.

The mean annual flow rate, or discharge, of the Saône has been measured over 50 years (as of 2013) at the Ray-sur-Saône hydrological station, situated about Script error: No such module "convert". after the Lanterne confluence between Port-sur-Saône and Gray. The figure is Script error: No such module "convert". for a watershed area of Script error: No such module "convert". (the upper basin of the lesser Saône), and has an annual maximum of Script error: No such module "convert". and a minimum of Script error: No such module "convert"..

The river exhibits seasonal variations in flow rate, with winter floods from Script error: No such module "convert". from December to March inclusive, and summer reductions in July/August/September falling to a monthly average of Script error: No such module "convert". in August.[3]

The runoff curve number in the upper basin of the lesser Saône is Script error: No such module "convert". annually, cf. Script error: No such module "convert". for the Lanterne, an elevated figure resulting from the very high rainfall in the Vosgian part of its watershed. The specific flow rate rises to 16.0 litres per second per square kilometre of watershed.

The maximum instantaneous recorded flow rate was Script error: No such module "convert". on December 19, 1982.

The greater Saône

The greater Saône is formed by the confluence of the Doubs and the lesser Saône at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs. The Doubs brings a mean annual flow rate of Script error: No such module "convert"., and the lesser Saône, Script error: No such module "convert"..

The greater Saône has only modest tributaries which have little effect on floods or other hydrological properties. It flows in a vast plain approximately Script error: No such module "convert". wide as far as Lyon in the basin of the former Bressan lake. The slope is very gradual, and without hydraulic projects up to the north of Chalon aimed at guaranteeing a deep navigation channel, overflows would be more frequent.

At the Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or hydrological station, where the river enters the Lyon area, measurements taken between 1969 and 1986 revealed a mean annual flow rate of Script error: No such module "convert"., with a 100-year flood flow rate of Script error: No such module "convert".[4] The runoff curve number from the river's entire watershed is Script error: No such module "convert"., and the specific flow rate rises to 15.8 litres per second per square km of watershed.

Average flow rate

Mean monthly discharge (in m3/s)
Hydrological station : Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or (date unknown)

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Overall, the average flow rate in Lyon is Script error: No such module "convert"., with a minimum of Script error: No such module "convert"., in August, and a maximum of Script error: No such module "convert"., in February.[5]

Historic floods

When the Saône floods, the impact varies considerably over the course of the river. A large flood with a strong flow rate upstream can be largely attenuated in the Bressan plain so as to have only moderate impact at Mâcon, particularly if it carries a limited volume of water. By contrast, a medium-sized flood of the lesser Saône can turn into a significant flood downstream, if the Doubs brings in a similar contribution at about the same time.

Historic floods include:

  • The Lyon flood of 580
  • The floods of 1602 during the autumn equinox[6] and of 1711
  • The flood of November 1840, with an estimated flow rate of almost Script error: No such module "convert"., destroyed numerous habitations along the river valley. Many plaques marking this serious event are still visible in the villages affected. The high water measured at flood scales reached Script error: No such module "convert". at Mâcon and Script error: No such module "convert". at Chalon, or about Script error: No such module "convert". respectively above normal levels).
  • The flood of May 1856
  • The largest floods in the last 50 years as of 2006: January 1955, March 1970, December 1981 and 1982, May 1983, March 2001 and 2006.

The reference flood in town planning is the 100-year flood. This reference was in the course of being modified as maps linked to modelling the 1840 flood in modern town planning conditions were distributed to local mayors in December 2008, and as new prevention plans were ordered for 2012.

See also

References

  1. ^ Invalid language code. Jean-Marie Pierret, Phonétique historique du français et notions de phonétique générale, Peeters, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994, p. 104.
  2. ^ Sandre. "Fiche rivière la saône (U—0000)" (in français). Retrieved July 19, 2008. 
  3. ^ Invalid language code. Banque Hydro – Station U0610010 – La Saône à Ray-sur-Saône (Synthèse) (Do not tick the box "Station en service")
  4. ^ Invalid language code. Drainage basin of the Saône
  5. ^ Invalid language code. Banque Hydro – Station U4710010 – La Saône à Couzon-au-Mont-d'Or (Do not tick the box "Station en service")
  6. ^ Invalid language code. Floods of the Rhône and all its tributaries, Volume 4

External links

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