|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
World War II
The Royal Air Force raided Saarbrücken at least 10 times. Often employing area bombing, the Royal Air Force used total of at least 1495 planes to attack Saarbrücken, killing a minimum of 635 people and heavily damaging more than 8400 buildings, of which more than 7700 were completely destroyed, thus dehousing more than 50,000 people. The first major raid on Saarbrücken was done by 291 aircraft of the Royal Air Force on July 29, 1942, targeting industrial facilities. Losing 9 aircraft, the bombers destroyed almost 400 buildings, damaging more than 300 others, and killed more than 150 people.  On August 28, 1942, 113 Royal Air Force planes raided Saarbrücken doing comparably little damage due to widely scattered bombing. After the Royal Air Force mistakenly bombed Saarlouis instead of Saarbrücken on September 1, 1942, it raided Saarbrücken with 118 planes on September 19, 1942, causing comparably little damage as the bombing scattered to the west of Saarbrücken due to ground haze. There were small raids with 28 Mosquitos on April 30, 1944, with 33 Mosquitos on June 29, 1944, and with just 2 Mosquitos on July 26, 1944. At the request of the American Third Army, the Royal Air Force massively raided Saarbrücken on October 5, 1944, in order to destroy supply lines, especially the railway. The 531 Lancasters and 20 Mosquitos achieved these goals, losing 3 Lancasters but destroying large parts of Malstatt and nearly all of Alt-Saarbrücken. From January 13 to January 14, the Royal Air Force raided Saarbrücken three times, targeting the railway yard. The attacks with 158, 274, and 134 planes, respectively, were very effective.
The 8. US Air Force raided Saarbrücken at least 16 times, from October 4, 1943, to November 9, 1944. Targeting mostly the marshalling yards, a total of at least 2387 planes of the 8. USAF killed a minimum of 543 people and heavily damaged more than 4400 buildings, of which more than 700 were completely destroyed, thus depriving more than 2300 people of shelter. Donald J. Gott and William E. Metzger, Jr. were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions during the bombing run on November 9, 1944.
On the ground, the US 70th Infantry Division was tasked with punching through the Siegfried Line and taking Saarbrücken. As the fortifications were unusually strong, it first had to take the Siegfried Line fortifications on the French heights near Spicheren overlooking Saarbrücken. This Spichern-Stellung had been constructed in 1940 after the French had fallen back on the Maginot Line during the Phoney War. The 276th Infantry Regiment attacked Forbach on February 19, 1945, and a fierce battle ensued, halting the American advance at the rail-road tracks cutting through Forbach on February 22, 1945. The 274th and 275th Infantry Regiments took Spicheren on February 20, 1945. When the 274th Infantry Regiment captured the Spicheren Heights on February 23, 1945, after a heavy battle on the previous day, the Germans counter-attacked for days, but by February 27, 1945, the heights were fully under American control. A renewed attack on March 3, 1945, allowed units of the 70th Infantry Division to enter Stiring-Wendel and the remainder of Forbach. By March 5, 1945, all of Forbach and major parts of Stiring Wendel had been taken. However, fighting for Stiring-Wendel, especially for the Simon mine, continued for days. After the German defenders of Stiring-Wendel fell back to Saarbrücken on March 12 and 13th, 1945, the 70th Infantry Division still faced a strong segment of the Siegfried Line, which had been reinforced around Saarbrücken as late as 1940. After having the German troops south of the Saar fall back across the Saar at night, the German defenders of Saarbrücken retreated early on March 20, 1945. The 70th Infantry Division flanked Saarbrücken by crossing the Saar north-west of Saarbrücken. The 274th Infantry Regiment entered Saarbrücken on March 20, 1945, fully occupying it the following day, thus ending the war for Saarbrücken.
After World War II
In 1945, Saarbrücken temporarily became part of the French Zone of Occupation. In 1947, France created the nominally politically independent Saar Protectorate and merged it economically with France in order to exploit the area's vast coal reserves. Saarbrücken became capital of the new Saar state. A referendum in 1955 came out with over two thirds of the voters rejecting an independent Saar state. The area rejoined the Federal Republic of Germany on 1 January 1957, sometimes called Kleine Wiedervereinigung (little reunification). Economic reintegration would however take many more years. Saarbrücken became capital of the Bundesland (federal state) Saarland. After the administrative reform of 1974 the city had a population of more than 200,000.
From 1990 to 1993, students and an arts professor from the town first secretly, then officially created an invisible memorial to Jewish cemeteries. It is located on the fore court of the Saarbrücken Castle.
On March 9, 1999 at 4:40am, there was a bomb attack on the controversial Wehrmachtsausstellung exhibition next to Saarbrücken Castle, resulting in minor damage to the Volkshochschule building housing the exhibition and the adjoining Schlosskirche church – but not causing any injuries.
The city is served by Saarbrücken Airport (SCN), and since June 2007 ICE high speed train services along the LGV Est line provide high speed connections to Paris from Saarbrücken Hauptbahnhof. Saarbrücken's Saarbahn (modelled on the Karlsruhe model light rail) crosses the French–German border, connecting to the French city of Sarreguemines.
Science and Education
Saarbrücken is also the home of the main campus of Saarland University (Universität des Saarlandes). Co-located with the University are several research centres including:
- the Max Planck Institute for Informatics,
- the Max Planck Institute for Software Systems,
- the Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS),
- the Fraunhofer Institute for Non-destructive Testing,
- the German Research Centre for Artificial Intelligence,
- the Center for Bioinformatics,
- the Europa-Institut,
- the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe Research Society,
- the Leibnitz Institute for New Materials (INM), and
- the Intel Visual Computing Institute,
- the Society for Environmentally Compatible Process Technology,
- the Botanischer Garten der Universität des Saarlandes (a botanical garden),
- the Institut für Angewandte Informationsforschung for applied linguistics,
several institutes focusing on transfer of technology between academia and companies, and the Science Park Saar startup incubator.
Furthermore, Saarbrücken houses the administration of the Deutsch-Französische Hochschule, a French-German cooperation of 180 institutions of tertiary education mainly from France and Germany but also from Bulgaria, Canada, Spain, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Poland, Great Britain, Russia and Switzerland, which offers bi-national French-German degree programs and doctorates as well as tri-national degree programs. The Saarland University also has a Centre Juridique Franco-Allemand, offering a French and a German law degree program.
Saarbrücken houses several other institutions of tertiary education as well:
- the University of Applied Sciences Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft des Saarlandes,
- the University of Arts Hochschule der Bildenden Künste Saar,
- the University of Music Hochschule für Musik Saar, and
- the private Fachhochschule for health promotion and physical fitness Deutsche Hochschule für Prävention und Gesundheitsmanagement
Saarbrücken also a houses a Volkshochschule.
With the end of coal mining in the Saar region, Saarbrücken's Fachhochschule for mining, the Fachhochschule für Bergbau Saar, was closed at the beginning of the 21st century. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Trier's Katholische Hochschule für Soziale Arbeit, a Fachhochschule for social work, was closed in 2008 for cost cutting reasons. The Saarland's Fachhochschule for administrative personnel working for the government, the Fachhochschule für Verwaltung des Saarlandes, was moved from Saarbrücken to Göttelborn in 2012.
Saarbrücken houses several institutions of primary and secondary education. Notable is the Saarland's oldest grammar school, the Ludwigsgymnasium, which was founded in 1604 as a latin school. The building of Saarbrücken's bi-lingual French-German Deutsch-Französisches Gymnasium, founded in 1961 and operating as a laboratory school under the Élysée Treaty, also houses the École française de Sarrebruck et Dilling, a French primary school which offers bi-lingual German elements. Together with several Kindergartens offering bi-lingual French-German education, Saarbrücken thus offers a full bi-lingual French-German formal education.
Climate in this area has mild dfferences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
|colspan="14" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other|
This page is a soft redirect. Climate data for Saarbrücken
Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox". Script error: No such module "WeatherBox".
|colspan="14" style="text-align:center;font-size:85%" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other|
This page is a soft redirect.Source #1: Wetterkontor 
Some of the closest cities are Trier, Luxembourg, Nancy, Metz, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Saarbrücken is connected by the city's public transport network to the town of Sarreguemines in France, and to the neighboring town of Völklingen, where the old steel works were the first industrial monument to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1994 — the Völklinger Hütte.
The city is home to several different teams, most notable of which is association football team based at the Ludwigsparkstadion, 1. FC Saarbrücken, which also has a reserve team and a women's section. In the past a top-flight team, twice the country's vice-champions, and participant in European competitions, the club draws supporters from across the region.
Lower league SV Saar 05 Saarbrücken is the other football team in the city.
Various sporting events are held at the Saarlandhalle, most notable of which was the badminton Bitburger Open Grand Prix Gold, part of the BWF Grand Prix Gold and Grand Prix tournaments, held in 2013 and 2012.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Saarbrücken is twinned with:
Saarbrücken has a Städtefreundschaft (city friendship) with:
Some boroughs of Saarbrücken are also twinned:
- Peter Kurtz (11 November 1881 – 10 October 1977), native of Saarbrücken. Introduced the Music of Peer Gynt to America
- Max Ophüls (6 May 1902 – 25 March 1957), film director
- Wolfgang Staudte (9 October 1906 – 19 January 1984), film director
- Walter Schellenberg (16 January 1910 – 31 March 1952), German Nazi (head of Foreign intelligence)
- Gerhard Schröder (11 September 1910 – 31 December 1989), politician
- Otto Steinert (12 July 1915 – 3 March 1978), photographer
- Frédéric Back (8 April 1924 – 24 December 2013), Canadian animator
- Frederic Vester (23 November 1925 – 2 November 2003), biochemist
- Hannelore Baron (8 June 1926 – 28 April 1987), collage and assemblage artist, emigrated to United States in 1941.
- Sandra Cretu (18 May 1962), singer
- Claudia Kohde-Kilsch (11 December 1963), tennis player
- Nicole (25 October 1964), singer
- Manfred Trenz (29 November 1965), game designer
- Andreas Escher (23 Januar 1966), game designer
- Willi Graf (2 January 1918 – 12 October 1943), member of the White Rose resistance group
- Tzvi Avni (born Hermann Jakob Steinke, 2 September 1927 in Saarbrücken), Israeli Composer
Friedenskirche, seen from Ludwigsplatz
St. John's Basilica
- Saarbrucken saar 0126.jpg
The Wilhelm-Heinrich-Bridge with a reconstructed river crane
The Alte Brücke (Old Bridge)
The Staatstheater (theatre)
- Saarbahn johanniskirche.jpg
The Saarbahn tramway
The campus of the Saarland University
- DFKI 2.JPG
The Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI), the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence
- Saarbrücken Hbf 001.jpg
The central station
- Flughafen Saarbruecken 001.jpg
- Saarbrücken Hafenstraße.jpg
Saarbrücken, Harbour Road
- Schloss Saarbruecken blaue Stunde.jpg
- Dr. Andreas Neumann. "Saarbrücken hat nichts mit Brücken zu tun?" (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-22.
- Krebs, Gerhild; Hudemann, Rainer; Marcus Hahn (2009). "Brücken an der mittleren Saar und ihren Nebenflüssen [Bridges in the middle Saar and its tributaries]". Stätten grenzüberschreitender Erinnerung – Spuren der Vernetzung des Saar-Lor-Lux-Raumes im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. [Places of transnational memory - traces of crosslinking of the Saar-Lor-Lux area in the 19th and 20th centuries] (in German) (3rd ed.). Saarbrücken: Johannes Großmann. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
- Sander, Eckart (1999), "Meine Geburt war das erste meiner Mißgeschicke", Stadtluft macht frei (in German), Stadtverband Saarbrücken, Pressereferat, pp. 8–9, ISBN 3-923405-10-3
- "Chronik von Saarbrücken" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2012-07-18.
- "Das Römerkastell in Saarbrücken" (in German). Interessengemeinschaft Warndt und Rosseltalbahn (IGWRB) e. V. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- "Röerkastell in Saarbrücken". Saarlandbilder (in German). Andreas Rockstein. 2009-01-20. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
- Jan Selmer (2005). "Ausgrabungen im Kreuzgangbereich des ehem. Stiftes St. Arnual, Saarbrücken 1996–2004" (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-22.
- "Mithras-Heiligtum Saarbrücken" (in German). Tourismus Zentrale Saarland GmbH. Retrieved 2012-04-04.
- Behringer, Wolfgang; Clemens, Gabriele (20 July 2011). "Hochmittelalterlicher Landesausbau". Geschichte des Saarlandes [History of the Saarland] (in German). München: C.H.Beck. p. 21. ISBN 978-3-406-62520-6. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
- "Development of the Strategic Bomber". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. 2006-03-13. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- "No. 99 Squadron". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. 2006-03-13. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
- Waespi-Oeß, Rainer. "Die Bevölkerung Saarbrückens im Jahr 2013". Amt für Entwicklungsplanung, Statistik und Wahlen. Retrieved 2014-07-24.
- Klaus Zimmer (2012-07-27). "air raids". The results of the air war 1939–1945 in the Saarland. Retrieved 2013-05-01.
- "Campaign Diary". RAF History – Bomber Command 60th Anniversary. UK Crown. 2006-03-13. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2013-04-30.
1942: July, August, September,
1944: April, June, July, October,
- 70th Regional Readiness Command (2004-11-10). "Abbreviated History of the 70th Infantry Division" (PDF). taken from "The 50th Anniversary program book of the 70th Division (Training)". Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Charlie Pence (2013-02-01). "The Battle for Spicheren Heights". taken from "Trailblazer" magazine, Fall 1997, pp. 10–12. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Headquarters 274th Infantry – APO 461 US Army. "Period from 1 Mar 1945 to 31 Mar 1945". Narrative Report of Operations. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- "Die Höckerlinie in St. Arnual". Operation Linsenspalter- Der Westwall im Saarland (in German). 2005-05-15. Retrieved 2013-05-10.
- Karl-Otto Sattler (1999-03-10). "Sprengstoffanschlag auf Wehrmachtsausstellung". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 2012-07-20.
- "Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research : About HIPS". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- "Intel Visual Computing Institute: Bridging Real and Virtual Worlds". Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- Climate Summary for Saarbrücken from Weatherbase.com
- "Klima Deutschland, Saarbrücken". Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "Sonnenscheindauer: langjährige Mittelwerte 1981 - 2010". Retrieved June 22, 2014.
- "Town Twinnings". Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- "Our twin cities – Cottbus". http://www.cottbus.de/. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Tbilisi Sister Cities". Tbilisi City Hall. Tbilisi Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2013-06-11.
- Tauchert, Wolfgang. "Saarbrücken – Diriamba". Saarland:Parnterschaftsprojekte (in German). Staatskanzlei des Saarlandes. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
- "Tzvi Avni Saarbrücker Ehrenbürger" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken. Retrieved 2012-09-29.
- Non-English Wikipedia links
Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'Module:Portal/images/g' not found.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saarbrücken.|
- Official website
- Official website Invalid language code.
- Saarbrücken-Ensheim Airport
- Saarbrücken-Ensheim Airport Invalid language code.
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).