</tr><tr><td class="plainlist" style="padding:0.3em 0.4em 0.3em;font-weight:bold;border-top: 1px solid #aaa; border-bottom: 1px solid #aaa;padding-top:0.1em;font-weight:bold;line-height:1.5em;">
- Islam portal</td></tr><tr><td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%;padding-top: 0.6em;"> </td></tr></table>
In Islam, there are three types of Sahabah:
As Sabiqoon Al Awaloon (Badriyans)
The people who were Muslims at the time of Badr. They are further classified into two:
- Muhajreen (immigrants - from Mecca)
- Ansar (helpers - inhabitants of Medina (previously known as Yathrib)) They are ideals for the other Muslims because "well-pleased is Allah with them" (Arabic: رضي الله عنه raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu)
Those who believed, and adopted exile, and fought for the Faith, with their property and their persons, in the cause of Allah, as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid,- these are (all) friends and protectors, one of another.
...and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for ye were enemies and He joined your hearts in love,...
...those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer),...
Major Sahabah (Kibaar)
The people who were Muslims before victory at Mecca and went into exile and fought for God's cause in most of the wars.
They are also high in degree, especially those who were present at Hudabiyah.
They are also people that God is pleased with (Arabic: رضي الله عنه raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu)
Released people (Ashaab at-tulaqaa)
They were non-Muslim at the time of victory of Mecca; after that, they were forgiven by Muhammad, then they became Muslims.
They are lower in degrees as compared to other two mentioned above.
According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, and they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings. If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence even briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just (udul) unless they are proven otherwise; that is, Sunni scholars do not believe that companions would lie or fabricate hadith unless they are proven liars, untrustworthy or opposed to Islam. "Whom God is pleased with" (Arabic: رضي الله عنه raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu) is usually mentioned by Sunnis after the names of the Sahaba.
Some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions;
...and He has restrained the hands of men from you; that it may be a Sign for the Believers,...
While sura 8 ("The Spoils" (Al-Anfal)), ayat 74-75 reads:
Those who believe, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith, in the cause of Allah as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid,- these are (all) in very truth the Believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.
And those who accept Faith subsequently, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith in your company,- they are of you.
—Quran, sura 8 (Al-Anfal), ayat 74-75
In another place the Quran distinguishes between the community in honour:
Not equal among you are those who spent (freely) and fought, before the Victory, (with those who did so later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all has Allah promised a goodly (reward).
It sometimes admonishes them, as when Aisha, daughter of the first Sunni caliph Abu Bakr and the wife of Muhammad, was accused of infidelity:
Why did not the believers - men and women - when ye heard of the affair,- put the best construction on it in their own minds and say, "This (charge) is an obvious lie"?
...Behold, ye received it on your tongues, and said out of your mouths things of which ye had no knowledge; and ye thought it to be a light matter,...
Certain of the desert Arabs round about you are hypocrites, as well as (desert Arabs) among the Medina folk: they are obstinate in hypocrisy: thou knowest them not: We know them: twice shall We punish them: and in addition shall they be sent to a grievous penalty.
—Quran, sura 9, (At-Tawba), ayah 101
In view of such admonitions Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished. They do not accept that the testimony of nearly all Sahabah is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the Sahaba were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad. Shias further argue that the righteousness of Sahabah can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Quran, surah 33 (Al-Ahzab), verse 33 and the hadith of the Cloak.
All of Muhammad's wives are called the "mothers of the believers":
The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. Blood-relations among each other have closer personal ties, in the Decree of Allah. Than (the Brotherhood of) Believers and Muhajirs: nevertheless do ye what is just to your closest friends: such is the writing in the Decree (of Allah).
—Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayah 6
Another verse states:
O Consorts of the Prophet!...God only wishes to remove all abomination from you, you members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.
—Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 32-33
Shias support their argument that one must discriminate between the virtues of the companions by verses relating to Muhammad's wives:
O Consorts of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct, the Punishment would be doubled to her, and that is easy for Allah.
But any of you that is devout in the service of Allah and His Messenger, and works righteousness,- to her shall We grant her reward twice: and We have prepared for her a generous Sustenance.
—Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 30-31
The injunction to regard them as mothers overrules this in Sunni thought, particularly as regards Aisha, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr.
Because the hadith were not properly written down until many years after the death of Muhammad, although there were many individual written copies, the isnads, or chains of transmission, always have several links. The first link is preferably a companion, who had direct contact with Muhammad. The companion then related the tradition to a Tabi‘un, the companion of the companion. Tabi‘un had no direct contact with Muhammad, but did have direct contact with the Sahabah. The tradition then would have been passed from the Tabi‘un to the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in, the third link.
The second and third links in the chain of transmission were also of great interest to Muslim scholars, who treated of them in biographical dictionaries and evaluated them for bias and reliability. Sunni and Shia apply different metrics.
Regard for the companions is evident from the hadith:
The Prophet said, "The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then whose who follow the latter.
Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The best of my Umma would be those of the generation nearest to mine. Then those nearest to them, then those nearest to them,...
Sunni Muslim scholars classified companions into many categories, based on a number of criteria. The hadith quoted above shows the rank of ṣaḥābah, tābi‘īn, and tābi‘ at-tābi‘īn. Al-Suyuti recognized eleven levels of companionship. Shia do not have a ranking system dependent on when the Sahabi embraced Islam but according to what they did during their life. If a Sahabah made Muhammad angry or questioned his decision several times then he is viewed as unreliable. Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have absolved all Sahabah from sin is a false report by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt.
The Shia believe that after the death of Muhammad, the majority of the sahabah turned aside from true Islam and deviated from Muhammad's family, instead electing the caliph by themselves at a place called Bani Saqeefa, they did this by a majority vote and elected Abu Bakr as the first caliph. Although some of the sahabah repented later, only a few of the early Muslims held fast to Ali, whom Shia Muslims regard as the rightful successor to Muhammad. Shia scholars therefore deprecate hadith believed to have been transmitted through unjust companions, and place much more reliance on hadith believed to have been related by Muhammad's family members and companions who supported Ali. The Shia believe that Muhammad announced his succession during his lifetime at Dawat Zul Asheera then many times during his prophethood and finally at Ghadeer e Khum.
The Bahá'í Faith recognises the companions of Muhammad. They are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion.
- ^ "Sahaba". livingislam.org.
- ^ Fundamentals of Hadith Intrepretation by Amin Ahsan Islahi
- ^ a b Quran 9:100
- ^ Quran 9:117
- ^ Quran 8:72
- ^ Quran 3:103
- ^ Quran 48:29
- ^ Quran 48:18–29
- ^ a b Quran 57:10
- ^ Muhammad ibn Ahmad (died 1622), also known as "Nişancızâde", Mir’ât-i-kâinât (in Turkish):
"Once a male or female Muslim has seen Muhammad only for a short time, no matter whether he/she is a child or an adult, he/she is called a Sahaba with the proviso of dying with as a believer; the same rule applies to blind Muslims who have talked with the Prophet at least once. If a disbeliever sees Muhamma and then joins the Believers after the demise of Muhammad, he is not a Sahaba; nor is a person called a Sahaba if he converted to Islam afterwards although he had seen Muhammad as a Muslim. A person who converts to Islam after being a Sahaba and then becomes a Believer again after the demise of Muhammad, is a Sahaba.
- ^ ”Sharh al-`Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah”, by Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi, p.526-528
- ^ ”Al-I`tiqad `ala Madhhab al-Salaf Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a”, by Al-Bayhaqi, pg.109-113
- ^ ”Al-Tajrid fi Asma' al-Sahaba”, by Al-Dhahabi, pg.57
- ^ Word Games With Verse 33:33, By: Ibn al-Hashimi
- ^ Mothers of the Believers, By: Ibn al-Hashimi
- ^ Al-Ifk: Quran Defends Aisha, By: Ibn al-Hashimi
- ^ Quran 48:10
- ^ Quran 8:74–75
- ^ Quran 24:12–15
- ^ Quran 9:101
- ^ Quran 33:33
- ^ Quran 33:6
- ^ Quran 33:32–33
- ^ Quran 33:30–31
- ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:48:820
- ^ Sahih Muslim, 31:6150
- ^  "The Kitáb-i-Íqán PART ONE". BAHA'I REFERENCE LIBRARY. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
- Osman, Amr, Companions, in Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014.
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).