August 10, 1887
Krasnosielc, Congress Poland, Russian Empire
October 5, 1927 (aged 40)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death
|Home of Peace Cemetery|
Samuel L. Warner
Co-founder of Warner Brothers
|Spouse(s)||Lina Basquette (m. 1925–27)|
Samuel Louis "Sam" Warner (August 10, 1887 – October 5, 1927) was a Polish-born American film producer who was the co-founder and chief executive officer of Warner Bros. Studios. He established the studio along with his brothers Harry, Albert, and Jack Warner. Sam Warner is credited with procuring the technology that enabled Warner Bros. to produce the film industry's first feature-length talking picture, The Jazz Singer. He died in 1927, the day before the film's enormously successful premiere.
Schmuel "Wonsal" or "Wonskolaser", was born in Congress Poland under Russian Empire, possibly in the village of Krasnosielc, He was one of eleven children born to Benjamin, a shoe maker born in Krasnosielc, and Pearl Leah Wonsal/Wonskolaser (née Eichelbaum). He had ten siblings: sisters Cecilia (1877-1881), Anna (1878-1958), Rose (1890-1955), Fannie (1891-1984) and Sadie (1895-1959). His brothers were Hirsch Morris (born in 1881 and later known as "Harry"), David (1893-1939), Abraham (born in 1884 and later known as "Al" or "Abe"), Jacob (born in 1892 and later known as "Jack") and Milton (1896-1915).
The family immigrated to Baltimore, Maryland in October 1889 on the steamship Hermann from Bremen, Germany. Their father had preceded them, immigrating to Baltimore in 1888, and following his trade in shoes and shoe repair. He changed the family name to Warner, which was used thereafter. As in many Jewish immigrant families, some of the children gradually acquired anglicized versions of their Yiddish-sounding names. Schmuel became Samuel, nicknamed Sam.
In Baltimore, Benjamin Warner struggled to make enough money to provide for his growing family. Following the advice of a friend, Benjamin relocated the family to Canada, where he attempted to make a living by bartering tin wares to trappers in exchange for furs. After two arduous years in Canada, Benjamin and his family returned to Baltimore. In 1896, the family relocated to Youngstown, Ohio, following the lead of Harry Warner, who established a shoe repair shop in the heart of the emerging industrial town. Benjamin worked with his son Harry in the shoe repair shop until he secured a loan to open a meat counter and grocery store in the city's downtown area. As a child, Sam Warner found himself trying to find work through a range of various odd jobs.
Early business ventures
Samuel Warner was the first member of his family to move into the entertainment industry. In the early 1900s, he formed a business partnership with another Youngstown resident and "took over" the city's Old Grand Opera House, which he used as a venue for "cheap vaudeville and photoplays". The venture failed after one summer. Warner then secured a job as a projectionist at Idora Park, a local amusement park. He persuaded the family of the new medium's possibilities and negotiated the purchase of a Model B Kinetoscope from a projectionist who was "down on his luck". The purchase price was $1,000. Warner's interest in film came after seeing Thomas Edison's The Great Train Robbery while working as an employee at Cedar Point Pleasure Resort in Sandusky, Ohio. During this time, Albert agreed to join Warner and together the two displayed showings of The Great Train Robbery at carnivals throughout the states of Ohio and Pennsylvania; Sam Warner would run the film projector and Albert would sell tickets.
In 1905, Harry Warner agreed to join his two brothers and sold his Youngstown bicycle shop. Through the money Harry made by selling the bicycle shop, the three brothers were now able to purchase a building in New Castle, Pennsylvania; The brothers named their new theater The Cascade Movie Palace. The Cascade Movie Palace was so successful that the brothers were able to purchase a second theater in New Castle. This makeshift theatre, called the Bijou, was furnished with chairs borrowed from a local undertaker. They maintained the theater until moving into film distribution in 1907. That year, the Warner brothers established the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement Company, and the three brothers rented an office in the Bakewell building in downtown Pittsburgh. Harry then sent Sam Warner to New York to purchase, and ship, films for their Pittsburgh exchange company, while he and Albert remained in Pittsburgh to run the business.
Their business, however, proved lucrative until the advent of Thomas Edison's Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), which charged distributors exorbitant fees. In 1909, the brothers sold the Cascade Theater for $40,000, and decided to open a second film exchange in Norfolk, Virginia; through this Norfolk company, younger brother Jacob (known as "Jack,") following Sam's advice, officially joined his three brothers' business and was sent to Norfolk by older brother Harry to serve as Warner's assistant. In 1910, the Warners would sell the family business, to the General Film Company, for "$10,000 in cash, $12,000 in preferred stock, and payments over a four-year period for a total of $52,000".
Formation of Warner Bros.
In 1910, the Warner brothers pooled their resources and moved into film production. After they sold their business, the brothers lent their support to filmmaker Carl Laemmle's Independent Motion Picture Company, which challenged the monopolistic control of the Edison Trust; the brothers served as distributors for Laemmle's films in Pittsburgh. In 1912, Sam would help the brothers earn a $1,500 profit with his film Dante's Inferno. In the wake of this success, Harry Warner, seeing Edison's monopoly threat grow, decided to break with Laemmle and had the brothers start their own film production company, Warner Features. After this occurred Harry Warner, who now had an office in New York with brother Albert, sent Sam and Jack to establish film exchanges in Los Angeles and San Francisco; Warner would run the company's Los Angeles division while Jack ran the company's San Francisco division. The brothers were soon poised to exploit the expanding California movie market. Their first opportunity to produce a major film came in 1918, when they purchased the film rights for My Four Years in Germany, a bestselling novel that condemned German wartime atrocities. In the wake of the successful profits My Four Years in Germany gave the Warner's, the four brothers were now able to establish a studio in the area near Hollywood. In the new Hollywood studio, Warner became co-head of production along with his younger brother, Jack. In this capacity, the two brothers secured new scripts and story lines, managed film production, and looked for ways to reduce production costs.
Between the years 1919 and 1920, the studio was not profitable. During this time, banker Motley Flint-who was, unlike most bankers at the time, not antisemitic-. helped the Warners pay off their debts. The brothers then decided to relocate their production studio from Culver City to Sunset Boulevard. The studio would also rebound in 1921, after the success of the studio's film Why Girls Leave Home. As a result of the film's success, director Harry Rapf was appointed the studio's new head producer. On April 4, 1923, following the studio's successful film The Gold Diggers, Warner Brothers, Inc. was officially established.
One of the new company's first big stars would be the dog Rin Tin Tin. By directing Rin Tin Tin, newcomer director Daryl Zanuck's career would be greatly pushed forward too. In addition to Rin Tin Tin, the studio was also able to gain more success with German film director Ernst Lubitsch, whose first film with the studio, The Marriage Circle, reached the New York Times Ten Best List for the 1924; the film was also the studio's most successful film of the year, and it helped establish Lubitsch as the studio's top director at this point in time. The Warners were also able to add another film to New York Times Top Ten Films of The Year 1924 List with Beau Brummell. Despite success the studio had, the Warners were unable to compete with the Big Three Studios (Paramount, Universal, First National) at the time, and were soon threatened to be bought out by the end of 1924.
During this time, Harry Warner would add more relief for the studio after he was able purchase Brooklyn's Vitagraph theater company. In 1925, Sam Warner had also acquired a radio station, KWBC, After acquiring his radio station, Warner decided to make an attempt to use synchronized sound in future Warner Bros. Pictures. After a visit to Western Electric's Bell Laboratories headquarters, Warner urged his brother, Harry, to sign an agreement with Western Electric to develop a series of "talking" shorts using the newly upgraded Sound-on-film technology, a sound-on-disc system for motion pictures. Harry Warner, however, did not want to use synchronized sound in the studio's films.
By February 1926, the studio had suffered a reported net loss of $333,413.00. Harry Warner, after a long period of refusing to accept Warner's demands, then agreed to use synchronized sound in Warner Bros. shorts, as long as it just for usage of background music, Harry Warner then made a visit to Western Electric's Bell Laboratories in New York, and was impressed. One problem that occurred for the Warners though was the fact that the high-ups at Western Electric were anti-Semitic. Warner, though, was able to convince the high-ups to sign with the studio after his wife Lina wore a gold cross at a dinner he attended with the Western Electric. After which, Harry Warner signed a partnership agreement with Western Electric to use Bell Laboratories to test the sound-on-film process. Warner and younger brother Jack then decided to take a big step forward make Don Juan.
In May 1926, through the company's partnership with Western Electric, Sam formed a subsidiary known as Vitaphone, Through Vitaphone, the studio released a series of musical shorts and the feature-length Don Juan (which had a synchronized music track); upon establishing Vitaphone, Warner was also made Vice President of Warner Bros. as well. Despite the money Don Juan was able to draw at the box office, it still could not match the expensive budget the brothers put into the film's production. These vehicles received further tepid responses, and Harry grew increasingly opposed to the venture.
Around this time, Paramount head Adolph Zukor offered Sam a deal as an executive producer for his studio if he brought Vitaphone with him; during the year, Harry had also become the company president. Warner, not wanting to take any more of brother Harry's refusal to move forward with using sound in future Warner films, agreed to accept Zukor's offer, but the deal died after Paramount lost money in the wake of Rudolph Valentino's death. By April 1927, the Big Five studios (First National, Paramount, MGM, Universal, and Producers Distributing) had put the Warners in financial ruin, and Western Electric renewed the Warner's Vitaphone contract with terms that it was no longer exclusive and that other film companies could test sound with Western Electric as well. Harry eventually agreed to accept Warner's demands, and he pushed ahead with a new Vitaphone feature, based on a Broadway play and starring Al Jolson. The Jazz Singer broke box-office records, established Warner Bros. as a major player in Hollywood, and single-handedly launched the talkie revolution.
In 1925, after years of bachelorhood, Warner met eighteen-year-old Ziegfeld Follies performer and actress Lina Basquette while spending time in New York visiting the Bell Laboratories. The two began an intense love affair. On July 4, 1925, the two were married. While Warner's younger brother Jack did not object to Basquette's Catholicism, the rest of the Warner family did. They refused to accept Basquette and did not acknowledge her as a member of the Warner clan. On October 6, 1926, the couple's only child, daughter Lita, was born.
After Warner's death, Harry asked Basquette give up custody of the couple's daughter Lita. Harry Warner claimed he was concerned that Lita would be raised as Catholic instead of Jewish (according to Basquette, she and Sam Warner agreed to raise any female children they had as Catholic and any male children as Jewish). Harry Warner and his wife offered Basquette large amounts of money to relinquish custody but she refused. She finally relented after Harry Warner promised her that Lita would receive a $300,000 trust fund. On March 30, 1930, Harry Warner and his wife were awarded legal custody of Lita. Basquette quickly regretted her decision and attempted to regain custody of her daughter. Basquette was never financially stable enough to regain custody of her daughter as the Warner family launched several legal suits against her to win back Sam Warner's share of Warner Bros. studio. She would only see Lita on two occasions over the next twenty years: in 1935, when Harry Warner and his family moved to Los Angeles, and when Lita married Dr. Nathan Hiatt in 1947. Basquette and her daughter reconnected in 1977 when Basquette backed a lawsuit that Lita brought against her uncle Jack Warner's estate.
In September 1927, Jack —who was working nonstop with Sam Warner on production of The Jazz Singer—noticed that his brother started having severe headaches and nosebleeds. By the end of the month, Warner was unable to walk straight. He was hospitalized and was diagnosed with a sinus infection that was aggravated by several abscessed teeth. Doctors also discovered that Warner had developed a mastoid infection that was infecting to his brain. After four surgeries to remove the infection, Warner slipped into a coma. He died of pneumonia caused by sinusitis, osteomyelitis and epidural and subdural abscesses on October 5, 1927, the day before the premiere of The Jazz Singer.
According to Hollywood Be Thy Name, the 1993 memoir of Jack Warner, Jr., and Cass Warner Sperling, character actor William Demarest claimed that Sam Warner was murdered by his own brothers. This allegation, leveled in 1977, was never corroborated, and Demarest's reliability was questioned because of his long dependence on alcohol; the last time that Sam would meet with his entire family was at his parent's wedding anniversary in 1926.
Crowds of movie stars gathered at the Bresse Brothers funeral parlor to attend Warner's funeral. A private memorial service was then held in the Warner Bros. studio on October 9, 1927. He is interred in the Warner family mausoleum at Home of Peace Cemetery in East Los Angeles, California.
As the family grieved over Warner's sudden death, the success of The Jazz Singer helped establish Warner Bros. as a major studio. While Warner Bros. invested only $500,000 in the film, the studio reaped $3 million in profits. Hollywood's five major studios, which controlled most of the nation's movie theaters, initially attempted to block the growth of "talking pictures". In the face of such organized opposition, Warner Bros. produced twelve "talkies" in 1928 alone. The following year, the newly formed Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences recognized Warner Bros. for "revolutionizing the industry with sound".
For all Sam Warner's reputation as pioneer, he envisioned sound in movies not for dialogue but for music and effects only, in order to cut the costs of having live musicians in Warner theatres. Within a few years, his Vitaphone was replaced by the technically superior Movietone (sound-on-film) system, which became the industry standard. Nevertheless, his determination forever changed the way motion pictures are made.
- Thomas (1990), pp. 52–62.
- "Warner, Movie Magnate, Dies: Sam Warner, Former Youngstown Man, Rose from Obscurity to Leader in Field". The Youngstown Daily Vindicator. October 5, 1927.
- Sinclair, Doug. "The Family of Benjamin and Pearl Leah (Eichelbaum) Warner: Early Primary Records". Doug Sinclair's Archives. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
- According to Bette-Ann Warner, a second cousin to the Warner brothers, in The Brothers Warner, 2008 documentary written and directed by Cass Warner, viewed on Turner Classic Movies March 8, 2010. Bette-Anne Warner's grandfather was a brother of the Warner brothers' father.
- Doug Sinclair, "The Family of Benjamin and Pearl Leah (Eichelbaum) Warner: Early Primary Records," (2008), published at Doug Sinclair's Archives (http://dougsinclairsarchives.com/benjaminwarnerfamily.htm)
- Room, Adrian (2010). Dictionary of Pseudonyms: 13,000 Assumed Names and Their Origins (5 ed.). McFarland. p. 502. ISBN 0-786-45763-5.
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 11. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 23–24.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 24–25.
- Thomas (1990), pp. 12–13.
- Thomas (1990), p. 12.
- Thomas (1990), pp. 15–16.
- "Heard on the Corner: How the Warner Brothers, Movie Producers, Got Their Start". The Youngstown Daily Vindicator. December 30, 1923.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 49.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 50.
- Trebilcock, Bob (March 1985). "A Warner Brothers Production: They parlayed Youngstown nickelodeon into a Hollywood empire". Ohio Magazine. pp. 24–25.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 32.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 33.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 34.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 54–55.
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 22. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
- "Jack L. Warner's Death Closes Out Pioneer Clan of 'Talkies'". Variety. September 13, 1978. p. 2.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 55–57.
- Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 65–66.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 42
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 18. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 45-46
- Warner and Jennings (1964), p. 73.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 46
- Thomas (1990), p. 29.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 47-48
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 51
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 54
- Thomas (1990), pp. 34–35.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 66
- Warner and Jennings (1964), pp. 100–101.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 71
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 72
- Thomas (1990), pp. 38.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 73
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 76
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 77
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 81
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 45. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 83
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 82
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 84
- "Theatre Owners Open War on Hays". New York Times. May 12, 1925. p. 14.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), Hollywood Be Thy Name p. 84-85, Prima Publishing, ISN:1559583436
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), Hollywood Be Thy Name p. 86, Prima Publishing, ISN:1559583436
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 89.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 90.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 92.
- Thomas (1990), 52–55;
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 94.
- Freedland, Michael. The Warner Brothers. St. Martin's Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-312-85620-2.
- Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 94. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. p. 54. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
- Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 94–95. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
- Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 102. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
- "Milestones: Oct. 17, 1927". Time. October 17, 1927. Retrieved May 23, 2010.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 95.
- Warner-Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack; Warner, Jack Jr. Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. University Press of Kentucky. p. 113. ISBN 0-8131-0958-2.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 114.
- "Milestones". Time. 1958-08-04. p. 2.
- Thomas (1990), p. 59.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 116.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 33-98.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 97.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 98.
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. McGraw-Hill. pp. 48, 49. ISBN 0-07-064259-1.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 115.
- Brownlow, Kevin (October 8, 1994). "Obituary: Lina Basquette". independent.co.uk. Retrieved February 2, 2014.
- Thomas, Kevin (August 23, 1991). "Lina Basquette: Her Life Is Screenplay Material Movies". The Los Angeles Times. p. 16.
- Eyman, Scott (1997). The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution 1926-1930. Simon and Schuster. p. 361. ISBN 1-439-10428-X.
- Warner Sperling, Cass; Millner, Cork; Warner, Jack (1994). Hollywood Be Thy Name: The Warner Brothers Story. Prima Pub. p. 265. ISBN 1-559-58343-6.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 112.
- Eyman 1997 pp.137-138
- "Sam Warner, Noted Film Magnate Dies". Berkeley Daily Gazette. October 5, 1927. p. 1. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
- "Warner brothers book covers Valley roots, Hollywood highs". The Vindicator. October 24, 1993.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 112.
- Sperling, Millner, and Warner (1998), p. 136.
- Thomas (1990), p. 63.
- Thomas (1990), p. 66.
- Thomas, Bob (1990). Clown Prince of Hollywood: The Antic Life and Times of Jack L. Warner. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company. ISBN 0-07-064259-1
- Warner, Jack L.; Jennings, Dean (1964). My First Hundred Years in Hollywood. Random House. ASIN B0007DZSKW.