Open Access Articles- Top Results for Serum response factor

Serum response factor

SymbolsSRF ; MCM1
External IDsOMIM600589 MGI106658 HomoloGene31135 GeneCards: SRF Gene
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE SRF 202401 s at tn.png
File:PBB GE SRF 202400 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)NM_001292001NM_020493
RefSeq (protein)NP_001278930NP_065239
Location (UCSC)Chr 6:
43.14 – 43.15 Mb
Chr 17:
46.55 – 46.56 Mb
PubMed search[1][2]

Serum response factor, also known as SRF, is a transcription factor.[1]


Serum response factor is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors.[2] This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs).[3][4]

SRF is important during the development of the embryo, as it has been linked to the formation of mesoderm.[5][6] In the fully developed mammal, SRF is crucial for the growth of skeletal muscle.[7] Interaction of SRF with other proteins, such as steroid hormone receptors, may contribute to regulation of muscle growth by steroids.[8] Interaction of SRF with other proteins such as myocardin or Elk-1 may enhance or suppress expression of genes important for growth of vascular smooth muscle.

Clinical significance

Lack of skin SRF is associated with psoriasis and other skin diseases.[9]


Serum response factor has been shown to interact with:


  1. ^ Norman C, Runswick M, Pollock R, Treisman R (December 1988). "Isolation and properties of cDNA clones encoding SRF, a transcription factor that binds to the c-fos serum response element". Cell 55 (6): 989–1003. PMID 3203386. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(88)90244-9. 
  2. ^ Shore P, Sharrocks AD (April 1995). "The MADS-box family of transcription factors". Eur. J. Biochem. 229 (1): 1–13. PMID 7744019. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1995.0001l.x. 
  3. ^ Dalton S, Marais R, Wynne J, Treisman R (June 1993). "Isolation and characterization of SRF accessory proteins". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 340 (1293): 325–32. PMID 8103935. doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0074. 
  4. ^ "SRF serum response factor". Entrez Gene. National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health. 
  5. ^ Sepulveda JL, Vlahopoulos S, Iyer D, Belaguli N, Schwartz RJ (July 2002). "Combinatorial expression of GATA4, Nkx2-5, and serum response factor directs early cardiac gene activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (28): 25775–82. PMID 11983708. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203122200. 
  6. ^ Barron MR, Belaguli NS, Zhang SX, Trinh M, Iyer D, Merlo X et al. (March 2005). "Serum response factor, an enriched cardiac mesoderm obligatory factor, is a downstream gene target for Tbx genes". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (12): 11816–28. PMID 15591049. doi:10.1074/jbc.M412408200. 
  7. ^ Li S, Czubryt MP, McAnally J, Bassel-Duby R, Richardson JA, Wiebel FF et al. (January 2005). "Requirement for serum response factor for skeletal muscle growth and maturation revealed by tissue-specific gene deletion in mice". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (4): 1082–7. PMC 545866. PMID 15647354. doi:10.1073/pnas.0409103102. 
  8. ^ Vlahopoulos S, Zimmer WE, Jenster G, Belaguli NS, Balk SP, Brinkmann AO et al. (March 2005). "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (9): 7786–92. PMID 15623502. doi:10.1074/jbc.M413992200. 
  9. ^ Koegel H, von Tobel L, Schäfer M, Alberti S, Kremmer E, Mauch C et al. (April 2009). "Loss of serum response factor in keratinocytes results in hyperproliferative skin disease in mice". J. Clin. Invest. 119 (4): 899–910. PMC 2662566. PMID 19307725. doi:10.1172/JCI37771. 
  10. ^ Jung DJ, Sung HS, Goo YW, Lee HM, Park OK, Jung SY et al. (July 2002). "Novel transcription coactivator complex containing activating signal cointegrator 1". Mol. Cell. Biol. 22 (14): 5203–11. PMC 139772. PMID 12077347. doi:10.1128/mcb.22.14.5203-5211.2002. 
  11. ^ a b Zhu C, Johansen FE, Prywes R (September 1997). "Interaction of ATF6 and serum response factor". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (9): 4957–66. PMC 232347. PMID 9271374. 
  12. ^ Hanlon M, Sealy L (May 1999). "Ras regulates the association of serum response factor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (20): 14224–8. PMID 10318842. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.20.14224. 
  13. ^ Sealy L, Malone D, Pawlak M (March 1997). "Regulation of the cfos serum response element by C/EBPbeta". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (3): 1744–55. PMC 231899. PMID 9032301. 
  14. ^ a b Matsuzaki K, Minami T, Tojo M, Honda Y, Saitoh N, Nagahiro S et al. (March 2003). "PML-nuclear bodies are involved in cellular serum response". Genes Cells 8 (3): 275–86. PMID 12622724. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2443.2003.00632.x. 
  15. ^ Hassler M, Richmond TJ (June 2001). "The B-box dominates SAP-1-SRF interactions in the structure of the ternary complex". EMBO J. 20 (12): 3018–28. PMC 150215. PMID 11406578. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.12.3018. 
  16. ^ Belaguli NS, Sepulveda JL, Nigam V, Charron F, Nemer M, Schwartz RJ (October 2000). "Cardiac tissue enriched factors serum response factor and GATA-4 are mutual coregulators". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (20): 7550–8. PMC 86307. PMID 11003651. doi:10.1128/mcb.20.20.7550-7558.2000. 
  17. ^ Morin S, Paradis P, Aries A, Nemer M (February 2001). "Serum response factor-GATA ternary complex required for nuclear signaling by a G-protein-coupled receptor". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (4): 1036–44. PMC 99558. PMID 11158291. doi:10.1128/MCB.21.4.1036-1044.2001. 
  18. ^ Joliot V, Demma M, Prywes R (February 1995). "Interaction with RAP74 subunit of TFIIF is required for transcriptional activation by serum response factor". Nature 373 (6515): 632–5. PMID 7854423. doi:10.1038/373632a0. 
  19. ^ Zhu H, Joliot V, Prywes R (February 1994). "Role of transcription factor TFIIF in serum response factor-activated transcription". J. Biol. Chem. 269 (5): 3489–97. PMID 8106390. 
  20. ^ Grueneberg DA, Henry RW, Brauer A, Novina CD, Cheriyath V, Roy AL et al. (October 1997). "A multifunctional DNA-binding protein that promotes the formation of serum response factor/homeodomain complexes: identity to TFII-I". Genes Dev. 11 (19): 2482–93. PMC 316568. PMID 9334314. doi:10.1101/gad.11.19.2482. 
  21. ^ Kim DW, Cheriyath V, Roy AL, Cochran BH (June 1998). "TFII-I enhances activation of the c-fos promoter through interactions with upstream elements". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 (6): 3310–20. PMC 108912. PMID 9584171. 
  22. ^ Groisman R, Masutani H, Leibovitch MP, Robin P, Soudant I, Trouche D et al. (March 1996). "Physical interaction between the mitogen-responsive serum response factor and myogenic basic-helix-loop-helix proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (9): 5258–64. PMID 8617811. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.9.5258. 
  23. ^ Biesiada E, Hamamori Y, Kedes L, Sartorelli V (April 1999). "Myogenic basic helix-loop-helix proteins and Sp1 interact as components of a multiprotein transcriptional complex required for activity of the human cardiac alpha-actin promoter". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (4): 2577–84. PMC 84050. PMID 10082523. 
  24. ^ Yamada K, Osawa H, Granner DK (October 1999). "Identification of proteins that interact with NF-YA". FEBS Lett. 460 (1): 41–5. PMID 10571058. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)01311-3. 
  25. ^ Lee SK, Kim JH, Lee YC, Cheong J, Lee JW (April 2000). "Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors, as a novel transcriptional corepressor molecule of activating protein-1, nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (17): 12470–4. PMID 10777532. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.17.12470. 
  26. ^ Kim HJ, Kim JH, Lee JW (October 1998). "Steroid receptor coactivator-1 interacts with serum response factor and coactivates serum response element-mediated transactivations". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (44): 28564–7. PMID 9786846. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.44.28564. 
  27. ^ Gupta M, Kogut P, Davis FJ, Belaguli NS, Schwartz RJ, Gupta MP (March 2001). "Physical interaction between the MADS box of serum response factor and the TEA/ATTS DNA-binding domain of transcription enhancer factor-1". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (13): 10413–22. PMID 11136726. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008625200. 

External links

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine ([3]), which is in the public domain.