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Extended Perso-Arabic script
Shahmukhi (Western Punjabi: شاہ مکھی, meaning literally "from the King's mouth") is a Perso-Arabic alphabet used to write the Punjabi language. It is generally written in Nastaʿlīq hand. Perso-Arabic is one of two scripts used for Punjabi, the other being Gurumukhi.
The Shahmukhi alphabet was first used by the Sufi poets of the Punjab; it became the conventional writing style for the Muslim populace of the Pakistani province of Punjab following the independence of Pakistan in 1947, while the largely Sikh province of Punjab, India adopted the Gurmukhi script to record the Punjabi language.
Its use in Indian Punjab is mainly confined to the elderly generation who lived on the other side of the border before the independence of Pakistan in 1947, although it is also recommended to be studied for students studying at M.A level in Punjabi. It is however, used as the main alphabet to write the Pothohari dialect in Indian Jammu and Kashmir.
Shahmukhi is written from right to left, while Gurmukhi is written from left to right. Below is the comparison of the two scripts.
- Consonants are doubled with ّ (ੱ). Ex: ﷲ (ਅੱਲਾਹ) "Allāh", كَچَّا (ਕੱਚਾ) Kachchā "unripe".
- The Gurumukhi sounds ñ (ਞ), ng (ਙ), ṇ (ਣ), nh (ੰ/ં) are all written with ں nun ghunna (nun without dot). In initial and medial positions, the dot is retained.
- ے (Bari ye) is only found in the final position, when writing the sounds e (ਏ) or æ (ਐ), and in initial and medial positions, it takes the form of ی.
- There are three signs used when indicating a short vowel: َ (ਅ), ُ (ਉ), ِ (ਇ): a, u, i. Examples: قَلَم (ਕ਼ਲਮ) qalam "pen", گھُپ (ਘੁਪ) ghup "dense", لِحاظ (ਲਿਹਾਜ਼) lihāż "consideration"
- at the beginning of a word, short vowels are written as follows: اِ, اُ, اَ.
- Long vowels are expressed with ے, ی, ا and و as follows:
|e, æ (ਏ ਐ)||اَے||ـَيـ||ـَے|
|au, o (ਔ ਓ)||اَو||ـَو|
In Punjabi there are many Arabic and Persian loanwords. There are some sounds in these words which were not previously found in South Asian languages before the influence of Arabic and Persian, and these are therefore represented by introducing dots beneath specific Gurumukhi characters. Since the Gurmukhi alphabet is phonetic, any loanwords which contained pre-existing sounds were more easily transliterated without the need for characters modified with subscript dots beneath.
ﻉ is often transliterated in many ways due to its changing sound in various Arabic and Persian words.
- "Re: Sangam: Gurmukhi to Shahmukhi(Urdu) transliteration software". Sikhmatrimonials.com. 2006-06-27. Retrieved 2014-02-08.
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- The Western Panjabi Alphabet
- Learn Shahmukhi
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- Kalam-e-Baba Nanak
- Punjabi and Punjab
- E-Book on Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi
- PDF on Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi