The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance (Traditional Chinese:中蘇友好同盟條約) is a 1945 treaty signed by the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China and Soviet Union at 14 August 1945. At the time, Soviet and Mongolian troops were occupying Inner Mongolia and other Chinese territory, having seized it from the Japanese during World War II. In a declaration made in connection with the treaty, China accepted the independence of Mongolia within its previous borders (disavowing any Pan-Mongolist intentions of the occupiers), provided that a referendum on the issue be held and that the Soviet Union ceased aiding the Chinese Communist Party.
However, the ROC noticed that the Soviet Union secretly and continuously supported Chinese Communist Party and People's Liberation Army which were opposed to the ruling Kuomintang and the government of ROC, as well as the Mongolian People's Republic. The relation collapsed when Chinese Communist Party claimed the People's Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949 and the Soviet Union recognized it. The UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 505 on 1 February 1952, which confirmed that the Soviet Union had violated the terms of the treaty by assisting the Chinese Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War. On 24 February 1953, the Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China voted to officially terminate its commitments to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance as well, thereby rescinding its recognition of the independence of the Mongolian People's Republic.
- ^ Atwood, Christopher (2005). "Poems of Fraternity: Literary Responses to the Attempted Reunification of Inner Mongolia and the Mongolian People's Republic". In Kara, György. The Black Master: Essays on Central Eurasia in Honor of György Kara on His 70th Birthday. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 2.