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Sodium bromide

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Sodium bromide
3D model of sodium bromide
Sodium bromide powder
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IUPAC name
Sodium bromide
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7647-15-6 7pxY
13466-08-5 (dihydrate) 7pxN
ChEMBL ChEMBL1644694 7pxN
ChemSpider 22712 7pxY
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format
RTECS number VZ3150000
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BrNa
Molar mass Lua error in Module:Math at line 495: attempt to index field 'ParserFunctions' (a nil value). g·mol−1
Appearance White powder, hygroscopic
Density 3.21 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
2.18 g/cm3 (dihydrate)
Melting point Script error: No such module "convert".
(anhydrous)
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(dihydrate) decomposes[3]
Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert". [3]
71.35 g/100 mL (−20 °C)
79.52 g/100 mL (0 °C)
94.32 g/100 mL (25 °C)[1]
104.9 g/100 mL (40 °C)
116.2 g/100 mL (100 °C)[2]
Solubility Soluble in alcohol, liquid ammonia, pyridine, hydrazine, SO2, amine
Insoluble in acetone, acetonitrile[1]
Solubility in methanol 17.3 g/100 g (0 °C)
16.8 g/100 g (20 °C)
16.1 g/100 g (40 °C)
15.3 g/100 g (60 °C)[1]
Solubility in ethanol 2.45 g/100 g (0 °C)
2.32 g/100 g (20 °C)
2.29 g/100 g (30 °C)
2.35 g/100 g (70 °C)[1]
Solubility in formic acid 19.3 g/100 g (18 °C)
19.4 g/100 g (25 °C)[1]
Solubility in glycerol 38.7 g/100 g (20 °C)[1]
Solubility in dimethylformamide 3.2 g/100 g (10.3 °C)[1]
Vapor pressure 1 torr (806 °C)
5 torr (903 °C)[3]
Thermal conductivity 5.6 W/m·K (150 K)[4]
1.6428 (24 °C)
nKrF = 1.8467 (24 °C)
nHe–Ne = 1.6389 (24 °C)[5]
Viscosity 1.42 cP (762 °C)
1.08 cP (857 °C)
0.96 cP (937 °C)[1]
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Crystal structure Cubic
Lattice constant a = 5.97 Å[4]
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51.4 J/mol·K[1]
86.82 J/mol·K[1]
−361.41 kJ/mol[1]
−349.3 kJ/mol[1]
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SDS External MSDS
EU Index Not listed
R-phrases R36
S-phrases (S2), S24/25, S46
NFPA 704

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0
2
0
Flash point Script error: No such module "convert".
3500 mg/kg (rats, oral)
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Other anions
Sodium fluoride
Sodium chloride
Sodium iodide
Other cations
Lithium bromide
Potassium bromide
Rubidium bromide
Caesium bromide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 14pxN verify (what is10pxY/10pxN?)
Infobox references

Sodium bromide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaBr. It is a high-melting white, crystalline solid that resembles sodium chloride. It is a widely used source of the bromide ion and has many applications.[7]

Synthesis, structure, reactions

NaBr crystallizes in the same cubic motif as NaCl, NaF and NaI. The anhydrous salt crystallizes above 50.7 °C.[7] Dihydrate salts (NaBr·2H2O) begins to anhydrous at 50.7 °C in water solution.[2]

It is produced by treating sodium hydroxide with hydrogen bromide.

Sodium bromide can be used as a source of the chemical element bromine. This can be accomplished by treating an aqueous solution of NaBr with chlorine gas:

2 NaBr + Cl2 → Br2 + 2 NaCl

Applications

Sodium bromide is the most useful inorganic bromide in industry.[7] It is also used as a catalyst in TEMPO-mediated oxidation reactions.[8]

Medicine

Also known as Sedoneural, sodium bromide has been used as a hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and sedative in medicine, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its action is due to the bromide ion, and for this reason potassium bromide is equally effective. In 1975, bromides were removed from drugs in the U.S. such as Bromo-Seltzer due to toxicity.[9]

Preparation of other bromine compounds

Sodium bromide is widely used for the preparation of other bromides in organic synthesis and other areas. It is a source of the bromide nucleophile to convert alkyl chlorides to more reactive alkyl bromides by the Finkelstein reaction:

NaBr + RCl → RBr + NaCl (R = alkyl)

Once a large need in photography, but now shrinking, the photosensitive salt silver bromide is prepared using NaBr.

Disinfectant

Sodium bromide is used in conjunction with chlorine as a disinfectant for swimming pools.

Petroleum industry

Sodium bromide is used to prepare dense fluids used in oil wells.

Safety

NaBr has a very low toxicity with an oral LD50 estimated at 3.5 g/kg for rats.[6] However, this is a single-dose value. Bromide ion is a cumulative toxin with a relatively long half life (in excess of a week in humans): see potassium bromide.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=714
  2. ^ a b Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). D. Van Nostrand Company. 
  3. ^ a b c Pradyot, Patnaik (2003). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN 0-07-049439-8. 
  4. ^ a b "Sodium Bromide (NaBr)". http://www.korth.de. Korth Kristalle GmbH. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  5. ^ Polyanskiy, Mikhail. "Refractive index of NaBr (Sodium bromide) - Li". http://www.refractiveindex.info. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  6. ^ a b "Sodium bromide MSDS" (PDF). http://www.sciencelab.com. Sciencelab.com, Inc. 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 
  7. ^ a b c Michael J. Dagani, Henry J. Barda, Theodore J. Benya, David C. Sanders "Bromine Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2000. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_405
  8. ^ http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-009-9381-2#page-1
  9. ^ "Bromide: Potassium & Sodium". http://www.canine-epilepsy.com. Canine-Epilepsy Resources. 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2014-06-11. 

External links