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Sodium cyanide

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Sodium cyanide

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143-33-9 7pxY ChEMBL ChEMBL1644697 7pxN ChemSpider 8587 7pxY EC number 205-599-4 Jmol-3D images Image PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format RTECS number VZ7525000 UN number 1689 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Properties

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NaCN Molar mass 49.0072 g/mol Appearance white solid Odor faint almond-like Density 1.5955 g/cm3 Melting point Script error: No such module "convert". Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert". 48.15 g/100 mL (10 °C)
63.7 g/100 mL (25 °C) Solubility soluble in ammonia, methanol, ethanol
very slightly soluble in dimethylformamide, SO2
insoluble in dimethylsulphoxide 1.452 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Thermochemistry

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70.4 J/mol K 115.7 J/mol K -91 kJ/mol colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Hazards

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SDS ICSC 1118 EU Index 006-007-00-5 EU classification Very Toxic T+ Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N Corrosive C [1] R-phrases R26/27/28, R32, R50/53 S-phrases (S1/2), S7, S28, S29, S45, S60, S61 NFPA 704

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Flash point Non-flammable 6.44 mg/kg (oral, rat)[3] US health exposure limits (NIOSH):

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This page is a soft redirect. C 5 mg/m3 (4.7 ppm) [10-minute][2] #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
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This page is a soft redirect. Related compounds

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Other cations
Potassium cyanide
Related compounds
Hydrogen cyanide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Sodium cyanide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCN. It is a white, water-soluble solid. Cyanide has a high affinity for metals, which leads to the high toxicity of this salt. Its main application, in gold mining, also exploits its high reactivity toward metals. When it is treated with acid, it forms the toxic gas hydrogen cyanide:

NaCN + H2SO4 → HCN + NaHSO4

Production and chemical properties

Sodium cyanide is produced by treating hydrogen cyanide with sodium hydroxide:[5]

HCN + NaOH → NaCN + H2O

Worldwide production was estimated at 500,000 tons in the year 2006. In former times, it was prepared by the Castner-Kellner process involving the reaction of sodium amide with carbon at elevated temperatures.

NaNH2 + C → NaCN + H2

The structure of solid NaCN is related to that of sodium chloride.[6] The anions and cations are each six-coordinate. Potassium cyanide (KCN) adopts a similar structure. Each Na+ forms pi-bonds to two CN groups as well as two "bent" Na---CN and two "bent" Na---NC links.[7]

Because the salt is derived from a weak acid, NaCN readily reverts to HCN by hydrolysis: the moist solid emits small amounts of hydrogen cyanide, which smells like bitter almonds (not everyone can smell it—the ability thereof is due to a genetic trait[8]). Sodium cyanide reacts rapidly with strong acids to release hydrogen cyanide. This dangerous process represents a significant risk associated with cyanide salts. It is detoxified most efficiently with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce sodium cyanate (NaOCN) and water:[5]

NaCN + H2O2 → NaOCN + H2O

Applications

Cyanide mining

See also: cyanide process

Sodium gold cyanide

Sodium cyanide is mainly used to extract gold and other precious metals in mining industry. This application exploits the high affinity of gold(I) for cyanide, which induces gold metal to oxidize and dissolve in the presence of air and water, producing the salt sodium gold cyanide (or gold sodium cyanide) and sodium hydroxide:

4 Au + 8 NaCN + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 Na[Au(CN)2] + 4 NaOH

A similar process uses potassium cyanide (KCN, a close relative of sodium cyanide) to produce potassium gold cyanide (KAu(CN)2).Few other methods exist for this extraction process.

Chemical feedstock

Several commercially significant chemical compounds are derived from cyanide, including cyanuric chloride, cyanogen chloride, and many nitriles. In organic synthesis, cyanide, which is classified as a strong nucleophile, is used to prepare nitriles, which occur widely in many specialty chemicals, including pharmaceuticals.

Niche uses

Being highly toxic, sodium cyanide is used to kill or stun rapidly such as in widely illegal cyanide fishing and in collecting jars used by entomologists.

Toxicity

Main article: Cyanide poisoning

Cyanide salts are among the most rapidly acting of all known poisons. Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and hence blocking electron transport. This results in decreased oxidative metabolism and oxygen utilization. Lactic acidosis then occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism.

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford MSDS
  2. ^ a b c "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0562". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  3. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/143-33-9
  4. ^ http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/4477
  5. ^ a b Andreas Rubo, Raf Kellens, Jay Reddy, Norbert Steier, Wolfgang Hasenpusch "Alkali Metal Cyanides" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2006 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany. doi:10.1002/14356007.i01_i01
  6. ^ Wells, A.F. (1984) Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-855370-6.
  7. ^ H. T. Stokes, D. L. Decker, H. M. Nelson, J. D. Jorgensen (1993). "Structure of potassium cyanide at low temperature and high pressure determined by neutron diffraction". Phys. Rev. B 47 (17): 11082–11092. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.47.11082. 
  8. ^ Online 'Mendelian Inheritance in Man' (OMIM) 304300

External links

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