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Sodium iodide

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Sodium iodide

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7681-82-5 7pxY
13517-06-1 (dihydrate) 7pxN ChEBI CHEBI:33167 7pxY ChEMBL ChEMBL1644695 7pxN ChemSpider 5048 7pxY Jmol-3D images Image PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format RTECS number WB6475000 Template:Chembox UNII colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
This page is a soft redirect. Properties

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NaI Molar mass 149.89 g/mol Appearance white solid
deliquescent Odor odorless Density 3.67 g/cm3 Melting point Script error: No such module "convert". Boiling point Script error: No such module "convert". 158.7 g/100 mL (0 °C)
184.2 g/100 mL (25 °C)
227.8 g/100 mL (50 °C)
294 g/100 mL (70 °C)
302 g/100 mL (100 °C) [1] Acidity (pKa) 8-9.5 1.7745 colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
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91 J·mol−1·K−1[2] −288 kJ·mol−1[2] colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
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SDS [1] Main hazards Irritant, can harm the unborn child EU Index Not listed Flash point Non-flammable colspan=2 style="background:#f8eaba; border-top:2px solid transparent; border-bottom:2px solid transparent; text-align:center;" #REDIRECTmw:Help:Magic words#Other
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Other anions
Sodium fluoride
Sodium chloride
Sodium bromide
Other cations
Lithium iodide
Potassium iodide
Rubidium iodide
Caesium iodide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is the salt of sodium and iodide. It is a white, crystalline solid that is used mainly as a nutritional supplement and in organic chemistry. It is produced industrially by acidic iodides and sodium hydroxide.[3]

Uses

Food supplement

Sodium iodide, as well as potassium iodide, is commonly used to treat and prevent iodine deficiency. Iodized table salt contains one part sodium or potassium iodide to 100,000 parts of sodium chloride.[3]

Organic synthesis

Sodium iodide is used for conversion of an alkyl chlorides into an alkyl iodides. This method, the Finkelstein reaction, relies on the insolubility of sodium chloride in acetone to drive the reaction:

R-Cl + NaI → R-I + NaCl

Nuclear medicine

Some radioactive iodide salts of sodium, including [125I]NaI and [131I]NaI, have radiopharmaceutical uses, such as in the treatment of thyroid cancer and hyperthyroidism[4] or as radiolabeling tracers in imaging (see Isotopes of iodine > Radioiodines I-123, I-124, I-125, and I-131 in medicine and biology).

Thallium-doped NaI(Tl) scintillators

Sodium iodide activated with thallium, NaI(Tl), when subjected to ionizing radiation, emits photons (i.e., scintillate) and is used in scintillation detectors, traditionally in nuclear medicine, geophysics, nuclear physics, and environmental measurements. NaI(Tl) is the most widely used scintillation material. The crystals are usually coupled with a photomultiplier tube, in a hermetically sealed assembly, as sodium iodide is hygroscopic. Fine-tuning of some parameters (i.e., radiation hardness, afterglow, transparency) can be achieved by varying the conditions of the crystal growth. Crystals with a higher level of doping are used in X-ray detectors with high spectrometric quality. Sodium iodide can be used both as single crystals and as polycrystals for this purpose. The wavelength of maximum emission is 415 nm.[5]

Solubility data

Sodium iodide exhibits high solubility in some organic solvents, unlike sodium chloride or even bromide. Its solubility of NaI in various solvents (g NaI/100 g of solvent at 25 °C) [6]

H2O 184.2
Liquid ammonia 162
Liquid sulfur dioxide 15
Methanol 62.5 - 83.0
Formic acid 61.8
Acetonitrile 24.9
Acetone 50.4425
Formamide 57 - 85
Acetamide 32.3 (41.5 °C)
Dimethylformamide 3.7 - 6.4
Dichloromethane 0.009 [7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Seidell, Atherton (1919). Solubilities of inorganic and organic compounds c. 2. D. Van Nostrand Company. p. 655. 
  2. ^ a b Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A23. ISBN 0-618-94690-X. 
  3. ^ a b Lyday, Phyllis A. "Iodine and Iodine Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2 doi:10.1002/14356007.a14_381 Vol. A14 pp. 382–390.
  4. ^ The Free Dictionary: sodium iodide 131I
  5. ^ Scintillation Materials
  6. ^ Burgess, J. (1978). Metal Ions in Solution. New York: Ellis Horwood. ISBN 0-85312-027-7. 
  7. ^ Danil de Namor, A.F.; J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 1, 1989,85, 2705-2712 DOI: 10.1039/F19898502705

External links