# Solenoidal vector field

In vector calculus a solenoidal vector field (also known as an incompressible vector field or a divergence free vector field ) is a vector field v with divergence zero at all points in the field:

$\nabla \cdot \mathbf{v} = 0.\,$

## Properties

The fundamental theorem of vector calculus states that any vector field can be expressed as the sum of an irrotational and a solenoidal field. The condition of zero divergence is satisfied whenever a vector field v has only a vector potential component, because the definition of the vector potential A as:

$\mathbf{v} = \nabla \times \mathbf{A}$

automatically results in the identity (as can be shown, for example, using Cartesian coordinates):

$\nabla \cdot \mathbf{v} = \nabla \cdot (\nabla \times \mathbf{A}) = 0.$

The converse also holds: for any solenoidal v there exists a vector potential A such that $\mathbf{v} = \nabla \times \mathbf{A}.$ (Strictly speaking, this holds only subject to certain technical conditions on v, see Helmholtz decomposition.)

The divergence theorem gives the equivalent integral definition of a solenoidal field; namely that for any closed surface, the net total flux through the surface must be zero:

Template:Oiint

where $d\mathbf{S}$ is the outward normal to each surface element.

## Etymology

Solenoidal has its origin in the Greek word for solenoid, which is σωληνοειδές (sōlēnoeidēs) meaning pipe-shaped, from σωλην (sōlēn) or pipe. In the present context of solenoidal it means constrained as if in a pipe, so with a fixed volume.