South Sulawesi

South Sulawesi
Sulawesi Selatan
Sulawesi Maniang
ᨔᨘᨒᨓᨙᨔᨗ ᨆᨊᨗᨕ
R to L : Bira Beach, Tongkonan Traditional House of Toraja, Karst Maros, Bantimurung Waterfall, Ramma Valley in Bawakaraeng Mountain, Pine forest Malino, Parangloe Waterfall, Takabonerate national park, Londa cave, Samalona Island
R to L : Bira Beach, Tongkonan Traditional House of Toraja, Karst Maros, Bantimurung Waterfall, Ramma Valley in Bawakaraeng Mountain, Pine forest Malino, Parangloe Waterfall, Takabonerate national park, Londa cave, Samalona Island
Template:Infobox settlement/columns
Motto: Todo Puli / ᨈᨚᨉᨚᨄᨘᨒᨗ
(Keep the faith)
Location of South Sulawesi in Indonesia
Location of South Sulawesi in Indonesia

Coordinates: 4°20′S 120°15′E / 4.333°S 120.250°E / -4.333; 120.250Coordinates: 4°20′S 120°15′E / 4.333°S 120.250°E / -4.333; 120.250{{#coordinates:4|20|S|120|15|E|region:ID_type:adm1st|| |primary |name=

Country Template:Country data Indonesia
Founded 19 October 1669
Founded As Province 13 December 1960
Capital 20px Makassar
 • Governor Syahrul Yasin Limpo (Golkar Party)
 • Vice Governor Agus Arifin Nu'mang
 • Total 46,717.48 km2 (18,037.72 sq mi)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total 8,032,551
 • Density 170/km2 (450/sq mi)
 • Ethnic groups Bugis (41.9%), Makassarese (25.43%), Toraja (9.02%), Mandar (6.1%)
 • Religion Islam (89.62%), Protestantism (7.62%), Roman Catholicism (1.54%), Buddhism (0.24%), Hinduism (0.72%), Confucianism (0.004)[2]
 • Languages Buginese Makassarese Torajanese (regional)
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2009) 0.733 (medium) (21st)
Time zone CIT (UTC+08)
License plate DD, DP, DW

South Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Selatan) is a province of Indonesia. It is mostly located on the southern peninsula of Sulawesi. The Selayar Islands archipelago forms part of the province.

The 2010 census recorded the province's population as 8,032,551 – making it the most populated province in Sulawesi (46% of the population of Sulawesi is in South Sulawesi), and the sixth most populated in Indonesia. Its capital, Makassar, is a major regional centre and the largest city on the island; it is situated on the western side of Sulawesi's southern peninsula.


South Sulawesi Province is located at 4°20'S 120°15'E. Its area is 45,764.53 km2. The province is bordered by Central Sulawesi and West Sulawesi in the north, the Gulf of Bone and Southeast Sulawesi in the east, by Makassar Strait to the west and the Flores Sea to the south.

Administrative divisions

Five years after independence, the government issued Law No. 21 of 1950, which became the basis of the legal establishment for Sulawesi province. Ten years later, the government passed Law No. 47 of 1960 which endorsed the formation of the South and Southeast Sulawesi. Four years after that, through Act No. 13 of 1964, the provinces of South Sulawesi and Southeast Sulawesi were separated.

Forty years later, the South Sulawesi government was split into two, with the regencies of Majene, Mamasa, Mamuju, North Mamuju and Polewali Mandar - until that date in South Sulawesi Province - were separated off into a new West Sulawesi province on 5 October 2004 under Act No. 26 of 2004.

The remaining South Sulawesi Province is divided into twenty-one regencies and 3 independent cities, listed below with their (provisional) populations at the 2010 Census.

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2000
Census 2010
Estimate 2014
Makassar (city) 175.77 1,100,019 1,339,374 1,398,804 Makassar
Palopo (city) 247.52 # 148,033 154,579 Palopo
Parepare (city) 99.33 108,258 129,542 135,069 Parepare
Bantaeng Regency 395.83 158,632 176,984 184,637 Bantaeng
Barru Regency 1,174.71 151,085 165,900 173,440 Barru
Bone Regency 4,559.00 648,089 717,268 749,925 Watampone
Bulukumba Regency 1,154.67 352,419 394,757 412,286 Bulukumba
East Luwu Regency
(Luwu Timur)
6,944.88 *** 242,882 253,989 Malili
Enrekang Regency 1,786.01 166,307 190,175 198,795 Enrekang
Gowa Regency 1,883.32 512,876 652,329 682,275 Sungguminasa
Jeneponto Regency 749.79 317,588 342,222 358,096 Bontosunggu
Luwu Regency 3,000.25 398,131 332,863 347,419 Belopa
Maros Regency 1,619.12 272,116 318,238 333,334 Maros
North Luwu Regency
(Luwu Utara)
7,502.58 431,680 287,606 300,387 Masamba
North Toraja Regency
(Toraja Utara)
1,151.47 * 215,400 226,502 Rantepao
Pangkajene and Islands Regency
(Pangkajene Dan Kepulauan)
1,236.27 263,565 305,758 319,473 Pangkajene
Pinrang Regency 1,961.77 310,833 351,161 366,892 Pinrang
Selayar Islands Regency
(Kepulauan Selayar)
903.69 103,596 121,905 127,538 Benteng
Sidenreng Rappang Regency 1,883.25 238,419 271,801 284,127 Pangkajene Sidenreng
Sinjai Regency 819.96 204,385 228,936 239,162 Sinjai
Soppeng Regency 1,359.44 219,505 223,757 233,882 Watansoppeng
Takalar Regency 566.51 229,718 269,171 281,715 Pattallassang
Tana Toraja Regency 2,054.30 392,726 221,795 231,013 Makale
Wajo Regency 2,056.20 357,720 384,694 402,410 Sengkang
Total province 46,717.48 7,159,170 8,032,551 8,395,747 Makassar
# The 2000 Census population for Palopo city is included in the figure for Luwu Regency.
* The 2000 Census population for North Toraja Regency is included in the figure for Tana Toraja Regency, which was formed in 2008 following the publication of Commission President Yudhoyono, numbered R.68/Pres/12/2007 on 10 December 2007, regarding the expansion of the twelve original districts and cities.
*** The 2000 Census population for East Luwu Regency is included in the figure for North Luwu Regency.


Ethnic groups

Ethnicities of South Sulawesi - 2010 Census[3]
ethnic group percent
Toraja people

South Sulawesi has a diverse range of ethnic groups. Here are three of them:

  • The Buginese are the largest ethnic group in Sulawesi. This people inhabits the middle of the southern peninsula of Sulawesi. Many of these people have migrated to the outer islands around Sulawesi, even as far as Malaysia.
  • The Makassarese are the second largest ethnic group in South Sulawesi. Their language is Makassar. Makassar people inhabit the southern part of the southern peninsula of Sulawesi including Jeneponto, Takalar, Bulukumba, Bantaeng, Gowa, Maros and Makassar. Total population is around 3 million people
  • The Toraja are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Their population is approximately 650,000, of which 450,000 still live in the regency of Tana Toraja ("Land of Toraja").


  • Makassar language is a language family spoken in Makassar and surrounding areas.
  • Bugis language is one of the family of languages spoken in the region up to Pinrang Bone, Sinjai, Barru, Pangkep, Maros, Pare Pare, Sidrap, Wajo, Soppeng Until Enrekang area, this language is the predominant language in use by the community South Sulawesi.
  • Tae' language is one of the languages spoken in the area of Tana Luwu, ranging from Siwa, Wajo, Enrekang Duri, Kolaka to the North, South East Sulawesi.
  • Toraja is one of a family of languages spoken in the area of Tana Toraja and surrounding areas.
  • The Mandar language is the language of the Mandar ethnic group, who lived in West Sulawesi province, precisely in Mamuju, Polewali Mandar, Majene and North Mamuju Regencies. In addition to the core in the tribal areas, they are also scattered in coastal parts of South Sulawesi, South Kalimantan and East Kalimantan.
  • The Duri language is one of the Austronesian languages in South Sulawesi in the group Massenrempulu dialect. Among the group Massenremplu Language, Language spines have the closeness with Toraja language and language Tae 'Luwu. Speakers spread across the north of Mount Bambapuang, Enrekang to the border region of Tana Toraja.
Historical population
1971 5,180,576—    
1980 6,062,212+17.0%
1990 6,981,646+15.2%
1995 7,558,368+8.3%
2000 7,159,170−5.3%
2010 8,034,776+12.2%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010
  • The Konjo language is divided into two - the Coastal Konjo lthe Mountain Konjo language. The Coastal Konjo live in coastal areas, notably the Bulukumba area, in the southeastern corner of the southern part of the island of Sulawesi. The Mountain Konjo live in the mountains of southeastern Sulawesi, around Bawakaraeng.


South Sulawesi recorded 8,032,551 people in the decennial 2010 census, having a growth rate of 1.17 percent over the adjusted Indonesia 2000 census figure, less than the national average of 1.49 percent. West Sulawesi split off from South Sulawesi in 2004. There were 3,921,543 males and 4,111,008 females, 1,848,132 housing units with average of 4.34 per unit versus national average of 3.86, some 13.3 percent of the population was under the national poverty line.[4] It is the major regional centre for Sulawesi island and is the major recipient of migration from all over the island.

Religion in South Sulawesi - 2010 Census[2]
religion percent
Roman Catholicism


The majority religion is Islam in South Sulawesi as much as 89.62% (7.200.938), Protestantism 7.62% (612.751), Roman Catholicism 1.54% (124.255), Buddhism 0.24% (19.867), Hinduism 0.72% (58.393), Confucianism 0.004% (367).[5]


This island was first inhabited by humans about 30,000 years ago. The archaeological remains of the earliest inhabitants were discovered in caves near the limestone hills around Maros, about 30 km northeast of Makassar, the capital of South Sulawesi province. The possibility that the old cultural layers form Peeble and flake stone tools have been collected from the river terraces in the valley of Walanae, among Soppeng and Sengkang, including the bones of a giant pig and elephants now extinct. Hand print paintings, estimated to be around 35,000 to 40,000 years old, have been found in Pettakere cave,[6] located Script error: No such module "convert". from the town of Maros and Script error: No such module "convert". from Makassar.[7]

During the golden era of the spice trade, from the 15th century until the 19th, South Sulawesi served as the gateway to the Maluku Islands, spice-producing lands. Kingdom of Gowa and Bone mighty plays an important role in the history of eastern Indonesia Ialu future .

At around the 14th century in South Sulawesi there were a number of small kingdoms, two prominent − the Kingdom of Gowa around Makassar and Bugis Kingdom located in Bone. In 1530, the Kingdom of Gowa began to develop themselves, and in the mid 16th century Gowa become one of the most important trade centres in eastern Indonesia. In 1605, the King of Gowa embraced Islam and made the Kingdom of Gowa Islamist, and between the years 1608 and 1611, the Kingdom of Gowa attacked and conquered the kingdom of Bone so that Islam could be spread to all regions of Makassar and Bugis.

Dutch Trading Company, better known as the VOC (Vereenigde Oost - Indische Compagnie) who came to the region in the 15th century saw the Kingdom of Gowa as an obstacle to its desire for control of VOC spice trade in this area. VOC later allied with the Bugis prince named Whitewater Palakka living in exile after the fall of the Bugis under the rule of Gowa .

Holland then returned to the sponsoring Palakka Bone, Bone simultaneously turned the people's resistance against the power and Sopeng Gowa. After a year-long battle, they defeated the Kingdom of Gowa. And King of Gowa, Sultan Hasanuddin was forced to sign the Treaty which greatly reduced the power of Bungaya Gowa. Furthermore Bone under Palakka became ruler in South Sulawesi.

Competition between the leaders of the Bugis kingdom of Bone coloured other South Sulawesi history. A Bone queen emerged to lead the resistance against the Dutch, who were busy dealing with the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. Yet once past the Napoleonic Wars, the Dutch returned to South Sulawesi and eradicated the queen's rebellion. But resistance of Makassar and Bugis people against colonial rule continued until 1905 or 1906. In 1905, the Dutch also managed to conquer Tana Toraja; resistance in this area continued until the early 1930s.

File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Mangi Mangi Karaëng Bontonompo koning van Gowa luistert naar de installatierede van waarnemend gouverneur van Celebes en Onderhorigheden de heer Bosselaar TMnr 10001592.jpg
Mangi Mangi Karaeng Bontonompo, king of Gowa, listens with his followers and some dignitaries, to the installation of reason acting governor of Celebes and Dependencies, Mr. Bosselaar, 1937

Before the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia, South Sulawesi consisted of a number of independent kingdoms' territory and was inhabited by four ethnic groups namely Bugis, Makassar, Mandar and Toraja.

There are three major kingdoms that Luwu widely influenced, Gowa and Bone, which in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to achieve glory and has conducted trade relations and friendship with the people of European, Indian, Chinese, Malay and Arabic. After independence, issued Law No. 21 of 1950 which became the province of South Sulawesi Sulawesi Administrative and subsequently in 1960 became an autonomous region of South Sulawesi and Southeast by Act No. 47 of 1960. Separation of the autonomous region of South Sulawesi South Sulawesi and Southeast was established by Act No. 13 of 1964, so it became an autonomous region of South Sulawesi.

Condition of South Sulawesi

Economic conditions

  • Sulawesi economy grew 7.78 percent in 2008 and grew by 6.20 percent in 2009, or 7.34 percent (without nickel)
  • Economic Growth First Quarter of 2010 reached 7.77 percent in the second quarter and is expected to reach 8.02 percent
  • GDP in 2009 (ADHK) amounting to Rp 47.31 trillion and 99.90 Trillion (ADHB)
  • Per capita income of USD 12.63 million in 2009.

Social conditions

  • Human Development Index (HDI) South Sulawesi in 2008 reached 70.22
  • Life Expectancy 69.60 in 2008
  • Poor population of 12.31 percent in 2009, amounting to 963.6 thousand
  • Unemployment rate of 8.90 percent in 2009, amounting to 296,559 people.

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Capital city of South Sulawesi, and Biggest city in East Indonesia, Makassar.

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Losari Beach, is one of the icons in the main tourist destinations in South Sulawesi.


File:South Sulawesi Airport Map.png
Red, Main Airport
Yellow, Other Airport


File:Sultan Hasanuddin Int'l Airport.jpg
Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport

In South Sulawesi consists of one main airport and eight other airports. Sultan Hasanuddin Airport is one of the busiest airports in Indonesia, as well as Points of Interest, The airport is the gateway to eastern Indonesia, which is the airport was used as a transit centre to the east of Indonesia.

  • Sultan Hasanuddin International Airport (Makassar)
  • Lagaligo Airport (Luwu, Palopo)
  • Andi Djemma Airport (North Luwu)
  • Pontiku Airport (Tana Toraja)
  • Haji Aroepala Airport (Selayar)
  • Seko Airport (North Luwu)
  • Rampi Airport (North Luwu)
  • Sorowako Airport (East Luwu)
  • Mappalo Ulaweng Airport (Bone)


In Sulawesi Sulawesi have many Ports and harbours

  • Port of Soekarno Hatta (Makassar)
  • Port of Tanjung Ringgit (Palopo)
  • Port of Nusantara, (Pare Pare)
  • Balantang, (Malili)
  • Biringkassi, (Pangkep)
  • Paotere, (Makassar)
  • Pamatata (Selayar)
  • Bajoe, (Watampone)
  • Garongkong (Barru)
  • Bira, (Bulukumba)
  • Bangsalae, (Siwa, Wajo)
  • Ulo-ulo, (Belopa, Luwu)

Natural resources

File:Ladang garam Jeneponto.JPG
Salt evaporation ponds in Jeneponto, South Sulawesi

Agricultural areas in the province reached 1,411,446 ha, divided into an area of 550,127 ha of paddy fields and dry land area of 861,319 ha. Technical irrigated paddy fields to reach 317,727 ha, rain-fed area of 230,760 ha, 1,540 ha of tidal rice fields and rice paddies bee / polders with a total area of 100 ha of irrigation channels reach 244,304 ha. Rice fields is that in 2006 produced 3,365,509 tons of rice, consisting of 3,352,116 tons of rice and 13 393 tonnes of paddy fields. Compared to the last two years, increasing rice productivity is achieved, in 2004, rice production there reached 3,552,834 tons while in 2005 reached 3,619,652 tons. Beyond the rice fields before, in this province there is also dry land comprising an area of 178,734 ha yard, dry / garden area of 539,266 ha and 153,319 ha farm area.

As one of the national rice granaries, South Sulawesi annually produces 2,305,469 tons of rice. Of that amount, for local consumption only 884,375 tonnes and 1,421,094 tonnes of reserves remaining is distributed other eastern areas even exported to Malaysia, the Philippines and Papua New Guinea. Location of the largest rice production is in Bone regency, Soppeng, Wajo, Sidrap, Pinrang and Luwu (Bodowasipilu Area).


File:Pedagang markisa Malino.JPG
Passion fruit in Malino, Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi
Plantation is a natural resource that is being developed as: crops in South Sulawesi in 2004 as many as 674,115 tonnes, 723,331 in 2005 whereas in 2006 and was expected to reach 696,084 tonnes in 2007 approximately 800,000 tons. If this was achieved, South Sulawesi would be the fifth-largest corn producer in Indonesia. Maize production are central in Bone regency, Jeneponto, Bulukumba and Bantaeng. On the activities of the President of South Sulawesi province to the event "Peak Food Day and Inauguration Opening of Indonesian Food in Makassar on 26 November 2006 stated that: on this auspicious occasion, I requested that the local government, provincial, district and city prepare programs real, to improve rural economic wheel. if the rural economy growing well, food insecurity and we can gradually do away with. I recalled the importance of the revitalization of agriculture, fisheries and forestry have I proclaimed some time ago".
File:Jagung pulut mentah.JPG
Sticky corn, South Sulawesi
In addition to corn, the South Sulawesi region also produces cassava, sweet potato. green beans peanuts and soybeans, for cassava production in 2004 as many as 592 350 tonnes, in 2005 as many as 586 350 tonnes, while in 2006 the production of cassava as much as 590 717 tonnes. While the sweet potato production by 61 790 tonnes in 2004, 76,500 tons in 2005 and in 2006 amounted to 73 430 tonnes produced. Peanuts produced as much as 41,191 tons in 2004, as many as 40,328 tons in 2005 and in 2006 produced as much as 41 759 tons, green beans in 2004 produced 27.06 tonnes, as much as 29,675 tons in 2005 and in 2006 as many as 28,554 tons. While for soybean production in 2004 amounted to 26 875 tonnes, in 2005 amounted to 27 269 tonnes and in 2006 amounted to 22,242 tonnes produced. Plantation is the natural resource sector that produces various kinds of commodities, such as hybrid coconut, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, tea, cashew and cotton.
File:Srikaya Bulukumba.JPG
Annona squamosa in Bulukumba, South Sulawesi

Based on the Tata Guna Horan Agreement (TGHK) of 2004, reaching 3,090,005 ha of forest land, covering an area of 1,224,279.65 hectares of protected forest, limited production forest area of 488,551 ha of production forest and plain area of 131,041.10 ha, Dart forests this produced 147,739.24 mÃ, Â ³ timber, consisting of cedar 33345.9 mÃ, Â ³ timber concessions and 114,604.67 mÃ, Â ³ non-timber wood, non-wood production consists of 6478.67 tons of rattan and 180,126.7 tons of pine resin.

Plantation is the leading sector with different types of commodities, such as oil palm, hybrid coconut, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, sugarcane, rubber, tea, cashew and cotton. Of all, cocoa and coffee are excellent commodities. 662,615 ha of cocoa perkebunana wide, consisting of 657,334 ha of small holders and private estates 5,281 ha. The average growth reached 2% of cocoa per year, with production of 521,440 tons per year. Cocoa production centres located in East Luwu, North Luwu, Luwu, Wajo, Pinrang, Bone and Sinjai.

Plantation is the leading sectors with different types of commodities, such as oil palm, hybrid coconut, cocoa, coffee, pepper, vanilla, sugarcane, rubber, tea, cashew and cotton. Of all, cocoa and coffee are excellent commodities. 662 615 ha of cocoa perkebunana wide, consisting of 657,334 ha of smallholders and private estates 5,281 ha. The average growth reached 2% of cocoa per year, with production of 521 440 tons per year. Cocoa production centres located in East Luwu, North Luwu, Luwu, Wajo, Pinrang, Bone and Sinjai.


File:Ikan Pelabuhan Bulukumba.JPG
Catch of the day, Port of Bira, Bulukumba, South Sulawesi
Potential fishery sector as much as 318 378 tonnes, consisting of as many as 291 969 tons of marine fisheries, inland waterways and public waters 6425 tons 19,984 tons. Exports in this sector in 2005 reached 1,700 tons of tuna fish fresh / frozen, 1,710 tons and 1,400 tons of grouper snapper, increased to 2,100 tonnes of tuna fish fresh / frozen, 1,950 tons and 1,745 tons of grouper snapper in 2006. Other marine products is seaweed, which in 2004 in favour cultivated on a coastline 1,900 km with a total production of 4642.7 tons. Currently South Sulawesi is the central development of seaweed production in Indonesia, especially for the type glacillaria and E Cottoni, each contributing 58% and 36% of the national seaweed products.


Various types of farms flourish there, especially cattle, buffalo, chickens, ducks, goats and so on. population of 2005 were 28,942,526 head of cattle per year and farm production reached 26,747,228.47 tons per year. Livestock population in 2004 to reach 738 140 head cow, buffalo tail 133 467, 118 101 horse tails, goat tail 555 927, 448 869 pigs tail, chicken and duck tail tail 4,118,276. Whereas in 2005 the total population 171.790 buffalo tails, horse 130 319, 567 749 ox tail, pig tails 570 917, and duck tail 3.53428 million. In 2006 as many as 245 350 population kerbing tails, horse tail 124 254, chicken and duck tails as much as 4,765,428 birds.


File:INCO Soroako.jpg
A nickel mining plant in east Luwu

One of the factors that encourage high GRDP of South Sulawesi Province is mining sector. Its production includes gold, manganese, iron, iron sand, granite, lead, nickel as stone products. Nickel production reached 73,283,138 kg per year, are in Luwu East and North Luwu.


Many ethnic and vernacular languages are used by the people of South Sulawesi, but the most dominant ethnic groups as well as the most common languages used are Makassar, Bugis and Toraja. One of the famous culture is foreign to the culture and traditions of Tana Toraja are distinctive and interesting. Folk songs are often sung among the Makasar Ma'Rencong rencong, Pakarena and Anging Mamiri. While the song is Indo Logo Bugis, and Fur Alaina Tempe and to Tana Toraja is a song Tondo.


Culture Siri 'Na Pacce is one cultural philosophy Bugis-Makassar Society which must be upheld. If siri 'na pacce not a person, then that person may exceed the behaviour of animals, because it has no sense of shame, self-esteem, and social concerns. They also just want to win yourself and indulge his desires. The term siri 'na pacce as a cultural value system is very abstract and difficult to be defined as the series' na pacce only be felt by the adherents of that culture. For the people of Bugis-Makassar, siri 'teach morality in the form of advice decency, prohibition, the rights and obligations that dominate human action to preserve and defend himself and his honour. Siri 'is a shame that decomposes in the dimensions of human dignity, siri' is something that is 'taboo' for the people of Bugis-Makassar in interacting with others. Meanwhile, pacce teach solidarity and social care unselfishly and inil group is one of the concepts that make the Bugis-Makassar able to survive and respected diperantauan, pacce a compassionate nature and feeling the burden and suffering of others.

From the aspect of ontology (a form of) culture siri 'na pacce have a very strong relationship with the view of Islam in terms of spirituality, where the strength of the soul can teraktualkan through conquest soul over the body. The core culture of siri 'na pacce cover all aspects of community life Bugis-Makassar, because siri' na pacce the identity of the Bugis-Makassar. With the philosophy and ideology siri 'na pacce the attachment between people and solidarity become stronger, both with fellow tribe or with other tribes. The concept of the series' na pacce not only embraced by these two tribes (Bugis and Makassar), but also embraced by other tribes who inhabit such Sulawesi mainland, Mandar tribe and Tator, only vocabulary and their mention are different, but the philosophy ideological similarity memilikii in interacting with others.

By type, Siri' divided 2, namely :

  • Siri 'Nipakasiri' occurs when someone insulted or treated outside the boundaries of reasonableness. Then he or his family had to enforce siri'nya to restore the honour that has been deprived of, if not it will be called "mate siri" or dead status and dignity as human beings. For the Bugis and Makassar, there is no purpose or reason for the higher life of the guard siri'nya, they would rather die than live without siri '. Death for maintaining siri 'called "mate nigollai..mate nisantangngi" which means to die with dignity to maintain self-esteem.
  • Siri 'Masiri' is a way of life that intends to maintain, improve or achieve a feat performed by earnest and hard with exhaust all means for the sake of the series' itself. Like a piece of poetry sinrili '"Takunjunga' bangung turu '.. Nakugunciri' gulingku .. Kuallengi Tallanga Natoalia" which means "My Sails has been I opened .. have I put my steering .. I chose sinking of the step back". The slogan symbolises how society Bugis-Makassar has a high determination and courage in this life.
File:Baju bodo 2013.jpg
Traditional costume from Makassar, Baju Bodo.

Based on the values of the culture contained siri 'na pacce divided into three, namely:

  • Philosophical value. Philosophical value siri 'na pacce is a picture of the way of life of people Bugis and Makassar on various issues of life that includes the character of the Bugis Makassar reactive, militant, optimistic, consistent, loyal, courageous and constructive.
  • Ethical values. On ethical values siri 'na pacce are values which include: firm establishment, loyal, know yourself, honest, wise, humble, polite, love and empathy.
  • Aesthetic value Aesthetic value of the series' na pacce include aesthetic values in non-human nature consisting of inanimate objects, natural objects vegetable, animal and natural objects.

Culture siri 'na pacce is something that is needed by this nation, to become a great nation. It is necessary for younger figures who has a soul and character are established for youth leaders and owners of this nation. They should have a series of 'na pacce in themselves, with their culture siri' na pacce young children of this nation will be more sensitive to all kinds of problems that are sweeping the nation.

A leader who has a culture siri 'na pacce in itself will be a leader who has the courage and firmness, but remain prudent in the lead. A leader who hold this principle will lead the country towards a better direction, because they have a sense of environmentally sensitive, able to listen to the aspirations of the people they lead.

Traditional Costume

Baju bodo is the traditional costume of women Bugis Makassar, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Baju bodo rectangular, usually short-sleeved, i.e. half above the elbow. Baju bodo also recognised as one of the world's oldest fashion. According to custom Bugis, every colour of clothes worn by women bodo Bugis showing its age or the dignity of the wearer. Clothing is often used for ceremonies such as wedding ceremonies. But now, baju bodo start revitalised through other events such as dance competitions or welcome guests.

Traditional ship

File:Phinisi boat sulawesi.jpg
Traditional ship from Makassar, Pinisi'.

The pinisi or phinisi is a traditional Indonesian two-masted sailing ship. It was mainly built by the Konjo tribe, a sub-ethnic group of Bugis-Makassar mostly residents at the Bulukumba regency of South Sulawesi but was, and still is used widely by the Buginese and Makassarese, mostly for inter-insular transportation, cargo and fishing purposes within Indonesian archipelago.

The hull of the ships looks similar to that of a dhow while the fore-and-aft rigging reminds of western schooners, although it might be more correctly termed to resemble a ketch, as the front mast is the larger. The large mainsails differ from western style gaff rigs though, as they often do not have a boom and the sail is not lowered with the gaff. Instead it is reefed towards the mast, much like a curtain, thus allowing the gaff to be used as deck crane in the harbour. The lower part of the mast itself may resemble a tripod or is made of two poles. Pinisi may be 20 to 35 meters long and 350 tons in size. The masts may reach to 30 meters above the deck.

Traditional House

South Sulawesi has three types of traditional houses. The most known is the Home Stage / Rumah Panggung / Balla '/ Bola from Bugis Makassar, and Tongkonan from Toraja.

File:Tamalate Palace of Gowa Kingdom.jpg
Tamalate Palace of Gowa Sultanate
  • Bola / Balla' Traditional House, traditional house from Bugis and Makassar, the building is now more difficult to find it at least 3 things that describe Botting langi' (the world over), Ale Kawa (middle world) and Awa Bola (the underworld). In addition to the unique philosophical and forms, the process of the establishment of the house is also very interesting. The owner must request consideration from Panrita Bola to find places and directions that are considered good. Some of the principles in the founding of the house is facing the sun should rise, overlooking the plateau and overlooking one of the cardinal directions.
    File:Ke'te' Kesu'.jpg
    Tongkonan House from Toraja in Ke'te' Kesu', Toraja Regency
    Also the time of establishment can not be arbitrary. Usually a good day or a month is determined by those who have the skill in that regard. Before the house was set preceded by a ritual ceremony which is then forwarded to the established parts of the house in order. The main centre pole first house done, then just the other poles.
  • Tongkonan is the traditional ancestral house, or rumah adat of the Torajan people, in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Tongkonan have a distinguishing boat-shaped and oversized saddleback roof. Like most of Indonesia's Austronesian-based traditional architecture tongkonan are built on piles. The construction of tongkonan is laborious work and it is usually built with the help of all family members. In the original Toraja society, only nobles had the right to build tongkonan. Commoners live in smaller and less decorated homes called banua.

Traditional songs

** Songs that represent parts of Makassar

* Songs that represent parts of Bugis

# The Song that represents South Sulawesi Area

Traditional food

Culinary Makassar as a blend between the agrarian and maritime. On the west coast such as Makassar, Maros, Pangkep, Barru, Sidrap and eastern coastal Bone As coastal areas directly coincident with the area of rice fields. Agricultural areas in Bugis Makassar are quite extensive as in the Maros region, Pangkep, and Sidrap. Rice and other crops such as bananas are abundant, almost all dishes are, like Bugis Makassar cake, made from rice and banana major. Rice occupies the highest social strata in food.

Coastal areas of South Sulawesi is also becoming an important producer of fish, ponds scattered on the west coast with the results of Bolu (milkfish), Shrimp, Sunu (grouper) and Crab. The tradition of fishing in coastal and high seas, is well-developed, among others Tuna is caught.

Agrarian pattern also found in his footsteps in the Bugis Makassar dishes and mandar are made from beef or buffalo prime example is Coto, Konro, Sopsaudara, and Pallubasa.

Because it is near the coast, abundant catches of fish mean that people eat fish all the time. If people eat rice berlauk Fish Java, South Sulawesi ber of fish people eat rice as a side dish. Rice is always a little portion of the fish.

In South Sulawesi, the traditional food is diverse, ranging from soup, roasted, to traditional cakes. Here is the traditional food of South Sulawesi;

Traditional Weapons / Dagger

File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Dolk met knievormig omgebogen houten greep en houten schede TMnr 674-615.jpg
he badik or badek is a knife or dagger developed by the Bugis and Makassar people of southern Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Badik or Badek is a knife with a specific form developed by the Bugis and Makassar. The Badik is sharp single or double sided, with a length of about half a meter. Like a Kris, the blade shape is asymmetric and often decorated with prestige. However, different from the kris, badik never had a ganja (buffer strip).
The badik consists of three parts, namely the handle and blade, as well as the sheath or scabbard. It comes in great variety and sizes. The badik has a straight, curved, bulbous or wavy, single or double edge blade. The blade has a smooth or provided with hollow sections. The weapon either is pointed or rounded. Like the kris, the shape of the blade is asymmetric and often decorated with pamor (pattern welding steel commonly known as Damascus steel). However, it differs from the kris in that the badik does not a have ganja (a buffer strip steel). Some versions from Sulawesi are decorated with inlaid gold figure on the blade called jeko. The handle is made of wood, horn or ivory in a shape of a pistol grip at 45° to 90° degree angle or similar in a bent often decorated with carvings. From its native Sulawesi, the badik soon spread to neighbouring islands like Java, Borneo, Sumatra and as far as the Malay Peninsula, creating a wide variety of badik according to each region and ethic group. There are many versions made and used throughout the Indonesian archipelago alone.
As with other blades in the Malay Archipelago, traditionally-made badik are believed to be imbued with a supernatural force during the time of their forging. The pamor in particular is said to affect its owner, bringing either well-being and prosperity or misfortune and poverty. Aside from being used as a weapon and hunting tool, the badik is a symbol of cultural identity in Sulawesi. The Bugis and Makassar people still carry badik as part of their daily attire today. The badik is worn on the right side, butt end of the handle pointing to the rear; it may also be positioned at their left side providing the butt end of the handle points to the rear. When the weapon is shifted from the right to the left side, or when worn at the left, handle reversed facing forward, it is signatory of impending combat

Radio and TV station list



Station Frequency Modulation
Madama Makassar 87,7 FM
Bosowa FM Makassar 88,5 FM
Fajar FM Makassar 89,3 FM
Medika FM Makassar 90,1 FM
Radio Torani 90,5 FM
Radio Suara Celebes FM 90,9 FM
RRI Makassar 94,4 FM
I-Radio Makassar 96,0 FM
RRI Pro 2 FM Makassar 96,8 FM
Delta FM Makassar 99,2 FM
Anak Muda FM Makassar 100,0 FM
Suara Celebes FM Makassar 100,4 FM
Telstar FM Makassar 102,7 FM
Radio SPFM Citra Wanita Makassar 103,5 FM
Merkurius FM Makassar 104,3 FM
Prambors FM Makassar 105,1 FM
Gamasi FM Makassar 105,9 FM
Savana FM Makassar 106,5 FM
Syiar FM Radio 107,1 FM
ACCa FM Palopo 101,2 FM
Radio As' Adiyah Sengkang 103,2 FM
Radio Adiafiry Watansoppeng 1008 AM

TV stations

Station Frequency Networks District / City
20px TVRI Sulawesi Selatan 37 UHF 20px TVRI Makassar
20px Kompas TV Makassar 23 UHF 20px Kompas TV Makassar
Fajar TV 49 UHF JPMC Makassar
SUN TV Makassar 51 UHF SINDOtv Makassar
20px Celebes TV 31 UHF Bosowa Corporation Makassar
RTV Makassar 55 UHF RTV Makassar
Cakrawala TV(NET) 57 UHF B-Channel Makassar
SaktiTV Makassar 53 UHF SaktiTV Makassar
MCTV PARE 24 UHF Pare-Pare


  1. ^ "Number of Population, Sex Ratio, Member of Household and Average Household Member by Regency/City in Sulawesi Selatan, 2005". Statistics of Sulawesi Selatan (Press release). BPS Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Retrieved 28 August 2007. 
  2. ^ a b Indonesia Official Census
  3. ^ Indonesia's Population
  4. ^
  5. ^ Indonesian Religion
  6. ^ Domínguez, Gabriel (9 October 2014). "Indonesian cave paintings 'revolutionized our idea of human art'". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 22 November 2014. 
  7. ^ Volkman, Toby Alice (1990). Sulawesi: Island crossroads of Indonesia. Passport Books. Retrieved 22 November 2014.