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Specific storage
In the field of hydrogeology, "storage properties" are physical properties that characterize the capacity of an aquifer to release groundwater. These properties are Storativity (S), specific storage (S_{s}) and specific yield (S_{y}).
They are often determined using some combination of field tests (e.g., aquifer tests) and laboratory tests on aquifer material samples.
Contents
Storativity
Storativity or the storage coefficient is the volume of water released from storage per unit decline in hydraulic head in the aquifer, per unit area of the aquifer. Storativity is a dimensionless quantity, and ranges between 0 and the effective porosity of the aquifer.
 <math>S = \frac{dV_w}{dh}\frac{1}{A} = S_s b + S_y \,</math>
 <math>V_w</math> is the volume of water released from storage ([L^{3}]);
 <math>h</math> is the hydraulic head ([L])
 <math>S_s</math> is the specific storage
 <math>S_y</math> is the specific yield
 <math>b</math> is the thickness of aquifer
Confined
For a confined aquifer or aquitard, storativity is the vertically integrated specific storage value. Therefore if the aquitard is homogeneous:
 <math>S=S_s b \,</math>
Unconfined
For unconfined aquifer storativity is approximately equal to the specific yield (<math>S_y</math>) since the release from specific storage (<math>S_s</math>) is typically orders of magnitude less (<math>S_s b \ll \!\ S_y</math>).
 <math>S=S_y \,</math>
Specific storage
The specific storage is the amount of water that a portion of an aquifer releases from storage, per unit mass or volume of aquifer, per unit change in hydraulic head, while remaining fully saturated.
Mass specific storage is the mass of water that an aquifer releases from storage, per mass of aquifer, per unit decline in hydraulic head:
 <math>(S_s)_m = \frac{1}{m_a}\frac{dm_w}{dh}</math>
where
 <math>(S_s)_m</math> is the mass specific storage ([L^{−1}]);
 <math>m_a</math> is the mass of that portion of the aquifer from which the water is released ([M]);
 <math>dm_w</math> is the mass of water released from storage ([M]); and
 <math>dh</math> is the decline in hydraulic head ([L]).
Volumetric specific storage (or volume specific storage) is the volume of water that an aquifer releases from storage, per volume of aquifer, per unit decline in hydraulic head (Freeze and Cherry, 1979):
 <math>S_s = \frac{1}{V_a}\frac{dV_w}{dh} = \frac{1}{V_a}\frac{dV_w}{dp}\frac{dp}{dh}= \frac{1}{V_a}\frac{dV_w}{dp}\gamma_w</math>
where
 <math>S_s</math> is the volumetric specific storage ([L^{−1}]);
 <math>V_a</math> is the bulk volume of that portion of the aquifer from which the water is released ([L^{3}]);
 <math>dV_w</math> is the volume of water released from storage ([L^{3}]);
 <math>dp</math> is the decline in pressure(N•m^{−2} or [ML^{−1}T^{−2}]) ;
 <math>dh</math> is the decline in hydraulic head ([L]) and
 <math>\gamma_w</math> is the specific weight of water (N•m^{−3} or [ML^{−2}T^{−2}]).
In hydrogeology, volumetric specific storage is much more commonly encountered than mass specific storage. Consequently, the term specific storage generally refers to volumetric specific storage.
In terms of measurable physical properties, specific storage can be expressed as
 <math>S_s = \gamma_w (\beta_p + n \cdot \beta_w)</math>
where
 <math>\gamma_w</math> is the specific weight of water (N•m^{−3} or [ML^{−2}T^{−2}])
 <math>n</math> is the porosity of the material (dimensionless ratio between 0 and 1)
 <math>\beta_p</math> is the compressibility of the bulk aquifer material (m^{2}N^{−1} or [LM^{−1}T^{2}]), and
 <math>\beta_w</math> is the compressibility of water (m^{2}N^{−1} or [LM^{−1}T^{2}])
The compressibility terms relate a given change in stress to a change in volume (a strain). These two terms can be defined as:
 <math>\beta_p = \frac{dV_t}{d\sigma_e}\frac{1}{V_t}</math>
 <math>\beta_w = \frac{dV_w}{dp}\frac{1}{V_w}</math>
where
 <math>\sigma_e</math> is the effective stress (N/m^{2} or [MLT^{−2}/L^{2}])
These equations relate a change in total or water volume (<math>V_t</math> or <math>V_w</math>) per change in applied stress (effective stress — <math>\sigma_e</math> or pore pressure — <math>p</math>) per unit volume. The compressibilities (and therefore also S_{s}) can be estimated from laboratory consolidation tests (in an apparatus called a consolidometer), using the consolidation theory of soil mechanics (developed by Karl Terzaghi).
Specific yield
Material  Specific Yield (%)  

min  avg  max  
Unconsolidated deposits  
Clay  0  2  5 
Sandy clay (mud)  3  7  12 
Silt  3  18  19 
Fine sand  10  21  28 
Medium sand  15  26  32 
Coarse sand  20  27  35 
Gravelly sand  20  25  35 
Fine gravel  21  25  35 
Medium gravel  13  23  26 
Coarse gravel  12  22  26 
Consolidated deposits  
Finegrained sandstone  21  
Mediumgrained sandstone  27  
Limestone  14  
Schist  26  
Siltstone  12  
Tuff  21  
Other deposits  
Dune sand  38  
Loess  18  
Peat  44  
Till, predominantly silt  6  
Till, predominantly sand  16  
Till, predominantly gravel  16 
Specific yield, also known as the drainable porosity, is a ratio, less than or equal to the effective porosity, indicating the volumetric fraction of the bulk aquifer volume that a given aquifer will yield when all the water is allowed to drain out of it under the forces of gravity:
 <math>S_y = \frac{V_{wd}}{V_T}</math>
where
 <math>V_{wd}</math> is the volume of water drained, and
 <math>V_T</math> is the total rock or material volume
It is primarily used for unconfined aquifers, since the elastic storage component, <math>S_s</math>, is relatively small and usually has an insignificant contribution. Specific yield can be close to effective porosity, but there are several subtle things which make this value more complicated than it seems. Some water always remains in the formation, even after drainage; it clings to the grains of sand and clay in the formation. Also, the value of specific yield may not be fully realized for a very long time, due to complications caused by unsaturated flow.
See also
 Aquifer test
 Soil mechanics
 Groundwater flow equation describes how these terms are used in the context of solving groundwater flow problems
References
 Freeze, R.A. and J.A. Cherry. 1979. Groundwater. PrenticeHall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 604 p.
 Johnson, A.I. 1967. Specific yield — compilation of specific yields for various materials. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1662D. 74 p.
 Morris, D.A. and A.I. Johnson. 1967. Summary of hydrologic and physical properties of rock and soil materials as analyzed by the Hydrologic Laboratory of the U.S. Geological Survey 19481960. U.S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1839D. 42 p.

