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Speculative fiction is a broad literary genre encompassing any fiction with supernatural, fantastical, or futuristic elements. The popularity of the term is sometimes attributed to Robert Heinlein, who referenced it in 1947 in an editorial essay, although there are prior mentions of speculative fiction, or its variant "speculative literature".
Speculative fiction as a category ranges from ancient works to both cutting edge, paradigm-changing and neotraditional works of the 21st century. Speculative fiction can be recognized in works whose authors' intentions or the social contexts of the versions of stories they portrayed is now known, since ancient Greek dramatists such as Euripides (ca. 480–406 BCE) whose play Medea seems to have offended Athenian audiences when he fictionally speculated that shamaness Medea killed her own children instead of their being killed by other Corinthians after her departure, and whose Hippolytus, narratively introduced by Aphrodite, Goddess of Love in person, is suspected to have displeased his contemporary audiences because he portrayed Phaedra as too lusty.
In historiography, what is now called speculative fiction has previously been termed "historical invention", "historical fiction", and similar names. It is extensively noted in literary criticism of the works of William Shakespeare as when he co-locates Athenian Duke Theseus and Amazonian Queen Hippolyta, English fairy Puck, and Roman god Cupid across time and space in the Fairyland of its Merovingian Germanic sovereign Oberon in A Midsummer Night's Dream.
In mythography the concept of speculative fiction has been termed "mythopoesis" or mythopoeia, "fictional speculation", the creative design and generation of lore, regarding such works as J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Such supernatural, alternate history and sexuality themes continue in works produced within the modern speculative fiction genre.
The creation of speculative fiction in its general sense of hypothetical history, explanation, or ahistorical storytelling has also been attributed to authors in ostensibly non-fiction mode since as early as Herodotus of Halicarnassus, (fl. 5th century BCE) in his Histories, and was already both practiced and edited out by early encyclopaedic writers like Sima Qian (ca. 145 or 135 BCE–86 BCE), author of Shiji.
This suggests the caveat that while many works now considered to be intentional or unintentional speculative fiction existed before the coining of the genre term, its concept in its broadest sense captures both a conscious and unconscious aspect of human psychology in making sense of the world, reacting to it, and creating imaginary, inventive, and artistic expressions, some of which underlie practical progress through interpersonal influences, social and cultural movements, scientific research and advances, and philosophy of science.
In its English language usage in arts and literature since 20th century, "speculative fiction" as a genre term is often attributed to Robert A. Heinlein. In his first known use of the term, in editorial material at the front of the 2/8/1947 issue of The Saturday Evening Post, Heinlein used it specifically as a synonym for "science fiction"; in a later piece, he explicitly stated that his use of the term did not include fantasy.
However, though Heinlein may have come up with the term on his own, there are earlier citations: a piece in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine in 1889 used the term in reference to Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward: 2000–1887 and other works; and one in the May, 1900 issue of The BookmanTemplate:Disambiguation needed said that John Uri Lloyd's Etidorhpa, The End of the Earth had "created a great deal of discussion among people interested in speculative fiction". A variation on this term is "speculative literature".
The use of "speculative fiction" in the sense of expressing dissatisfaction with traditional or establishment science fiction was popularized in the 1960s and early 1970s by Judith Merril and other writers and editors, in connection with the New Wave movement. It fell into disuse around the mid-1970s.
The Internet Speculative Fiction Database contains a broad list of different subtypes.
In the 2000s, the term came into wider use as a convenient collective term for a set of genres. However, some writers, such as Margaret Atwood, continue to maintain a distinction between "speculative fiction" as a "no Martians" type of science fiction, "about things that really could happen." 
Distinguishing science fiction from other speculative fiction
"Speculative fiction" is sometimes abbreviated "spec-fic", "specfic", "S-F", "SF", or "sf" but these last three abbreviations are ambiguous as they have long been used to refer to science fiction, which lies within this general range of literature, and in several other abbreviations.
The term has been used to express dissatisfaction with what some people consider the limitations of science fiction, or otherwise to designate fiction that falls under readily stereotypical genres so that it can be pigeonholed within such categorical limits as "fantasy" or "mystery". For example, in Harlan Ellison's writing, the term may signal a wish not to be pigeonholed as a science fiction writer, and a desire to break out of science fiction's genre conventions in a literary and modernist direction; or to escape the prejudice with which science fiction is often met by mainstream critics.
The term "suppositional fiction" is sometimes used as a sub-category designating fiction in which characters and stories are constrained by an internally consistent world, but not necessarily one defined by any particular genre.
According to publisher statistics, men outnumber women about two to one among English-language speculative fiction writers aiming for professional publication. However, the percentages vary considerably by genre, with women outnumbering men in the fields of urban fantasy, paranormal romance and young-adult fiction.
- Gender in speculative fiction
- LGBT themes in speculative fiction
- Reproduction and pregnancy in speculative fiction
- Sex and sexuality in speculative fiction
- Women in speculative fiction
- Barry Baldwin, Emeritus Professor of Classics, University of Calgary, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, "Ancient Science Fiction", Shattercolors Literary Review
- Paradox:The Magazine of Historical and Speculative Fiction
- This theory of Euripides' invention has gained wide acceptance. See (e.g.) McDermott 1989, 12; Powell 1990, 35; Sommerstein 2002, 16; Griffiths, 2006 81; Ewans 2007, 55.
- See, e.g., Barrett 1964; McDermott 2000.
- "Mark Wagstaff – Historical invention and political purpose | Re-public: re-imagining democracy – english version". Re-public.gr. 2005-01-17. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- Martha Tuck Rozett, "Creating a Context for Shakespeare with Historical Fiction", Shakespeare Quarterly Vol. 46, No. 2 (Summer, 1995), pp. 220-227
- Dorothea Kehler, A midsummer night's dream: critical essays, 2001
- Adcox, John, "Can Fantasy be Myth? Mythopoeia and The Lord of the Rings" in "The Newsletter of the Mythic Imagination Institute, September/October, 2003"
- Eric Garber, Lyn Paleo Uranian Worlds: A Guide to Alternative Sexuality in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror, 2nd Edition, G K Hall: 1990 ISBN 978-0-8161-1832-8
- Herodotus and Myth Conference, Christ Church, Oxford, 2003
- John M. Marincola, Introduction and Notes, The Histories by Herodotus, tr. Aubrey De Sélincourt, 2007
- Jona Lendering. "Herodotus of Halicarnassus". Livius.org. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- Stephen W. Durrant, The cloudy mirror: tension and conflict in the writings of Sima Qian, 1995
- Craig A. Lockard, Societies, Networks, and Transitions: A Global History: To 1500, 2007, p 133
- Heather Urbanski, Plagues, apocalypses and bug-eyed monsters: how speculative fiction shows us us our nightmares, 2007, pp 127
- Sonu Shamdasani, Cult Fictions: C.G. Jung and the Founding of Analytical Psychology, 1998
- Relativity, The Special and the General Theory by Albert Einstein (1920), with an introduction by Niger Calder, 2006
- "Dictionary citations for the term "speculative fiction"". Jessesword.com. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "The Speculative Literature Foundation". Speculativeliterature.org. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "New Wave". Virtual.clemson.edu. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- </ PLACEHOLDER - foundation | In Other Worlds. Random House LLC. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2014-01-17.
- "PLACEHOLDER - foundation | The Science Fiction Foundation". Sf-foundation.org. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "SpecFicWorld". SpecFicWorld. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "A Speculative Fiction Blog". SFSignal. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- Rodger Turner, Webmaster. "The Best in Science Fiction and Fantasy". The SF Site. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "Citations and definitions for the term "speculative fiction" by speculative fiction reviewers". Greententacles.com. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- "Watts, Peter. "Margaret Atwood and the Hierarchy of Contempt", ''On Spec'' 15(2) (Summer 2003)" (PDF). pp. 3–5. Retrieved 2013-02-10.
- Davies, Philip. "Review [untitled; reviewed work(s): Science Fiction: Its Criticism and Teaching by Patrick Parrinder; Fantastic Lives: Autobiographical Essays by Notable Science Fiction Writers by Martin Greenberg; Robert A. Heinlein: America as Science Fiction by H. Bruce Franklin; Bridges to Science Fiction by George E. Slusser, George R. Guffey, Mark Rose]. Journal of American Studies Vol. 16, No. 1 (Apr., 1982). pp. 157-159.
- Izenberg, Orin. Being Numerous: Poetry and the Ground of Social Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011; p. 210
- Leitch, Thomas M. What Stories Are: Narrative Theory and Interpretation University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1986; p. 127
- Domańska, Ewa. Encounters: Philosophy of History After Postmodernism Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia, 1998; p. 10
- Crisp, Julie (10 July 2013). "SEXISM IN GENRE PUBLISHING: A PUBLISHER'S PERSPECTIVE". Tor Books. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Dictionary citations for the term "speculative fiction"
- Citations and definitions for the term "speculative fiction" by speculative fiction reviewers
- The Speculative Literature Foundation
- Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Speculative Vision Fantasy and Science Fiction Art Gallery
- Speculative Vision, speculative fiction by youth
- The SF Page at Project Gutenberg of Australia
- Strange Horizons, a weekly speculative fiction magazine