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Spring training

File:Spring training.jpg
A 2004 Grapefruit League game at the LA Dodgers' former camp in Vero Beach, Florida

In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, and gives existing team players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warmer climates to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, and spring training usually coincides with spring break for many US college students.

Spring training typically starts in mid February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, traditionally the first week of April. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. On rare occasions, a team may play spring training games, regular season games, and then further spring training games before resuming the regular season. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days later, the position players arrive and team practice begins. Team members normally wear their batting practice uniforms for the duration of spring training and only wear their normal jerseys beginning on Opening Day.


A 2007 Cactus League game between the Cubs and the White Sox at HoHoKam Park.

Spring training by major league teams in sites other than their regular season game sites first became popular in the 1890s and by 1910 was in wide use.[1] Early training sites include the St. Louis Cardinals in Hot Springs, Arkansas, and Tulsa, Oklahoma; the New York Yankees in New Orleans and later Phoenix, Arizona, when the team was owned by Del Webb; the Chicago Cubs in Los Angeles when owned by William Wrigley Jr.; the St. Louis Browns and later the Kansas City Athletics in San Diego then in West Palm Beach, Florida; the Pittsburgh Pirates in Honolulu and other teams joined in by the early 1940s. The Detroit Tigers are credited with being the first team to conduct spring training camp in Arizona. They trained in Phoenix at Riverside Park at Central Avenue and the Salt River in 1929.[2]

The Philadelphia Phillies were the first of the current major-league teams to train in Florida, when they spent two weeks in Jacksonville, Florida in 1889.[3] Spring training in Florida began in earnest in 1913, when the Chicago Cubs played in Tampa, and the Cleveland Indians in Pensacola. One year later, two other teams moved to Florida for spring training, the real start of the Grapefruit League. And except for a couple of years during World War II, when travel restrictions prevented teams training south of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, Florida hosted more than half of the spring training teams through 2009. Since 2010, major league teams have been equally divided during spring training, with 15 teams in Florida and 15 teams in Arizona.[4] All but six of the major league teams have gone to spring training in Florida at one time or another. Many of the most famous players in baseball history (Ruth, Gehrig, Musial, Cobb, Mays, DiMaggio, Berra, Mantle, and many more) have called Florida home for 4–6 weeks every spring.[5]

According to the autobiography of former Cleveland Indians owner Bill Veeck, the avoidance of racism was one reason the Cactus League was established.[6] In 1947, Veeck was the owner of the minor league Milwaukee Brewers and the team trained in Ocala, Florida. Veeck inadvertently sat in the Black section of the segregated stands and engaged in conversation with a couple of fans. According to Veeck's book, the local law enforcement told Veeck he could not sit in that section, and then called the Ocala mayor when Veeck argued back. The mayor finally backed down when Veeck threatened to take his team elsewhere for spring training and promised to let the country know why.

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Veeck sold the Brewers in 1945 and retired to his ranch in Tucson, Arizona, but soon purchased the Cleveland Indians in 1946. He decided to buck tradition and train the Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try. Thus the Cactus League was born.[7] Veeck then signed Larry Doby to the Indians. Doby was the second African-American to play MLB in the 20th century, and the first for the American League.[8]

While Florida and Arizona now host all Major League Baseball teams for spring training, this has not always been the case. The Brooklyn Dodgers trained in Havana, Cuba in 1947 and 1949, and in the Dominican Republic in 1948.[9] The New York Yankees also trained in the early 1950s in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Spring training camps and games were also held in Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and various cities of northern Mexico, sometimes by visiting major league teams in the 1950s and 1960s.

File:Braves spring training2008.png
The Braves Spring Training game against the Mets in 2008.

During World War II, most teams held an abbreviated spring training within easy reach of their cities. In order to conserve rail transport during the war, 1943's Spring Training was limited to an area east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. The Chicago White Sox held camp in French Lick, Indiana; the Washington Senators in College Park, Maryland; and the New York Yankees in Asbury Park, New Jersey.[10]

Before and shortly after big league baseball reached the West Coast, a number of teams trained in the state of California or along the state boundary. The Chicago Cubs trained on Catalina Island in the 1920s, '30s, and '40s. For example, early in their history, the then-California Angels held spring training in Palm Springs, California from 1961 to 1993, the San Diego Padres in Yuma, Arizona from 1969 to 1993, the Oakland Athletics in Las Vegas in the 1970s, and various major league teams had trained in Riverside, San Bernardino, and El Centro near the Mexican border.

The concept of spring training is not limited to North America; the Japanese professional baseball leagues' teams adopted spring training and preseason game sites across East Asia such as South Korea, the Philippines, and Taiwan; the Pacific Islands (most notably in Hawaii); and two cities in the United States: Salinas, California and Yuma, Arizona on the Mexican border.

Spring training locations by team

In modern training, teams that train in Florida will play other Florida-training teams in their exhibition games, regardless of regular-season league affiliations. Likewise, Arizona-training teams will play other Arizona teams. These have been nicknamed the Grapefruit League and Cactus League, respectively, after plants typical of the respective states. The teams can play colleges, minor league baseball clubs, intra-squad games (members of the same team play against each other), split-squad games (games when one team is scheduled for two games in one day, so the team splits into two squads and each squad plays in one of the games), and B Games (unofficial Spring Training games where statistics and standings are not counted).[11] In years when the World Baseball Classic occurs, the national teams in the tournament prepare by playing major league teams.

Grapefruit League

The origin of the name "Grapefruit League" has several versions. One popular myth was that Casey Stengel threw a grapefruit at Brooklyn Dodgers manager Wilbert Robinson. The accepted version is that aviatrix Ruth Law threw the grapefruit. In 1915, Law had been throwing golf balls from her airplane to advertise a golf course. Someone suggested throwing a baseball from her airplane. Robinson, whose team was in the Daytona Beach area for spring training, agreed to try to catch the baseball. Flying 525 feet above Robinson, Law realized she had forgotten her baseball and threw a grapefruit that she had. When Robinson tried to catch it, the grapefruit exploded in his face.[12][13][14]

The list of spring training locations by team in the Grapefruit League in Florida.[15]

Cactus League

The newest stadium built for MLB spring training is Sloan Park, the spring training home for the Chicago Cubs in Mesa, Arizona, which opened in February 2014. The second-newest MLB spring training facility is the $100 million Salt River Fields at Talking Stick spring training complex on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community in Scottsdale (Phoenix), Arizona, that hosted its first games on Feb 26, 2011. The complex is home to the Arizona Diamondbacks and the Colorado Rockies, and contains an 11,000-seat stadium, separate clubhouses for each team, and 12 full-size practice fields (six for each team.) Both teams previously conducted spring training in Tucson, Arizona, bringing a total of 15 teams to the Cactus League in the Phoenix metropolitan area.[31]

According to the Arizona Republic, the Cactus League generates more than $300 million a year in economic impact to the greater Phoenix metropolitan area economy. The new Salt River Fields at Talking Stick complex is the latest of eight new stadiums built in the Valley of the Sun over the past 20 years. The Arizona Republic newspaper reports that more than $500 million has been spent on "building eight new stadiums and renovating two others for the 15 teams in the Valley."[32]

Attendance set a new record at 2011 Cactus League games with 1.59 million attending games at the various stadiums in the Phoenix metro area. Much of the attendance surge is attributed to the new Salt River Fields at Talking Stick venue that accounted for 22 percent of the Cactus League attendance.[33]

The list of spring training locations by team in the Cactus League in Arizona.[15]


Statistics are recorded during spring training games, but they are not combined with the listed statistics for regular season games, and unusual performances which would have broken records if accomplished during the regular season are considered to be unofficial.

For example, on March 14, 2000, the Red Sox used six pitchers to achieve a 5–0 perfect game victory over the Toronto Blue Jays. A perfect game is considered a crowning accomplishment during the regular season or postseason, but in spring training it attracts little notice. Starting pitcher Pedro Martínez, who lost a perfect game in extra innings in 1995 while pitching for the former Montreal Expos, was talking to reporters at the conclusion of the game, rather than watching the final pitches. Reliever Rod Beck, who finished the game, did not realize the nature of his accomplishment until informed by catcher Joe Sidall. Many fans also left before the game's conclusion.[34]

Although spring training statistics are unofficial, teams frequently use players' spring training performances as a way of assigning starting roles and roster spots on the club.

Extended spring training

File:Red sox orioles xst.jpg
An extended spring training game between the Red Sox and Orioles in Sarasota, Florida during the 2008 season.

Minor league players participate in spring training following a telescoped schedule that generally lasts from March 1–31. At its conclusion, most players are assigned to full-season Class A, AA, or AAA farm team rosters to begin the regular minor league season. However, those players deemed unready for a full-season campaign—through inexperience or injury—are assigned to "extended spring training," a structured program of workouts, rehabilitation sessions, simulated games, and exhibition games based in the major league parent team's minor league training complex. If a player is deemed ready to participate in full-season league action, he is promoted to an appropriate-level farm club. When the "short season" Class A and rookie leagues begin play in late June, extended spring training players are assigned to those rosters, placed on the disabled list, or released.


  1. ^ "The Early Years – Spring Training History," Retrieved Jan 25, 2012.
  2. ^ The Arizona Republic: "Cactus League: Then and Now." Source: Rodney Johson, the Society for American Baseball Research. March 6, 2011.
  3. ^ Philadelphia Inquirer, March 1889; SABR Spring Training Database, (restricted access), Retrieved January 25, 2012.
  4. ^ Johnson, Rodney (2012). "From Dust to Diamonds: The Evolution of the Cactus League". Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  5. ^ Arsenault, Raymond. "Spring Training Baseball in Florida – Our Roots Run Deep". Retrieved May 16, 2011. 
  6. ^ Veeck, Bill and Linn, Edward (2001). Veeck as in Wreck: The Autobiography of Bill Veeck. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-671-67540-0. pgs. 171–172.
  7. ^ “Buckhorn Baths: A unique Mesa landmark.” Jim Walsh – July 2009 The Arizona Republic |
  8. ^ "Larry Doby" Retrieved 2010-03-20.
  9. ^ Echevarría, Roberto González (1988). "The '47 Dodgers on Havana: Baseball at a Crossroads". Spring Training. Vanguard Publications. Retrieved January 10, 2007. 
  10. ^ Suehsdorf, A. D. (1978). The Great American Baseball Scrapbook, p. 103. Random House. ISBN 0-394-50253-1.
  11. ^ "Thomas debuts in B game". Retrieved March 8, 2008. 
  12. ^ Gardner, Dakota (March 13, 2014). "The amazing story of 'Uncle Robbie' Robinson's plane-assisted grapefruit catch". 
  13. ^ "Wilbert Robinson". National Baseball Hall of Fame. 
  14. ^ Semchuck, Alex. "Wilbert Robinson". Society for Amercian Baseball Research. 
  15. ^ a b "Spring Training Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Atlanta Braves Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Baltimore Orioles Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Boston Red Sox Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Detroit Tigers Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Houston Astros Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Florida Marlins Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  22. ^ "Minnesota Twins Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  23. ^ "New York Mets Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  24. ^ "New York Yankees Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Philadelphia Phillies Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  26. ^ "Pittsburgh Pirates Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  27. ^ "St Louis Cardinals Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Tampa Bay Rays Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  29. ^ "Toronto Blue Jays Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Washington Nationals Official Website". MLB. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  31. ^ Arizona Diamondbacks new spring training facility nears completion. Arizona Republic. Corbett. Jan. 19, 2011
  32. ^ "Arizona Diamondbacks, Colorado Rockies break in new park." Corbett. Feb. 27, 2011
  33. ^ The Arizona Republic. "A successful spring: New venue helps Cactus League set attendance mark." Peter Corbett. March 30, 2011.
  34. ^ "Martinez, 5 relievers pitch perfect game", Jimmy Golen, the Associated Press, published March 15, 2000, Retrieved February 22, 2007.

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