Open Access Articles- Top Results for Stalactite


File:Labeled speleothems.jpg
Image showing the six most common speleothems with labels. Enlarge to view labels.

A stalactite (UK /ˈstæləktt/, US /stəˈlæktt/; from the Greek stalasso, (σταλάσσω), "to drip", and meaning "that which drips") is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling of caves, hot springs, or manmade structures such as bridges and mines. Any material which is soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable of being melted, may form a stalactite. Stalactites may be composed of amberat, lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, and sinter.[1][2] A stalactite is not necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite because of the abundance of limestone caves.[1][3]

The corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite.

Formation and type

Demonstration of drip stone formation in a lab.

Limestone stalactites

The most common stalactites are speleothems, which occur in limestone caves. They form through deposition of calcium carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions. Limestone is the chief form of calcium carbonate rock which is dissolved by water that contains carbon dioxide, forming a calcium bicarbonate solution in underground caverns.[4] The chemical formula for this reaction is:[5]

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This solution travels through the rock until it reaches an edge and if this is on the roof of a cave it will drip down. When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical reaction that created it is reversed and particles of calcium carbonate are deposited. The reversed reaction is:[5]

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An average growth rate is Script error: No such module "convert". a year. The quickest growing stalactites are those formed by fast-flowing water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon dioxide, these can grow at Script error: No such module "convert". per year.[6]

All limestone stalactites begin with a single mineral-laden drop of water. When the drop falls, it deposits the thinnest ring of calcite. Each subsequent drop that forms and falls deposits another calcite ring. Eventually, these rings form a very narrow (0.5 mm), hollow tube commonly known as a "soda straw" stalactite. Soda straws can grow quite long, but are very fragile. If they become plugged by debris, water begins flowing over the outside, depositing more calcite and creating the more familiar cone-shaped stalactite. The same water drops that fall from the tip of a stalactite deposit more calcite on the floor below, eventually resulting in a rounded or cone-shaped stalagmite. Unlike stalactites, stalagmites never start out as hollow "soda straws." Given enough time, these formations can meet and fuse to create pillars of calcium carbonate.

Lava stalactites

Another type of stalactite is formed in lava tubes while lava is still active inside.[7] The mechanism of formation is similar to that of limestone stalactites. Essentially, it is still the deposition of material on the ceilings of caves, however with lava stalactites formation happens very quickly in only a matter of hours, days, or weeks, whereas limestone stalactites may take up to thousands of years. A key difference with lava stalactites is that once the lava has ceased flowing, so too will the stalactites cease to grow. This means that if the stalactite were to be broken it would never grow back.[1]

The generic term lavacicle has been applied to lava stalactites and stalagmites indiscriminately and evolved from the word icicle.[1]

Like limestone stalactites, they can leave lava drips on the floor that turn into lava stalagmites and may eventually fuse with the corresponding stalactite to form a column.

Shark tooth stalactites The shark tooth stalactite is broad and tapering in appearance. It may begin as a small driblet of lava from a semi-solid ceiling, but then grows by accreting layers as successive flows of lava rise and fall in the lava tube, coating and recoating the stalactite with more material. They can vary from a few millimeters to over a meter in length.[8]
File:Shark tooth stalactites.jpg
Shark tooth stalactites.

Splash stalactites As lava flows through a tube, material will be splashed up on the ceiling and ooze back down, hardening into a stalactite. This type of formation results in a very irregularly shaped stalactite, looking somewhat like stretched taffy. Often they may be of a different color than the original lava that formed the cave.[8]

Tubular lava stalactites When the roof of a lava tube is cooling, a skin will form that traps semi-molten material inside. Trapped gases force lava to extrude out through small openings that result in hollow, tubular stalactites analogous to the soda straws formed as depositional speleothems in solution caves, The longest known is almost 2 meters in length. These are common in Hawaiian lava tubes and are often associated with a drip stalagmite that forms below as material is carried through the tubular stalactite and piles up on the floor beneath. Sometimes the tubular form collapses near the distal end, most likely when the pressure of escaping gases decreased and still-molten portions of the stalactites deflated and cooled. Often these tubular stalactites will acquire a twisted, vermiform appearance as bits of lava crystallize and force the flow in different directions. These tubular lava helictites may also be influenced by air currents through a tube and point downwind.[8]

Ice stalactites

A common stalactite found seasonally or year round in many caves is the ice stalactite, commonly referred to as icicles, especially on the surface.[9] Water seepage from the surface will penetrate into a cave and if temperatures are below freezing the water will form stalactites. Creation may also be done by the freezing of water vapor.[10] Similar to lava stalactites, ice stalactites form very quickly within hours or days. Unlike lava stalactites however, they may grow back as long as water and temperatures are suitable.

Ice stalactites can also form under sea ice when saline water is introduced to ocean water. These specific stalactites are referred to as brinicles.

Ice stalactites may also form corresponding stalagmites below them and given time may grow together to form an ice column.

Concrete stalactites

Stalactites can also form on concrete, and on plumbing where there is a slow leak and limestone (or other minerals) in the water supply, although they form much more rapidly there than in the natural cave environment (description and experiments see literature).

The way stalactites form on concrete is due to different chemistry than those that form naturally in limestone caves and is the result of the presence of calcium oxide in concrete. This calcium oxide reacts with any rainwater that penetrates the concrete and forms a solution of calcium hydroxide. The chemical formula for this is:[5]

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Over time this calcium hydroxide solution reaches the edge of the concrete and, if the concrete is suspended in the air, for example, in a ceiling or a beam, then this will drip down from the edge. When this happens the solution comes into contact with air and another chemical reaction takes place. The solution reacts with carbon dioxide in the air and precipitates calcium carbonate.[5]

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When this solution drops down it leaves behind particles of calcium carbonate and over time these form into a stalactite. They are normally a few centimeters long and with a diameter of approximately Script error: No such module "convert"..[5]


The White Chamber in the Jeita Grotto's upper cavern in Lebanon contains an Script error: No such module "convert". limestone stalactite which is accessible to visitors and is claimed to be the longest stalactite in the world. Another such claim is made for a Script error: No such module "convert". limestone stalactite that hangs in the Chamber of Rarities in the Gruta Rei do Mato (Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil). However, vertical cavers have often encountered longer stalactites while exploring. One of the longest stalactites viewable by the general public is in Pol an Ionain (Doolin Cave), County Clare, Ireland, in a karst region known as The Burren; what makes it more impressive is the fact that the stalactite is held on by a section of calcite less than Script error: No such module "convert"..[11]

Origin of the term

Stalactites are first mentioned (though not by name) by the Roman natural historian Pliny in a text which also mentions stalagmites and columns and refers to their creation by the dripping of water. The term "stalactite" was coined in the 17th century by the Danish Physician Ole Worm,[12] who coined the Latin word from the Greek word σταλακτός (stalaktos, "dripping") and the Greek suffix -ίτης (-ites, connected with or belonging to)[13]

Photo gallery

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Larson, Charles (1993). An Illustrated Glossary of Lava Tube Features, Bulletin 87, Western Speleological Survey. p. 56. 
  2. ^ Hicks, Forrest L. (1950). "Formation and mineralogy of stalactites and stalagmites" (PDF) 12. pp. 63–72. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  3. ^ "How Caves Form". Nova (TV series). Retrieved 2013-07-01. 
  4. ^ C. Michael Hogan. 2010. Calcium. eds. A.Jorgensen, C. Cleveland. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.
  5. ^ a b c d e Braund, Martin; Reiss, Jonathan (2004), Learning Science Outside the Classroom, Routledge, pp. 155–156, ISBN 0-415-32116-6 
  6. ^ Kramer, Stephen P.; Day, Kenrick L. (1995), Caves, Carolrhoda Books (published 1994), p. 23, ISBN 978-0-87614-447-3 
  7. ^ Baird, A. K. (1982). "Basaltic "stalactite" mineralogy and chemistry, Kilauea" 4 (4). Geological Society of America Bulletin, abstracts with programs. pp. 146–147. 
  8. ^ a b c Bunnell, Dave (2008). Caves of Fire: Inside America's Lava Tubes. p. 124. 
  9. ^ Keiffer, Susan (2010). "Ice stalactite dynamics". Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  10. ^ Lacelle, Denis (2009). "Formation of seasonal ice bodies and associated cryogenic carbonates in Cavene De L'Ours, Que' Bec, Canada: Kinetic isotope effects and pseudo-biogenic crystal structures" (PDF). v. 71, no. 1. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies. pp. 48–62. Retrieved 2013-07-08. 
  11. ^ "Caves With The Longest Stalactite". Retrieved 2008-06-11. 
  12. ^ Olao Worm, Museum Wormianum. ... (Amsterdam ("Amstelodami"), (the Netherlands): Louis & Daniel Elzevier, 1655), pages 50-52.
  13. ^ See:
  • Dripstone in time-lapse ("Tropfsteine im Zeitraffer") - Schmidkonz, B.; Wittke, G.; Chemie Unserer Zeit, 2006, 40, 246. doi:10.1002/ciuz.200600370

External links

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